Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Yoldia Sea is a name given by geologists to a variable brackish-water stage in the Baltic Sea basin that prevailed after the Baltic ice lake was drained to sea level during the Weichsel glaciation. Dates for the Yoldia sea are obtained by radiocarbon dating material from ancient sediments and shore lines and from clay-varve chronology, they tend to vary by as much as a thousand years, but a good estimate is 10,300 – 9500 radiocarbon years BP, equivalent to ca 11,700-10,700 calendar years BP. The sea ended when isostatic rise of Scandinavia closed or nearly closed its effluents, altering the balance between saline and fresh water; the Yoldia Sea became Ancylus Lake. The Yoldia Sea stage had three phases; the name of the sea is adapted from the obsolete name of the bivalve, Portlandia arctica, found around Stockholm. This bivalve requires cold saline water, it characterizes the middle phase of the Yoldia Sea, during which saline water poured into the Baltic, before the acceleration of glacial melting.
The Baltic Ice Lake, the Yoldia Sea, the Ancylus Lake and the Littorina Sea are four recognized stages in the postglacial progression of the Baltic basin – there are transition periods which can be considered as substages. From earliest to most recent they run: The Baltic Ice Lake – fresh water proglacial lake with level greater than sea level – dammed by glacial ice until the ice dam broke free at the north slope of Billingen uplands – the lake level dropped ~ 26 meters to sea level - ~ 10,000 years before the present. Transition period - Between the Baltic Ice Lake and the Yoldia Sea there was a transient lake stage before the ingression of salt water; this lasted ~300 years. The Yoldia Sea – a short lived connection with the sea across south-central Sweden over the Närke strait – 10,000 to 9,600 BP; the Ancylus Lake – creation of a fresh water lake through uplift, which blocked the Närke strait- 9,600 to 7,800 ΒP. The Littorina Sea – with the rise in sea level and the submergence of the Øresund strait, the Baltic again communicated with the North Sea beginning ~ 7,800 ΒP to present.
This is sometimes split into substages:The Mastogloia Sea - a substage sometimes used to distinguish the period between 8000 and 7000 years ago when the Baltic became distinctly brackish - during this period the English Channel and the Danish straits circulation was established, increasing Atlantic water inflow. The Limnea Sea – a substage sometimes used to distinguish the transition of the Baltic Sea to a more stagnant phase, which exists – about 2,500 BP; the Baltic Ice Lake came to an end when it overflowed through central Sweden and drained, a process complete by about 10,300 BP. The straits through the present Stockholm region to the Atlantic were the only outlet at that time; when lake level reached sea level the difference in salinity caused a backflow from the North Sea, creating saline regions in which the marine bivalve Yoldia flourished. This phase lasted until about 10,000 BP. Subsequently, increased melting of the glacier provided additional fresh water and the lake became stratified, with salt water on the bottom and fresh on top.
Over the life of the sea and from location to location the salinity was a variable. Whether it is possible to speak of stages of salinity that would apply uniformly to the whole sea is debatable. At about 10,000 BP, the exit continued to rise and the lake/sea broke through Denmark creating the first Great Belt channels; the total opening included two channels at the northern end. The Great Belt channels was blocked again by rising land from the post-glacial rebound that created Ancylus Lake. Geographically, the Gulf of Bothnia remained under the ice; the Gulf of Finland was open but most of Finland was an archipelago, over which debris carried by glacial streams spread. A land bridge joined Germany to southern Sweden through Denmark. Relieved of its weight of ice, Finland rose and unevenly from the sea. Parts of the Yoldia shoreline are above sea level today; the Yoldia Sea toward its end was about 30m below current sea level. A channel at the location of the Neva River connected Yoldia Sea to Lake Ladoga.
The Yoldia Sea existed within the Boreal Blytt-Sernander period. The forests and species lining its shores were boreal. Mesolithic cultures continued to occupy the southern shores of the sea; the sea as an ecologic system came to an end when Scandinavia rose sufficiently to block the flow through the Stockholm area and the saline balance shifted toward a lacustrine ecology once again
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Lake Onega is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast. It belongs to the basin of the Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, is the second largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga; the lake is drained by the Svir River. There are about 1,650 islands on the lake, they include Kizhi, which hosts a historical complex of 89 orthodox wooden churches and other wooden constructions of the 15th–20th centuries. The complex includes Kizhi Pogost. Eastern shores of the lake contain about 1,200 petroglyphs dated to the 4th–2nd millennia BC; the major cities on the lake are Petrozavodsk and Medvezhyegorsk. The lake is of glacial-tectonic origin and is a small remnant of a larger body of water which existed in this area during an Ice Age. In geologic terms, the lake is rather young, formed – like all lakes in northern Europe – through the carving activity of the inland ice sheets in the latter part of the last Ice Age, about 12,000 years ago: In the Paleozoic Era the entire territory of the modern basin of the lake was covered with a shelf sea lying near the ancient, near-equatoric Baltic continent.
