Revolutionary Communist League (France)
The Revolutionary Communist League was a Trotskyist political party in France. It was the French section of the Fourth International, it published the journal Critique communiste. Established in 1974, it became the leading party of the far-left in the 2000s, it abolished itself on 5 February 2009 to merge with smaller factions of the far-left and form a New Anticapitalist Party. It was founded in 1974, after its forerunner the Communist League was banned in 1973; the Communist League was itself founded in 1969 after the Revolutionary Communist Youth, banned in 1968, had merged with Pierre Frank's Internationalist Communist Party. The group included members of other Trotskyist tendencies who were able to organise within its ranks to gain support for their views, its official spokespersons were Alain Krivine, Roseline Vachetta, who are former members of the European Parliament, Olivier Besancenot, the party's candidate for the presidential elections in 2002 and 2007. A major issue in the party's latter years was the possibility and conditions of electoral alliances with other left wing forces, such as the fellow Trotskyist party Lutte Ouvrière.
In the past the two had at times run joint candidates, at times ran separately. In a situation where massive campaigns against government policy have brought millions into the streets, but established political parties have lost a lot of credibility, the idea of unifying the radical Left in an electoral alliance was much discussed. There were for example talks for an alliance with the French Communist Party, after both parties worked together on the victorious campaign of the'No' in the 2005 French referendum on the Constitution of the European Union. Relations between the two parties had been improving since Marie-George Buffet took over the leadership of the PCF. LCR militants worked within left-wing groups such as ATTAC and the Solidaires Unitaires Démocratiques trade unions, although both are independent from political parties; the Revolutionary Communist League was the leading force in the creation of the New Anticapitalist Party, launched in June 2008, intended to unify the parties and movements of the far left.
On 5 February 2009, 87,1% of party members voted to dissolve the Revolutionary Communist League, with 11.5% voting against. The dissolution was intended to enable the LCR to become the New Anticapitalist Party. Alain Krivine, one of the party's founders, said: "We're not dissolving, as such. We'll continue the revolutionary struggle, with a tool that's much better suited for it than the LCR." In France's 2002 presidential election, the LCR's candidate Olivier Besancenot won 4.25% of the vote. Thus the far left gained a total of more than 10%; the run-off election provided voters with only a choice between the right-wing Chirac and the far-right Le Pen. The left in its vast majority voted for Chirac; the LCR did not call for abstention: the LCR campaigned to "minimize the vote to Le Pen". The LCR campaign was run under the slogan "Beat Le Pen on the streets and in the ballot box". A minority within the LCR were opposed to this slogan, believing that it amounted to a call to vote for Chirac. For the 2007 French presidential election, the LCR's candidate was again Olivier Besancenot, gaining around 4.1% at the first round.
As he fell under the 5% barrier, the state did not cover the campaign's expenses above 800,000 euros. However, as the party spent approximatively this sum, according to Pierre-François Grond, a member of the direction, it will not be financially affected by Besancenot's lower score. Alain Krivine Daniel Bensaïd Olivier Besancenot Michael Lowy Catherine Samary Philippe Poutou Politics of France Lutte Ouvrière Workers' Party Jeunesses communistes révolutionnaires Trotskisme en France Official website
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who served as President of the National Front from 1972 to 2011. A Member of the European Parliament since 2004, he had been elected to the same position between 1984 and 2003, he served as Honorary President of the National Front from 2011 to 2018. Born and raised as a Roman Catholic in La Trinité-sur-Mer, Le Pen first attended the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes Dupuy-de-Lôme in Lorient. After being dismissed from it in April for indiscipline, he attended the high school Jules-Simon in Vannes before being dismissed again for indiscipline. Le Pen graduated from Claude-Debussy high school in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1947, he entered the faculty of law in Paris and graduated from it in 1949. After his time in the military, he studied political law at Panthéon-Assas University. Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values and order and France's high rate of unemployment, his progression in the 1980s is known as the "lepénisation of spirits" due to its noticeable effect on mainstream political opinion.
