The Sangam literature is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of south India spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE. This collection contains 2381 poems in Tamil composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous. Most of the available Sangam literature is from the Third Sangam, this period is known as the Sangam period, which refers to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature; the Only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in paripaatal. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions; the poems belonging to Sangam literature were composed by Tamil poets, both men and women, from various professions and classes of society. These poems were collected into various anthologies and with colophons added by anthologists and annotators around 1000 AD. Sangam literature fell out of popular memory soon thereafter, until they were rediscovered in the 19th century by scholars such as Arumuga Navalar, C. W. Thamotharampillai and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer.
Sangam literature deals with emotional and material topics such as love, governance and bereavement. Some of the greatest Tamil scholars, like Thiruvalluvar, who wrote on ethics, on the various issues of life like virtue and love, or the Tamil poet Mamulanar, who explored historical incidents that happened in India, lived during the Sangam period; the Indologist Kamil Zvelebil quotes A. K. Ramanujan: "In their antiquity and in their contemporaneity, there is not much else in any Indian literature equal to these quiet and dramatic Tamil poems. In their values and stances, they represent a mature classical poetry: passion is balanced by courtesy, transparency by ironies and nuances of design, impersonality by vivid detail, austerity of line by richness of implication; these poems are not just the earliest evidence of the Tamil genius." The available literature from this period was categorized and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based on chronology. The categories are the patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku comprising the ettuthogai and the pattuppāṭṭu and the patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku.
Sangam poems falls into two categories: the "inner field", the "outer field" as described in the first available Tamil grammar, the Tolkāppiyam. The "inner field" topics refer to personal or human aspects, such as love and intimate relationships, are dealt with metaphorically and abstractly; the "outer field" topics discuss all other aspects of human experience such as heroism, ethics, philanthropy, social life, customs. The division into agam and puram is not rigid, but depends upon the interpretation used in a specific context. Sangam literature illustrates the thematic classification scheme first described in the Tolkāppiyam; the classification ties the emotions involved in akam poetry to a specific landscape. These landscapes are called tiṇai; these are: mountainous regions. In addition to the landscape based tiṇais, kaikkiLai and perunthinai are used for unsolicited love and unsuited love, respectively. Similar tiṇais pertain to puram poems as well, though these categories are based on activity rather than landscape: vetchi, vanchi, uzhignai, thumbai, vaagai and pothuviyal.
According to the compilers of the Sangam works such as Nakkeeran, the Tamil Sangams were academies, where Tamil poets and authors are said to have gathered periodically to publish their works. The legends claim that the Pandyan dynasty of the mythical cities of "South Madurai", Madurai, patronized the three Sangams. While these claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers, "Sangam literature" is still the preferred term for referring to the collection of Tamil works from the period 200 BC to 200 AD. Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of'Sangam literature' to describe this corpus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead; the works of Sangam literature were lost and forgotten for several centuries before they were brought to light by several Tamil scholars, such as Arumuka Navalar, C. W. Thamotharampillai and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer, they painstakingly catalogued numerous manuscripts in various stages of deterioration.
Navalar and Pillai hailed from Jaffna. Navalar brought the first Sangam text into print. Pillai brought out the first of the Eight Anthologies of the Sangam classics, the Kaliththokai, in 1887. Swaminathaiyar published his first print of the Ten Idylls in 1889. Together, these scholars printed and published Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar Urai, Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, Silappatikaram, Pattuppāṭṭu, Purananuru, all with scholarly commentaries, they published more than 100 works including minor poems. J. V. Chellaiah of Jaffna College did the entire translation of the Ten Idylls in English in 1945. Tamiḻakam First Sangam Second Sangam Tamil Sangams List of Sangam poets Varalaaru.com – Monthly web magazine on South Indian Hist
Sri Lanka the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years, it has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in 1948.
Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history.
Moors, Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā; the Tamil term Eelam, was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature. The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni; the Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb from Cerentivu or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ. Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505, was transliterated into English as Ceylon; as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon. The country is now known in Sinhala in Tamil as Ilaṅkai. In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka".
