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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Efferent nerve fiber

Efferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that exit a particular region. These terms have a different meaning in the context of the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system; the efferent fiber is a long process projecting far from the neuron's body that carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system toward the peripheral effector organs. A bundle of these fibers is called an efferent nerve; the opposite direction of neural activity is afferent conduction, which carries impulses by way of the afferent nerve fibers of sensory neurons. In the nervous system there is a "closed loop" system of sensation and reactions; this process is carried out through the activity of sensory neurons and motor neurons. In the CNS, afferent and efferent projections can be from the perspective of any given brain region; that is, each brain region has its own unique set of afferent and efferent projections. In the context of a given brain region, afferents are arriving fibers while efferents are exiting fibers.

The efferent nerve fibers of motor neurons are involved in muscle control, both skeletal and smooth muscle. The cell body of the motor neuron is connected to a single, long axon and several shorter dendrites projecting out of the cell body itself; this axon forms a neuromuscular junction with the effectors. The cell body of the motor neuron is satellite-shaped; the motor neuron is present in the grey matter of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata, forms an electrochemical pathway to the effector organ or muscle. Besides motor nerves, there are efferent sensory nerves that serve to adjust the sensitivity of the signal relayed by the afferent sensory nerve. There are three types of efferent fibers: general somatic efferent fibers, general visceral efferent fibers and special visceral efferent fibers. Subtypes of general somatic efferent fibers include: alpha motor neurons – these target extrafusal muscle fibers, gamma motor neurons that target intrafusal muscle fibers. Beta motor neurons target both types of muscle fiber and there are two types known as static and dynamic.

Both afferent and efferent come from French, evolved from Latin for the terms ad ferens, meaning carrying into, ex ferens, meaning carrying away. Ad and ex give an easy mnemonic device for remembering the relationship between afferent and efferent: afferent connection arrives and an efferent connection exits. Afferent and efferent are connected to affect and effect through their common Latin roots: Afferent nerves affect the subject, whereas efferent nerves allow the subject to effect change

João Vilela

João Pedro Ferreira Vilela is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder. A youth product of hometown's S. L. Benfica, joining at the age of nine, Vilela was promoted to the main squad for the 2004–05 season, but only appeared in preseason for the club, joining Gil Vicente F. C. on loan in January 2006. On 26 March, he scored in a 1–1 home draw against Vitória de Guimarães, in his fifth Primeira Liga appearance. With the Barcelos side now in the second division, the move was made permanent in the summer, Vilela amassed 74 official appearances in three full campaigns, netting 11 goals. In 2009 he moved to another team in that level, C. D. Fátima, returning to Gil Vicente in the following year and contributing with three goals in 25 matches in his second season for a return to the top flight after five years. On 25 June 2012, Vilela joined Iran Pro League side Tractor Sazi F. C. on a two-year contract, along with compatriot Anselmo Cardoso. In the following transfer window, however, he returned to his previous club.

In early July 2015, after suffering relegation to division two, Vilela left Gil and signed for C. F. Os Belenenses. However, just six months he dropped down to the third tier and joined U. D. Leiria. On 19 July 2016, 30-year-old Vilela moved abroad again as he agreed to a two-year contract with FC Schaffhausen, he scored on his debut five days helping to a 1–0 win over FC Wil for the Swiss Challenge League. João Vilela at ForaDeJogo National team data João Vilela at Soccerway

Demcizumab

Demcizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody, used to treat patients with pancreatic cancer or non-small cell lung cancer. Demcizumab has completed phase 1 trials and is undergoing phase 2 trials. Demcizumab was developed by OncoMed Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with Celgene. Demcizumab blocks Delta-like ligand 4, a ligand of Notch receptors. Notch signaling has been implicated as a key signaling pathway in cancer stem cells. By treating patients with a combination of Demcizumab and a cytotoxic chemotherapy, it is hoped that a more durable anti-tumor response can be achieved than with chemotherapy alone. Demcizumab has been known to cause many adverse effects in patient; the most common side effects are hypertension, fatigue and headaches. More adverse effect are nausea, hypoalbuminemia and dyspnea occurred; some uncommon side effects are heart related illness forming half way through the study. The patients that were chosen are older than 21, life expectancy greater than three months, histologically confirmed melastic, normal hematologic and clotting parameters.

Patients that were excluded received therapy four weeks or earlier, known HIV infection, bleeding disorder, receiving anticoagulants, uncontrolled hypertension, pregnant or nursing. In addition people that have New York Heart Association Classification II, III, IV, uncontrolled seizers, active neurological diseases, significant intercurrent illness are excluded. Phase 1a trials shows. In the Phase 1b trials shows the safety and pharmacokinetics that help decide what the maximum tolerated dose is, they dosed fifty-five patients either weekly with a doses ranging from.5 to 5 mg/kg or dosed biweekly with doses ranging from 2.5–10 mg/kg. The Phase 1 trials show that Demcizumab has a tolerable short term safety profile with common side effects of hypertension and fatigue; the recommended dose is 5 mg/kg. They are holding 2 phase 2 trials; the Yosemite trial is testing demcizumab with Abraxane and gemcitabine verses only using Abraxane and gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer. The second phase 2 trial is Denali, testing demcizumab with pemetrexed and carboplatin verses only pemetrexed and carboplatin alone for non-small cell lung cancer patients.