His controversial speeches and his integration into public life have made him a figure who polarizes opinion, considered as the "Devil of the Republic" among his opponents or as the "last samurai in politics" among his supporters. His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become President of France have made him a major figure in French political life, his progress to the second round in the 2002 presidential election left its mark on French public life and the "21st of April" is now a used expression in France. He is a Member of the European Parliament and served as the Honorary President of the National Front from January 2011 to March 2018, he was expelled from the party by his daughter Marine Le Pen in 2015, after new controversial statements. Jean Louis Marie Le Pen was the only son of Jean Le Pen. Jean Le Pen was born in French Brittany, like his ancestors and had started work at the age of 13 on a transatlantic vessel, he was Councilor of La Trinité-sur-Mer. Jean-Marie Le Pen's mother, Anne-Marie Hervé was a seamstress and of local ancestry.
Le Pen was born on 20 June 1928 in La Trinité-sur-Mer, a small seaside village in Brittany, the son of Anne Marie Hervé and Jean Le Pen, a fisherman. He was orphaned as an adolescent, when his father's boat La Persévérance was blown up by a mine in 1942, he was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes at the lycée of Lorient. In November 1944, aged 16, he was turned down by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière when he attempted to join the French Forces of the Interior, he entered the faculty of law in Paris, started to sell the monarchist Action Française's newspaper, "Aspects de la France", in the street. He was convicted of assault and battery. Le Pen started his political career as the head of the student union in Toulouse, he became president of the Association corporative des étudiants en droit, an association of law students whose main occupation was to engage in street brawls against the "Cocos". He was excluded from this organisation in 1951.
After his time in the military, he studied political law at Panthéon-Assas University. His graduate thesis, submitted in 1971 by him and Jean-Loup Vincent, was titled Le courant anarchiste en France depuis 1945 or "The anarchist movement in France since 1945". After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the Foreign Legion, he arrived in Indochina after the 1954 battle of Dien Bien Phu, lost by France and which prompted Prime Minister of France Pierre Mendès France to put an end to the Indochina war at the Geneva Conference. Le Pen was sent to Suez in 1956, but arrived only after the cease-fire. In 1953, a year before the beginning of the Algerian War, he contacted President Vincent Auriol, who approved Le Pen's proposed volunteer disaster relief project after a flood in the Netherlands. Within two days, there were 40 volunteers from his university, a group that would help victims of an earthquake in Italy. In Paris in 1956, he was elected to the National Assembly as a member of Pierre Poujade's UDCA populist party.
Le Pen has presented himself as the youngest member of the Assembly, but a young communist, André Chène, 27 years old and half a year younger, was elected in the same year. In 1957, Le Pen became the General Secretary of the National Front of Combatants, a veterans' organization, as well as the first French politician to nominate a Muslim candidate, Ahmed Djebbour, an Algerian, elected in 1957 as deputy of Paris; the next year, following his break with Poujade, he was reelected to the National Assembly as a member of the Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans party, led by Antoine Pinay. Le Pen claimed that he had lost his left eye when he was savagely beaten during the 1958 election campaign. Testimonies did not lose it, he lost the sight in his left eye years due to an illness. During the 1950s, Le Pen took a close interest in the French defence budget. Elected deputy of the French Parliament under the Poujadist banner, Le Pen voluntarily reengaged himself for two to three months in the French Foreign Legion.
He was sent to Algeria as an intelligence officer. He has been accused of having engaged in tort
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Benjamin Stora is a French historian, expert on North Africa, considered one of the world's leading authorities on Algerian history. He was born in a Jewish family which left the country following its War of Independence in 1962. Stora holds a Doctorate of the State, his books and articles have been translated into several languages, including English, Spanish, German and Vietnamese. Stora teaches at the University of Paris 13 and the Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilisations, he founded and has been head of the Institut Maghreb-Europe since its inception in 1991. As a member of the French School of the Far East he lived for two years in Hanoi, where he pursued his research on the imaginary of the Algerian and Vietnamese wars. In 1998 he was guest lecturer at the University of New York, he spent three years in Rabat, researching Algerian and Moroccan nationalism. He has published thirty books, the most well known of which include a biography of Messali Hadj. Stora was a historical advisor for the film Indochine, which won the Oscar for best foreign film, commissioner for the exhibitions France at War in Algeria and Images of the Algerian War.