Sediments at that time – sandstone, sand and limestone – form a 200-metre-thick layer covering the Baltic Shield which consists of granite and greenstone. The retreat of the Ice Age glaciers formed the Littorina Sea, its level was first 7–9 m higher than at present, but it lowered, thereby decreasing the sea area and forming several lakes in the Baltic region. Lake Onega has a surface area of 9,700 km2 without islands and a volume of 280 km3, it is the second largest lake in Europe, the 18th largest lake by area in the world. Its southern banks are low and continuous, whereas northern banks are rocky and rugged, they contain numerous elongated bays shaping the lake into a giant crayfish. In the northern part lies a large Zaonezhye Peninsula. To the west of them lies the deep Greater Onega area containing the Kondopozhskaya, Ilem-Gorskaya and Unitskoy bays. To the southwest of Greater Onega lies Petrozavodskoye Onego containing the large Petrozavodsk and small Yalguba and Pinguba bays. To the east of Zaonezhye there is a bay, northern part of, called Povenetsky Bay and the southern part is Zaonezhsky Bay.
There, deep sections alternate with islands which split the bay into several parts. The southernmost part of them, Lesser Onega, is 40–50 m deep. All the shores there are rocky; the average depth of the lake is 31 m, the deepest place at 127 m is located in the northern part. The average depth is rises to 20 -- 30 m in the southern part; the bottom has a uneven profile, it is covered with silt, contains numerous trenches of various size and shape in the northern part. The trenches are separated by large shallow banks; such bottom structure is favorable for fish, the banks are used for commercial fishing. The water level is stabilized by the Verhnesvirskaya hydropower plant and varies by only 0.9–1.5 m over the year. It rises due to the spring flood; the highest water level is in June -- the lowest is in March -- April. Rivers bring 15.6 km3 of water per year to the lake, up to 74% of the water balance. Most of the lake water outflows via a single River Svir, the remaining 16% evaporates from the lake surface.
There are frequent storms more characteristic of a sea than a lake. The lake freezes near the coast and bays in late November and December and around mid-January in its center. Thawing reaches the lake in May. Water in the deep parts is clear, with the visibility up to 7–8 m. In the bays, the visibility may decrease to about a meter; the water is fresh, with a salinity of 35 mg/L. This is low for a lake and is about 1 1⁄2 times lower than in the other large lake of the area, Lake Ladoga; the maximum surface water temperature is 20–24 °C on the open lake and 24–27 °C in the bays. The deep waters are much colder, from 2–2.5 °C in winter to 4–6 °C in summer. Weather is cold, with temperatures below 0 °C for half of the year and average summer temperatures of about 16 °C; the catchment area of 51,540 km2 drains into the lake via 58 rivers and more than 110 tributaries, including the Shuya, Vodla and Andoma. The only outgoing River Svir, which marks the southern boundary of Karelia, runs from the southwestern shore of Lake Onega to Lake Ladoga and continues as the Neva River to the Gulf of Finland.
The White Sea–Baltic Canal runs through the lake from the White Sea to the Baltic Sea. The Volga–Baltic Waterway connects Onega Lake with the Volga River, Caspian Sea and Black Sea; the Onega Canal, which follows the southern banks of the lake, was built in 1818–1820
Karelia, the land of the Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland and Sweden. It is divided among the northwestern Russian Federation and Finland. Various subdivisions may be called Karelia. Finnish Karelia was a historical province of Finland, is now divided between Finland and Russia called just Karjala in Finnish; the eastern part of this chiefly Lutheran area was ceded to Russia after the Winter War of 1939–40. The Republic of Karelia is a Russian federal subject, including the so-called East Karelia with a chiefly Russian Orthodox population. Within present-day Finland, Karjala refers to the regions of South and North Karelia, although parts of historical Karelia lies within the region of Kymenlaakso, Northern Savonia and Southern Savonia. Karelia stretches from the White Sea coast to the Gulf of Finland, it contains the two largest lakes in Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. The Karelian Isthmus is located between the Gulf of Lake Ladoga; the border between Karelia and Ingria, the land of the related Ingrian people, had been the Neva River itself but on it was moved northward into Karelian isthmus to follow the Sestra River, today in the Saint Petersburg metropolitan area, but in 1812–1940 the Russo-Finnish border.
