Phreatomagmatic eruptions are volcanic eruptions resulting from interaction between magma and water. They differ from magmatic eruptions and phreatic eruptions. Unlike phreatic eruptions, the products of phreatomagmatic eruptions contain juvenile clasts, it is common for a large explosive eruption to have phreatomagmatic components. Several competing theories exist as to the exact mechanism of ash formation; the most common is the theory of explosive thermal contraction of particles under rapid cooling from contact with water. In many cases the water is supplied for example with Surtsey. In other cases the water may be present in a lake or caldera-lake, for example Santorini, where the phreatomagmatic component of the Minoan eruption was a result of both a lake and the sea. There have been examples of interaction between magma and water in an aquifer. Many of the cinder cones on Tenerife are believed to be phreatomagmatic because of these circumstances; the other competing theory is based on fuel-coolant reactions, which have been modeled for the nuclear industry.
Under this theory the fuel fragments upon contact with a coolant. The propagating stress waves and thermal contraction widen cracks and increase the interaction surface area, leading to explosively rapid cooling rates; the two mechanisms proposed are similar and the reality is most a combination of both. Phreatomagmatic ash is formed by the same mechanisms across a wide range of compositions and acidic. Blocky and equant clasts with low vesicule content are formed; the deposits of phreatomagmatic explosive eruptions are believed to be better sorted and finer grained than the deposits of magmatic eruption. This is a result of the much higher fragmentation of phreatomagmatic eruptions. Hyaloclastite is glass found with pillow basalts that were produced by non-explosive quenching and fracturing of basaltic glass; these are still classed as phreatomagmatic eruptions, as they produce juvenile clasts from the interaction of water and magma. They can be formed at water depths of >500 m, where hydrostatic pressure is high enough to inhibit vesiculation in basaltic magma.
Hyalotuff is a type of rock formed by the explosive fragmentation of glass during phreatomagmatic eruptions at shallow water depths. Hyalotuffs have a layered nature, believed to be a result of dampened oscillation in discharge rate, with a period of several minutes; the deposits are much finer grained than the deposits of magmatic eruptions, due to the much higher fragmentation of the type of eruption. The deposits appear better sorted than magmatic deposits in the field because of their fine nature, but grain size analysis reveals that the deposits are much more poorly sorted than their magmatic counterparts. A clast known as an accretionary lapilli is distinctive to phreatomagmatic deposits, is a major factor for identification in the field. Accretionary lapilli form as a result of the cohesive properties of wet ash, causing the particles to bind, they have a circular structure when specimens are viewed under the microscope. A further control on the morphology and characteristics of a deposit is the water to magma ratio.
It is believed that the products of phreatomagmatic eruptions are fine grained and poorly sorted where the magma/water ratio is high, but when there is a lower magma/water ratio the deposits may be coarser and better sorted. There are two types of vent landforms from the explosive interaction of magma and ground or surface water. Both of the landforms are associated with polygenetic volcanoes. In the case of polygenetic volcanoes they are interbedded with lavas and ash- and lapilli-fall deposits, it is expected. Tuff rings have a low profile apron of tephra surrounding a wide crater, lower than the surrounding topography; the tephra is unaltered and thinly bedded, is considered to be an ignimbrite, or the product of a pyroclastic density current. They are built around a volcanic vent located in a lake, coastal zone, marsh or an area of abundant groundwater. Tuff cones are cone shaped, they have wide craters and are formed of altered, thickly bedded tephra. They are considered to be a taller variant of a tuff ring, formed by less powerful eruptions.
Tuff cones are small in height. Koko Crater is 1,208 feet. Santorini is part of the Southern Aegean volcanic arc, 140 km north of Crete; the Minoan eruption of Santorini, was the latest eruption and occurred in the first half of the 17th century BC. The eruption was of predominantly rhyodacite composition; the Minoan eruption had four phases. Phase 1 was a white to pink pumice fallout with dispersal axis trending ESE; the deposit has a maximum thickness of 6 m and ash flow layers are interbedded at the top. Phase 2 has ash and lapilli beds that are cross stratified with mega-ripples and dune like structures; the deposit thicknesses vary from 10 cm to 12 m. Phases 3 and 4 are pyroclastic density current deposits. Phases 1 and 3 were phreatomagmatic. Mount Pinatubo is on the Central Luzon landmass between the Philippine Sea; the 1991 eruption of Pinatubo was andesite and dacite in the pre-climactic phase but only dacite in the climactic phase. The climactic phase had a volume of 3.7–5.3 km³. The eruption consisted of sequentially increasing ash emissions, dome growth, 4 vertical eruptions with continued dome growth, 13 pyroclastic flows and a climactic vertical eruption with associated pyroclastic flows.
The pre-climactic phase was phreatomagmatic. The Hatepe eruption in 232+
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano. Dome-building eruptions are common in convergent plate boundary settings. Around 6% of eruptions on earth are lava dome forming; the geochemistry of lava domes can vary from basalt to rhyolite although the majority are of intermediate composition The characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing far. This high viscosity can be obtained in two ways: by high levels of silica in the magma, or by degassing of fluid magma. Since viscous basaltic and andesitic domes weather fast and break apart by further input of fluid lava, most of the preserved domes have high silica content and consist of rhyolite or dacite. Existence of lava domes has been suggested for some domed structures on the Moon and Mars, e.g. the Martian surface in the western part of Arcadia Planitia and within Terra Sirenum. Lava domes evolve unpredictably, due to non-linear dynamics caused by crystallization and outgassing of the viscous lava in the dome's conduit.