He is the author of the documentary The Algerian Years, broadcast by the France 2 television network in 1991. He collaborated with Jean-Michel Meurice to produce the documentary The summer of'62 in Algeria: The two faces of independence, broadcast by the France 5 network in 2002. In 2010 he was the historical advisor for The first man, a screen adaptation of Albert Camus's last, unfinished novel, for The free men by director Ismaël Ferroukhi, his most recent works include a book, co-directed with Emile Temime, on the history of immigration in France, Immigrances. In 2008 he published a biographical essay, The never-ending wars: A historian and Algeria; the following year his book, The De Gaulle Mystery: His project for Algeria, was met with great critical acclaim in France and Algeria. He is a member of the jury for the History Prize of the French Senate, president of the scientific council of the Maghreb section of French foreign research institutes. In 1968, Benjamin Stora joined Pierre Lambert's Trotskyist activist group Alliance des Jeunes pour le Socialisme – Organisation Communiste Internationaliste.
In 1986, Stora made a biography about independentist leader Messali Hadj. Algeria, 1830–2000: A Short History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8014-8916-4 ISBN 9780801489167 Messali Hadj. Pionnier du nationalisme algérien, Paris 2004, ISBN 2-01-279190-5. Dictionnaire biographique de militants nationalistes algériens. 600 portraits. Nationalistes algériens. Les sources du nationalisme algérien. Parcours idéologiques. Origine des acteurs. Histoire de l'Algérie coloniale, La Découverte, Paris, 2004, ISBN 2-7071-4466-5. La gangrène et l'oubli. La mémoire de la guerre d'Algérie. La Découverte. Ils venaient d'Algérie. L'immigration algérienne en France. Aide-mémoire de l'immigration algérienne. Chronologie. Bibliographie. Histoire de la guerre d'Algérie, La Découverte, Paris, 2004, ISBN 2-7071-4293-X. La Guerre d'Algérie – 1934–2004 La fin de l'amnésie, Robert Laffont, Paris, 2004, ISBN 2-221-10024-7. Histoire de l'Algérie depuis l'indépendance – T1: 1962–1988, éditions La Découverte Paris, ISBN 2-7071-4405-3.
Ferhat Abbas. Biographie, avec Zakya Daoud L'Algérie en 1995. Dictionnaire des livres de la guerre d'Algérie. 2300 résumés, Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 2005, ISBN 2-85816-777-X. Imaginaires de guerre, Algérie-Viêt Nam en France et aux États-Unis, Paris, La Découverte, 1997, ISBN 2-7071-4308-1. Appelés en guerre d'Algérie, coll. "Découvertes Gallimard", Paris: Gallimard, 1997, ISBN 9782070534043 Algérie, Formation d'une nation, suivi de Impressions dans l'est algérien. Le Transfert d'une Mémoire. De l'" Algérie française " au racisme anti-arabe. Les 100 Portes du Maghreb. La guerre invisible – Algérie années 90. Les trois exils, Juifs d'Algérie, Paris, 2006, ISBN 2-234-05863-5. Immigrances: L'immigration en France au XXe siècle, Paris, 2007, ISBN 2-01-237261-9. La guerre des mémoires – La France face à son passé colonial, éditions de l'aube, 2007. Benjamin Stora's web site Benjamin Stora on French Colonialism and Algeria Today
Le Monde is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, published continuously since its first edition. It is one of the most important and respected newspapers in the world. Le Monde is one of the French newspapers of record, counting Libération, Le Figaro, the main publication of La Vie-Le Monde Group, it reported an average circulation of 323,039 copies per issue in 2009, about 40,000 of which were sold abroad. It has had its own website since 19 December 1995, is the only French newspaper obtainable in non-French-speaking countries, it should not be confused with the monthly publication Le Monde diplomatique, of which Le Monde has 51% ownership, but, editorially independent. The paper's journalistic side has a collegial form of organization, in which most journalists are not only tenured, but financial stakeholders in the enterprise as well, participate in the elections of upper management and senior executives.