On the other side of Lake Ladoga, the River Svir is thought of as the traditional southern border of Karelian territory, as Lake Saimaa marks the Western border while Lake Onega and the White Sea mark the Eastern border. In the North lived the nomadic Samis, but there were no natural border except for large wooded areas and the tundra. In historical texts Karelia is sometimes divided into East Karelia and West Karelia, which are called Russian Karelia and Finnish Karelia respectively; the area to the north of Lake Ladoga which belonged to Finland before World War II is called Ladoga Karelia, the parishes on the old pre-war border are sometimes called Border Karelia. White Sea Karelia is the northern part of East Karelia and Olonets Karelia is the southern part. Tver Karelia denotes the villages in the Tver Oblast. Republic of Karelia Petrozavodsk Belomorsk Medvežyegorsk Kalevala Kem Kostomukša Kondopoga Sortavala Suojarvi Segeža Pitkjaranta Olonec Karelian Isthmus Vyborg Priozersk South Karelia Imatra Joutseno Lappeenranta North Karelia Joensuu Ilomantsi Kitee Kesalahti Kontiolahti Lieksa Liperi Nurmes Outokumpu Karelia was bitterly fought over by Sweden and the Novgorod Republic for a period starting in the 13th-century Swedish-Novgorodian Wars.
The Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323 divided Karelia between the two. Viborg became the capital of the new Swedish province. In the Treaty of Stolbovo in 1617 large parts of Russian Karelia were ceded to Sweden. Conflicts between the new Swedish rulers and the indigenous population of these areas led to an exodus: thousands of Karelians, including the ancestors of the Tver Karelians, emigrated to Russia; the Treaty of Nystad in 1721 between Imperial Russia and Sweden ceded most of Karelia to Russia. The Treaty of Åbo in 1743 between Sweden and Russia ceded South Karelia to Russia. After Finland had been occupied by Russia in the Finnish War, parts of the ceded provinces were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1917, Finland became independent and the border was confirmed by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920. Finnish partisans were involved in attempts to overthrow the Bolshevists in Russian Karelia in 1918–20, such as in the failed Aunus expedition, they wanted to incorporate the rest of Karelia into Finland and cooperated with the short-lived Republic of Uhtua.
These private expeditions ended after the peace treaty of Tartu. After the end of the Russian Civil War and the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, the Russian part of Karelia became the Karelian Autonomous republic of the Soviet Union in 1923. In 1939, The Soviet Union attacked Finland; the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940 handed most of Finnish Karelia to the Soviet Union. About 400,000 people the whole population, had to be relocated within Finland. In 1941, Karelia was liberated for three years during the Continuation War of 1941 to 1944 when East Karelia was occupied by the Finns; the Winter War and the resulting Soviet expansion caused considerable bitterness in Finland, which lost its second biggest city, its industrial heartland along the river Vuoksi, the Saimaa canal that connected central Finland to the Gulf of Finland, access to the fishing waters of Lake Ladoga, made an eighth of her citizens refugees with no chance of return. From the areas ceded to the Soviet Union, the whole population was evacuated and resettled in other parts of Finland.
The present inhabitants of the former Finnish K
Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere; the common English name hornbeam derives from the hardness of the woods and the Old English beam "tree". The American hornbeam is occasionally known as blue-beech, ironwood, or musclewood, the first from the resemblance of the bark to that of the American beech Fagus grandifolia, the other two from the hardness of the wood and the muscular appearance of the trunk, respectively; the botanic name for the genus, Carpinus, is the original Latin name for the European species. Though some botanists grouped them with the hazels and hop-hornbeams in a segregated family, modern botanists place the hornbeams in the birch subfamily Coryloideae. Hornbeams are small to medium-sized trees, Carpinus betulus reaching a height of 32 m; the leaves are deciduous and simple with a serrated margin, vary from 3–10 cm in length. The flowers are wind-pollinated pendulous catkins, produced in spring.