In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man, other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport. Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka; the 19th-century Irish historian James Emerson Tennent theorized that Galle, a city in southern Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory and other valuables. According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600 BC and other signs of advanced civilisation have been discovered in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC with the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers to Sri Lanka, after being expelled from Vanga Kingdom (present-day Ben
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala spanning from c. 5th century BCE to c. 3rd century CE. It is named after the famous Sangam academies of scholars centered in the city of Madurai. In Old Tamil language, the term Tamilakam referred to the whole of the ancient Tamil-speaking area, corresponding to the area known as southern India today, consisting of the territories of the present-day Indian states of Tamil Nadu, parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka and northern Sri Lanka known as Eelam. According to Tamil legends, there were three Sangam periods, namely Head Sangam, Middle Sangam and Last Sangam period. Historians use the term Sangam period to refer the last of these, with the first two being legendary. So it is called Last Sangam period, or Third Sangam period; the Sangam literature is thought to have been produced in three Sangam academies of each period. The evidence on the early history of the Tamil kingdoms consists of the epigraphs of the region, the Sangam literature, archaeological data.
The period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamilakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties of Pandya and Chera, a few independent chieftains, the Velir. There is a wealth of sources detailing the history, socio-political environment and cultural practices of ancient Tamilakam, including volumes of literature and epigraphy. Tamilakam's history is split into three periods. A vast array of literary and inscribed sources from around the world provide insight into the socio-political and cultural occurrences in the Tamil region; the ancient Tamil literature consists of the grammatical work Tolkappiyam, the anthology of ten mid-length books collection Pathupattu, the eight anthologies of poetic work Ettuthogai, the eighteen minor works Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku. The religion of the ancient Tamils follow roots of nature worship and some elements of it can be found in Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta traditions. In the ancient Sangam literature, Sivan was the supreme God, Murugan was the one celebrated by the masses; the Tamil landscape was classified into five categories, based on the mood, the season and the land.
Tolkappiyam, one of the oldest grammatical works in Tamil mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Kottravai and Sevvael in Kurinji, Thirumal in Mullai, Vendhan in Marutham, Kadaloan in the Neithal. Other ancient works refer to Vaali; the most popular deity was Murugan, who has from a early date been identified with Karthikeya, the son of Siva. Kannagi, the heroine of the Silappatikaram, was worshiped as Pathini by many Tamilians in Sri Lanka. There were many temples and devotees of Thirumal, Siva and the other common Hindu deities; the ancient Tamil calendar was based on the sidereal year similar to the ancient Hindu solar calendar, except that months were from solar calculations, there was no 60-year cycle as seen in Sanskrit calendar. The year was made up of twelve months and every two months constituted a season. With the popularity of Mazhai vizhavu, traditionally commencement of Tamil year was clubbed on April 14, deviating from the astronomical date of vadavazhi vizhavu.
Pongal the festival of harvest and spring, thanking Lord El, comes on January 14/15. Peru Vaenil Kadavizha, the festival for wishing quick and easy passage of the mid-summer months, on the day when the Sun or El stands directly above the head at noon at the southern tip of ancient Tamil land; this day comes on April 14/15. Mazhai Vizhavu, aka Indhira Vizha, the festival for want of rain, celebrated for one full month starting from the full moon in Ootrai சித்திரை and completed on the full moon in Puyaazhi, it is epitomised in the epic Cilapatikaram in detail. Puyaazhi visaagam and Thai poosam, தைப்பூசம் the festivals of Tamil God's birth and accession to the Thirupparankundram Koodal Academy, coming on the day before the full moons of Puyaazhi and Thai respectively. Soornavai Vizha, the slaying of legendary Kadamba Asura king Surabadma, by Lord, comes on the sixth day after new moon in Itrai, it is sung about in Purananuru anthology. Vaadai Vizha or Vadavazhi Vizha, the festival of welcoming the Lord Surya back to home, as He turns northward, celebrated on December 21/22.