The patients were similar to subjects in phase 1 trials of demcizumab. The Yosemite trial is a double blind, randomized, 3 arm study in subjects with metastatic pancreatic cancer; the primary purpose of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of demcizumab with Abraxane plus gemcitabine compared to only standard care. The Phase 2 dose of Demcizumab was 3.5 mg/kg every two weeks for 70 days. In April 2017, OncoMed announced that the trial had failed to meet its primary endpoint and demcizumab had no significant effect on survival; the other phase 2 trial is the Denali trial for non-small cell lung cancer. It is a randomized, 3 arm study in subjects with first-line metastatic Stage IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer; the tumors must not have anaplastic lymphoma kinase. The primary objective of this study is progression-free survival. Secondary objectives are response rate, duration of response, overall survival, safety and pharmacokinetics; each randomized subject will receive carboplatin and pemetrexed for four cycles, followed by pemetrexed maintenance.

The Denali trial was completed at the end of 2016. Clinical testing has since been discontinued following the results of the second trial; the OncoMed pharmaceuticals has received phase 1 data. OncoMed believes that their ability to co-develop and co-promote Demcizumab with Celgene in the United States will give the company more success for Demcizumab. OnocMed will be given a 10-16 % royalty charge for the co-promote; the drug will be released in the United States in the year 2020 and will be released in European Union by 2021. The price for Demcizumab will be 25 thousand dollars in the United States and 20 thousand dollars ex-U. S. For pancreatic cancer Celgene will make $600 million in 2022 and $300 million in 2023. For non-small cell lung cancer Celgene will make $1.7 billion in 2027 and $550 million in 2028

Afro-Colombians

Afro-Colombians or Afrocolombianos are Colombians of West African descent. Africans were imported as slaves to Colombia by the beginning of the 1500's, from places such as Congo, Gambia, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Mali, etc. to replace the declining Native American population. African slaves were forced to work in gold mines, on sugar cane plantations, cattle ranches, large haciendas. African labor was essential in all the regions of Colombia until modern times. African workers pioneered the extracting of alluvial gold deposits and the growing of sugar cane in the areas that correspond to the modern day departments of Chocó, Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Nariño in western Colombia. In eastern Colombia, near the cities of Vélez, Cúcuta and Tunja, Africans manufactured textiles in commercial mills. Emerald mines, outside Bogotá, were wholly dependent upon African laborers. Other sectors of the Colombian economy like tobacco, cotton and domestic work would have been impossible without African labor.

In pre-abolition Colombian society, many Afro-Colombian captives fought the Spanish and their colonial forces for their freedom as soon as they arrived in Colombia. It is clear that there were strong free Black African towns called Palenques, where Africans could live as Cimarrones, that is, those who escaped from their oppressors; some historians consider that Chocó was a big palenque, with a large population of Cimarrones in the areas of the Baudó River. Popular Cimarrón leaders like Benkos Biojó and Barule fought for freedom. African people played key roles in the independence struggle against Spain. Historians note. Not only that, Afro-Colombians participated at all levels of military and political life. In 1851 the life of the Afro-Colombians was difficult. Afro-Colombians were forced to live in the jungles as a mechanism of self-protection. There, they learned to have a harmonious relationship with the jungle environment and to share the territory with Colombia's indigenous people. From 1851, the Colombian State promoted miscegenation.

So in order to maintain their cultural traditions, many Africans and indigenous peoples went deep into the isolated jungles. Afro-Colombians and indigenous people were, the targets of the armed actors who want to displace them in order to take their lands for sugar cane plantations, for coffee and banana plantations, for mining and wood exploitation. In 1945 the department of El Chocó was created. El Chocó gave African people the possibility of building an African territorial identity and some autonomous decision-making power. In the 1970s, there was a major influx of Afro-Colombians into the urban areas in search of greater economic and social opportunities for their children; this led to an increase in the number of urban poor in the marginal areas of big cities like Cali, Medellín and Bogotá. Most Afro-Colombians are living in urban areas. Only around 25%, or 1.2 million people, are based in rural areas, compared to 75%, or 3.7 million people in urban zones. The 1991 Colombian Constitution gave them the right to collective ownership of traditional Pacific coastal lands and special cultural development protections.

Critics argue that this important legal instrument has not been enough to address their social and developmental needs. Afro-Colombians make up 6.68% of the population 3 million people, according to a projection of the National Administrative Department of Statistics, most of whom are concentrated on the northwest Caribbean coast and the Pacific coast in such departments as Chocó, whose capital, Quibdó, is 95.3% Afro-Colombian as opposed to just 2.3% mestizo or white. Considerable numbers are in Cali and Barranquilla. Colombia is considered to have the fourth largest Black/African-descent population in the western hemisphere, following Haiti and the United States, it has been estimated that only 4.4 million Afro-Colombians recognize their own black ancestry, while many other African Colombians do not, as a result of inter-racial relations with white and indigenous Colombians. Afro-Colombians may encounter a noticeable degree of racial discrimination and prejudice as a socio-cultural left over from colonial times.