The male and female flowers are on the same tree. The fruit is a small nut about 3–6 mm long, held in a leafy bract; the asymmetry of the seedwing makes it spin. The shape of the wing is important in the identification of different hornbeam species. 10–30 seeds are on each seed catkin. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, with the greatest number of species in east Asia China. Only two species occur in Europe, only one in eastern North America, one in Mesoamerica. Carpinus betulus can be found in Europe and Ukraine. Hornbeams are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including autumnal moth, common emerald, feathered thorn, walnut sphinx, Svensson's copper underwing, winter moth as well as the Coleophora case-bearers C. currucipennella and C. ostryae. Hornbeams yield a hard timber, giving rise to the name "ironwood". Dried heartwood billets are suitable for decorative use. For general carpentry, hornbeam is used due to the difficulty of working it.
The wood is used to construct carving boards, tool handles, handplane soles, coach wheels, piano actions, shoe lasts, other products where a tough, hard wood is required. The wood can be used as gear pegs in simple machines, including traditional windmills, it is sometimes coppiced to provide hardwood poles. It is used in parquet flooring and for making chess pieces. Accepted species Carpinus betulus L. – European hornbeam - widespread across much of Europe. Carpinus caroliniana Walter – American hornbeam - Quebec, eastern half of US Carpinus chuniana Hu – Guangdong, Hubei Carpinus cordata Blume – Sawa hornbeam - Primorye, Korea, Japan Carpinus dayongiana K. W. Liu & Q. Z. Lin – Hunan Carpinus eximia Nakai – Korea Carpinus faginea Lindl. – Nepal, Himalayas of northern India Carpinus fangiana Hu – Sichuan, Guangxi Carpinus hebestroma Yamam. – Taiwan Carpinus henryana H. J. P. Winkl. – southern China Carpinus japonica Blume — Japanese hornbeam – Japan Carpinus kawakamii Hayata – Taiwan, southeastern China Carpinus kweichowensis Hu – Guizhou, Yunnan Carpinus langaoensis Z. Qiang Lu & J. Quan Liu – Shaanxi, China Carpinus laxiflora Blume – Aka-shide hornbeam - Japan, Korea Carpinus lipoensis Y.
K. Li – Guizhou Carpinus londoniana H. J. P. Winkl. – southern China, northern Indochina Carpinus luochengensis J. Y. Liang – Guangxi Carpinus mengshanensis S. B. Liang & F. Z. Zhao – Shandong Carpinus microphylla Z. C. Chen ex Y. S. Wang & J. P. Huang – Guangxi Carpinus mollicoma Hu – Tibet, Yunnan Carpinus monbeigiana Hand.-Mazz. – Tibet, Yunnan Carpinus omeiensis Hu & W. P. Fang – Sichuan, Guizhou Carpinus orientalis Mill. – Oriental hornbeam - Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Caucasus Carpinus paohsingensis W. Y. Hsia – China Carpinus polyneura Franch. – southern China Carpinus pubescens Burkill – China, Vietnam Carpinus purpurinervis Hu – Guizhou, Guangxi Carpinus putoensis W. C. Cheng – Putuo hornbeam - Zhejiang Carpinus rankanensis Hayata – Taiwan Carpinus rupestris A. Camus – Yunnan, Guizhou Carpinus shensiensis Hu – Gansu, Shaanxi Carpinus shimenensis C. J. Qi – Hunan †Carpinus tengshongensis W. C. Cheng – Zhejiang but extinct Carpinus tropicalis Lundell – Mexico, Central America Carpinus tsaiana Hu – Yunnan, Guizhou Carpinus tschonoskii Maxim.
– Chonowski's hornbeam - China, Japan Carpinus turczaninowii Hance – Korean hornbeam, - China, Japan Carpinus viminea Wall. Ex Lindl. – China, Himalayas, northern Indochina Eichhorn, Markus. "Hornbeam". Test Tube. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden; the majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, always known locally as the Nordic countries. While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark; the Faroe Islands are sometimes included. The name Scandinavia referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement; the majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.
Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore seen as Scandinavian. Finland is populated by Finns, with a minority of 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia; the Danish and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.
The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark and Sweden is recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula; as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, with this feeling I wrote the poem after my return:'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".
The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History. Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in New York City and the United States"; the official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.
The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. While the term "Scandinavia" is used for Denmark and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Sweden and Iceland, including their associated territories. Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield. In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Denmark Norway (constitutional monarchy with a parliament