In the 1990s and 2000s, La Vie-Le Monde Group expanded under editor Jean-Marie Colombani with a number of acquisitions. However, its profitability was not sufficient to cover the large debt loads it took on to fund this expansion, it sought new investors in 2010 to keep the company out of bankruptcy. In June 2010, investors Matthieu Pigasse, Pierre Bergé, Xavier Niel acquired a controlling stake in the newspaper. In contrast to other world newspapers such as The New York Times, Le Monde was traditionally focused on offering analysis and opinion, as opposed to being a newspaper of record. Hence, it was considered less important for the paper to offer maximum coverage of the news than to offer thoughtful interpretation of current events. For instance, on the 10th anniversary of the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, the newspaper directly implicated François Mitterrand, the French president at the time, in the operation. In recent years the paper has established a greater distinction between opinion.
Le Monde was founded in 1944 at the request of General Charles de Gaulle after the German army was driven from Paris during World War II, took over the headquarters and layout of Le Temps, the most important newspaper in France before but whose reputation had suffered during the Occupation. Beuve-Méry demanded total editorial independence as the condition for his taking on the project. In 1981 it backed the election of socialist François Mitterrand, in part on the grounds that the alternation of the political party in government would be beneficial to the democratic character of the state; the paper endorsed centre-right candidate Édouard Balladur in the 1995 presidential election, Ségolène Royal, the Socialist Party candidate, in the 2007 presidential election. According to the Mitrokhin Archive investigators, Le Monde was the KGB's key outlet for spreading anti-American and pro-Soviet disinformation to the French media; the archive identified two senior Le Monde journalists and several contributors who were used in the operations.
Michel Legris, a former journalist with the paper, wrote Le Monde tel qu'il est in 1976. According to him, the journal minimized the atrocities committed by the Cambodian Khmer Rouge. In their 2003 book titled La Face cachée du Monde, authors Pierre Péan and Philippe Cohen alleged that Colombani and then-editor Edwy Plenel had shown, amongst other things, partisan bias and had engaged in financial dealings that compromised the paper's independence, it accused the paper of dangerously damaging the authority of the French state by having revealed various political scandals. This book remains controversial, but attracted much attention and media coverage in France and around the world at the time of its publication. Following a lawsuit, the authors and the publisher agreed in 2004 not to proceed to any reprinting. Le Monde has been found guilty of defamation for saying that Spanish football club FC Barcelona was connected to a doctor involved in steroid use; the Spanish court fined the newspaper nearly $450,000.
In April 2016, a Le Monde reporter was denied a visa to visit Algeria as part of the French Prime Minister press convoy to Algeria. Le Monde had published names of Algerian officials directly involved with the Panama papers corruption scandal. Le Monde is published around midday, the date on the masthead is the following day's. For instance, the issue released at midday on 15 March shows 16 March on the masthead, it is available on newsstands in France on the day of release, received by mail subscribers on the masthead date. The Saturday issue is a double one, for Sunday, thus the latest edition can be found on newsstands from Monday to Friday included, while subscribers will receive it from Tuesday to Saturday included. In December 2006, on the 60th anniversary of its publishing début, Le Monde moved into new headquarters in Boulevard Auguste-Blanqui, 13th arrondissement of Paris; the building—formerly the headquarters of Air France—was refashioned by Bouygues from the designs of Christian de Portzamparc.
The building's façade has an enormous fresco adorned by doves flying towards Victor Hugo, symbolising freedom of the press. It will move into a new headquarters in the 13th arrondissement, around 2017