They have been absent from high level government positions. Many of their long-established settlements around the Pacific coast have remained underdeveloped. In Colombia's ongoing internal conflict, Afro-Colombians are both victims of violence or displacement and members of armed factions, such as the FARC and the AUC. African Colombians have played a role in contributing to the development of certain aspects of Colombian culture. For example, several of Colombia's musical genres, such as Cumbia and Vallenato, have African origins or influences; some African Colombians have been successful in sports. In the country of Colombia, the most popular native songs or musical genres are characterized by an exchange of multiple energetic and progressive musical processes; the bambuco and porro, among others, are examples of typical folkloric musical genres that can be traced to have an African origin, descent or are influenced in the style. The Bambuco displays a unique indigenous origin, as well as makes part of a multicultural compositions.

The Bambuco is established in the central Andean and Cauca area of the country of Colombia and its played by string ensembles. Although the Bambuco combines elements of notations that fluctuate between a 34 meter. Demonstrating its extreme flexi

Zagreb Film

Zagreb Film is a Croatian film company principally known for its animation studio. From Zagreb, it was founded in 1953, they have produced hundreds of animated films, as well as documentaries, television commercials, educational films and several feature films. Their most famous product was the cartoon series Professor Balthazar, created by Zlatko Grgić, about an amusing professor who solved various imaginative problems. Another popular cartoon of theirs was Inspector Mask. Zagreb Film was founded in 1953 with the main profile of an animated films production company. Since more than 600 animated films, 14 feature films, about 600 documentaries and 800 commercials as well as 600 educational films were produced in this studio. We have to mention 30,000 meters of archive material, shot about the city of Zagreb and another 30 hours of material was shot on a DVCAM; the company operates on three locations. The third location is used for commercial purposes. During all these years, Zagreb Film received more than 400 awards on Festivals all over the world.

Among them is the Academy Award - Oscar for the best animated short film in 1962 where Dušan Vukotić had become the first European animator to win the Oscar award for Surogat. Wealth of genres and different styles that were growing in Zagreb was the reason for Georges Sadoul, the French film theorist and historian to coin the term Zagreb school of animation, what became the trademark for top grade and innovative animated films made in Zagreb. Besides artistic films Zagreb film produced films and TV series like Inspektor Maska, Professor Balthazar, The Little Flying Bears and Maxi Cat. Most of these films were distributed internationally; the biggest global success was with the famous character of Professor Balthazar. Inspektor Maska Professor Balthazar Adam Maxi Cat Ptica i crvek Cow on the Moon Piccolo Surogat - 1961 Academy Award winner The Game Academy Award nominee The Devil's Work The Wall Curiosity The Fly Tup Tup - Academy Award nominee The Diary Satiemania Academy Award nominee Fisheye The Little Flying Bears, co-production with CineGroup Dream Doll, co-production with Bob Godfrey Films and Halas and Batchelor The Best of Zagreb Film: Be Careful What You Wish For/The Classic Collection Zagreb School of Animated Films Pannonia Film Studio United Productions of America Official website Zagreb Film at the Big Cartoon DataBase The Best of Zagreb Film-Rembrandt Films

Henri Aalto

Henri Aalto is a Finnish professional football defender who plays for Finnish Veikkausliiga club Honka. He began his senior club career playing for Honka and made his league debut at age 19 in 2008, he helped Honka win the Finnish Cup. Aalto was born in Finland. Raised in Honka's youth ranks, he made his first team debut on 27 April 2008, at the age of 19, in a match against MYPA, he represented. On 15 March 2015, it was announced that Aalto had signed a contract with SJK. Aalto made his league debut for the club on 19 April 2015, playing all ninety minutes of a 1–0 home victory over RoPS, he spent the 2016 Veikkausliiga seasons with the club. In the winter of 2017 Aalto signed a contract in the German Regionalliga. Aalto made his competitive debut for the club on 5 February 2017 in a 3–3 draw in the league with Lupo Martini, he scored his first league goal for the club two weeks after he made his debut, with it coming in the 34th minute of a 2–1 league defeat to Weiche Flensburg. He would go on to make 32 league appearances for scoring 1 goal.

In July 2018 it was announced. Aalto has capped 14, he made his debut for the Finland U21 in a match against Estonia U21 on Esport Arena on 11 February 2009 when he replaced Jussi Heikkinen for the second period of the match. As of 18 May 2019 Honka Finnish League Cup: 2010, 2011 Finnish Cup: 2012SJK Veikkausliiga: 2015 Finnish Cup: 2016 VfB Oldenburg official profile Henri Aalto – UEFA competition record Henri Aalto at Soccerway