It is sung about in Akanauru anthology. Semmeen Ezhumin Vizhavu or Aruthra Darishanam, the occasion of Lord Siva coming down from the ThiruCitrambalam திருச்சிற்றம்பலம் and taking a look at the Vaigarai Thiru Aathirai star in the early morning on the day before the full moon in Panmizh. Aathi Irai min means the star of the God on the Bull. Thiruonam or Onam, considered to be the birthday of Mayon, by the people of Pandya kingdom
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves
Mannar District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka; the capital of the district is the town of Mannar. Between the 5th century BC and 13th century AD, what is now Mannar District was part of Rajarata. Parts Mannar District were thereafter part of the pre-colonial Jaffna kingdom; the district came under Portuguese and British control. In 1815 the British gained control of the entire island of Ceylon, they divided the island into three ethnic based administrative structures: Low Country Sinhalese, Kandyan Sinhalese and Tamil. The district was part of the Tamil administration. In 1833, in accordance with the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission, the ethnic based administrative structures were unified into a single administration divided into five geographic provinces. Mannar District, together with Jaffna District and Vanni District, formed the new Northern Province.
At the time that Ceylon gained independence, Mannar was one of the three districts located in the Northern Province. Manthai East division was transferred to newly created Mullaitivu District in September 1978. Much of Mannar District was under the control of rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam for many years during the civil war; the entire district was recaptured by the Sri Lankan military in 2008. Mannar District is located in the north west of Sri Lanka in the Northern Province, it has an area of 1,996 square kilometres. Murunkan is due to the black clay surface, cracked while dry, is the place where the Giant's Tank is situated, it has montmorillonite clay and is the only place in Sri Lanka where this kind of clay can be obtained. This clay is used in making cement. Aruvi Aru is the second longest river in Sri Lanka and runs through Mannar and Anuradhapura districts. Mannar has artesian aquifers; these water supply comes from Sri Lanka's central areas. The Northern Province has a supply of fresh water from aquifers and it was used in successful cultivation.
It only exists in the areas. These types of aquifers do not exist; the rest of the Vanni area is void of perennial supply of fresh water. Mannar District is unique in its wildlife contrasting with rest of Sri Lanka. Mannar Island is notably one of the few places in Sri Lanka where baobab trees thrive; the baobab tree, native to Africa, was bought by Arab sailors to feed camels which they stationed in the area. Although camels are not found in today, few baobab trees still thrive on the hot sandy Mannar region; the baobab belongs to the family Bombacaceae. It appear barrel-like enormous trunk, which tapers into branches; when the leaves are shed, the tree gives the impression. The name baobab comes from the Arabic plant name buhibab, while the scientific name is after the French Botanist M. Adanson; the tree is more known for its girth than height: trunks attain a diameter of 9 m in some cases, are hollow in the centre. The bark is rough and greyish, since it resembles the hide of an elephant, but Tamils refer to it as perukkaa which means "large fruit".
Catholics in Mannar call baobab. Monkeys love hence the tree is sometimes known as the monkey-bread tree; the dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal, found in Mannar bay, Jaffna island and near Adams bridge. That has rich in sea grasses. IUCN conservation status is vulnerable because of over hunting for meat purpose and untargetly captured by fishing net. A critically endangered tarantula species known as Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was first found from Sri Lanka in Mannar region; this was the first time that the spider was recorded from outside of India Mannar District is divided into 5 Divisional Secretary's Division, each headed by a Divisional Secretary. The DS Divisions are further sub-divided into 153 Grama Niladhari Divisions. Mannar District's population was 99,051 in 2012; the population of the district is Sri Lankan Tamil. The population of the district, like the rest of the north and east of Sri Lanka, has been affected by the civil war; the war killed an estimated 100,000 people. Several hundred thousand Sri Lankan Tamils as much as one million, emigrated to the West during the war.
Many Sri Lankan Tamils moved to the relative safety of the capital Colombo. Most of the Sri Lankan Moors and Sinhalese who lived in the district fled to other parts of Sri Lanka or were forcibly expelled by the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, though most of them have returned to the district since the end of the civil war. Mannar is a predominantly Catholic Christian area. There was equal amount of Muslim population and a few Sinhalase before 1990. Portuguese rule introduced Christianity and Hindu temples were changed into Catholic Churches and Forts; the whole of southern coastal India and western coast of Sri Lanka is a Catholic stronghold from the time of Portuguese colonisation. Buddhism and Islam may be present in small patches. Mannar is part of the'Catholic Belt' extending from Negombo to Jaffna. Portuguese first arrived in Colombo and established Catholicism in areas around Chilaw and further expanded their rule into Nagar Kovil and Tuticorin area, thus the whole of Gulf of Mannar could be called a Catholic
Tamilakam or Ancient Tamil country refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people. Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Traditional accounts and Tholkāppiyam referred these territories as a single cultural area, where Tamil was the natural language and culture of all people; the ancient Tamil country was divided into kingdoms. The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas and Pallavas. During the Sangam period, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam. Ancient Tamil settlements were found in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. "Tamiḻakam" is a portmanteau of a word and suffix from the Tamil language, namely - akam. It can be translated as the "homeland of the Tamils". According to Kamil Zvelebil, the term seems to be the most ancient term used to designate Tamil territory in the Indian subcontinent; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as Ptolemy's writings, mention the term "Limyrike" which corresponds to the Malabar Coast of south-western India.
Based on a misinterpretation of the Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana and the possible phonetic connection between the words "Damir-" and "Tamil", some modern scholars have wrongly mentioned Limyrike as "Damirica", considering it as a synonym of "Tamilakam". The "Damirice" mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana refers to an area between the Himalayas and the Ganges; the term "Tamilakam" appears to be the most ancient term used for designating the Tamil territory. The earliest sources to mention it include Purananuru 168.18 and Patiṟṟuppattu Patikam 2.5. The Specific Preface of the more ancient text Tolkāppiyam mentions the terms tamil-kuru nal-lulakam and centamil... nilam. However, this preface, of uncertain date, is a addition to the original Tolkāppiyam. According to the Tolkāppiyam preface, "the virtuous land in which Tamil is spoken as the mother tongue lies between the northern Venkata hill and the southern Kumari."The Silappadikaram defines the Tamilakam as follows: While these ancient texts do not define the eastern and western boundaries of the Tamilakam, scholars assume that these boundaries were the seas, which may explain their omission from the ancient definition.
The ancient Tamilakam thus included the present-day Kerala. However, it excluded the present-day Tamil-inhabited territory in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka. During the period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamiḻakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola dynasty, the Pandyan dynasty, Satyaputra dynasty and the Chera dynasty. There were a few independent chieftains, the Velirs; the earliest datable references to the Tamil kingdoms are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE during the time of the Maurya Empire. The Pandyan dynasty ruled parts of South India until the late 17th century; the heartland of the Pandyas was the fertile valley of the Vaigai River. They ruled their country from Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, in times moved to Madurai; the Chola dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period until the 13th century in central Tamil Nadu. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri; the Chera dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period until the 12th century over an area corresponding to modern-day western Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
The Vealirs were minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamiḻakam in the early historic period of South India. Tamiḻakam was divided into political regions called Perunadu or "Great country", "nadu" means country. There were three important political regions which were Chola Nadu and Pandya Nadu. Along these three there were two more political regions of Athiyaman Nadu and Thamirabharani Nadu which were on absorbed into Chera resp. Pandya Nadu by 3rd century BCE. Thondai Nadu, under Chola Nadu emerged as independent Pallava Nadu by 6th century CE. Again Tamilakam were divided into 12 socio-geographical regions called Nadu or "country"; each of this Nadu had their own dialect of Tamil. Some other Nadus were mentioned in Tamil literatures which weren't part of Tamilakam, but the countries traded with Tamils in ancient times. Although the area covered by the term "Tamilakam" was divided among multiple kingdoms, its occurrence in the ancient literature implies that the region's inhabitants shared a cultural or ethnic identity, or at least regarded themselves as distinct from their neighbours.
The ancient Tamil inscriptions, ranging from 5th century BCE to 3rd century CE, are conisdered as linguistic evidence for distinguishing Tamilakam from the rest of South India. The ancient non-Tamil inscriptions, such as those of the northern kings Ashoka and Kharavela allude to the distinct identity of the region. For example, Ashoka's inscriptions refer to the independent states lying beyond the southern boundary of his kingdom, Kharavdela's Hathigumpha inscription refers to the destruction of a "confederacy of Tamil powers". However, the archaeological evidence does not support the existence of "Tamilakam" as a distinct cultural region: the material culture and habitations discovered in present-day Tamil Nadu and Kerala are found elsewhere in peninsular India and Sri Lanka. With the advent of the early historical period in South India and the ascent of the three Tamil kingdoms in South India in the 6th century BCE, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamiḻakam. Prior to 3rd century BCE, more Tamil settlers arrived in Sri Lanka.
The Annaicoddai seal, dated