Domes undergo various processes such as growth, collapse and erosion. Lava domes grow by exogenic dome growth; the former implies the enlargement of a lava dome due to the influx of magma into the dome interior, the latter refers to discrete lobes of lava emplaced upon the surface of the dome. It is the high viscosity of the lava that prevents it from flowing far from the vent from which it extrudes, creating a dome-like shape of sticky lava that cools in-situ. Spines and lava flows are common extrusive products of lava domes. Domes may reach heights of several hundred meters, can grow and for months, years, or centuries; the sides of these structures are composed of unstable rock debris. Due to the intermittent buildup of gas pressure, erupting domes can experience episodes of explosive eruption over time. If part of a lava dome collapses and exposes pressurized magma, pyroclastic flows can be produced. Other hazards associated with lava domes are the destruction of property from lava flows, forest fires, lahars triggered from re-mobilization of loose ash and debris.
Lava domes are one of the principal structural features of many stratovolcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are prone to unusually dangerous explosions since they can contain rhyolitic silica-rich lava. Characteristics of lava dome eruptions include shallow, long-period and hybrid seismicity, attributed to excess fluid pressures in the contributing vent chamber. Other characteristics of lava domes include their hemispherical dome shape, cycles of dome growth over long periods, sudden onsets of violent explosive activity; the average rate of dome growth may be used as a rough indicator of magma supply, but it shows no systematic relationship to the timing or characteristics of lava dome explosions. Gravitational collapse of a lava dome can produce a ash flow. A cryptodome is a dome-shaped structure created by accumulation of viscous magma at a shallow depth. One example of a cryptodome was in the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, where the explosive eruption began after a landslide caused the side of the volcano to fall, leading to explosive decompression of the subterranean cryptodome.
Coulées are lava domes that have experienced some flow away from their original position, thus resembling both lava domes and lava flows. The world's largest known dacite flow is the Chao dacite dome complex, a huge coulée flow-dome between two volcanoes in northern Chile; this flow is over 14 kilometres long, has obvious flow features like pressure ridges, a flow front 400 metres tall. There is another prominent coulée flow on the flank of Llullaillaco volcano, in Argentina, other examples in the Andes. Global Volcanism Program: Lava Domes USGS Photo glossary of volcano terms: Lava dome
Types of volcanic eruptions
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed; some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions; the most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. Phreatomagmatic eruptions are another type of volcanic eruption, driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering magmatic activity; the third eruptive type is the phreatic eruption, driven by the superheating of steam via contact with magma. Within these wide-defining eruptive types are several subtypes; the weakest are Hawaiian and submarine Strombolian, followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan.
The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions. Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, vary in strength. An important measure of eruptive strength is Volcanic Explosivity Index, an order of magnitude scale ranging from 0 to 8 that correlates to eruptive types. Volcanic eruptions arise through three main mechanisms: Gas release under decompression causing magmatic eruptions Thermal contraction from chilling on contact with water causing phreatomagmatic eruptions Ejection of entrained particles during steam eruptions causing phreatic eruptionsThere are two types of eruptions in terms of activity, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions. Explosive eruptions are characterized by gas-driven explosions that propels tephra. Effusive eruptions, are characterized by the outpouring of lava without significant explosive eruption. Volcanic eruptions vary in strength. On the one extreme there are effusive Hawaiian eruptions, which are characterized by lava fountains and fluid lava flows, which are not dangerous.
On the other extreme, Plinian eruptions are large and dangerous explosive events. Volcanoes are not bound to one eruptive style, display many different types, both passive and explosive in the span of a single eruptive cycle. Volcanoes do not always erupt vertically from a single crater near their peak, either; some volcanoes exhibit lateral and fissure eruptions. Notably, many Hawaiian eruptions start from rift zones, some of the strongest Surtseyan eruptions develop along fracture zones. Scientists believed that pulses of magma mixed together in the chamber before climbing upward—a process estimated to take several thousands of years, but Columbia University volcanologists found that the eruption of Costa Rica’s Irazú Volcano in 1963 was triggered by magma that took a nonstop route from the mantle over just a few months. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a scale, for measuring the strength of eruptions, it is used by the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program in assessing the impact of historic and prehistoric lava flows.
It operates in a way similar to the Richter scale for earthquakes, in that each interval in value represents a tenfold increasing in magnitude. The vast majority of volcanic eruptions are of VEIs between 0 and 2. Volcanic eruptions by VEI index Magmatic eruptions produce juvenile clasts during explosive decompression from gas release, they range in intensity from the small lava fountains on Hawaii to catastrophic Ultra-Plinian eruption columns more than 30 km high, bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that buried Pompeii. Hawaiian eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption, named after the Hawaiian volcanoes with which this eruptive type is hallmark. Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest types of volcanic events, characterized by the effusive eruption of fluid basalt-type lavas with low gaseous content; the volume of ejected material from Hawaiian eruptions is less than half of that found in other eruptive types. Steady production of small amounts of lava builds up the broad form of a shield volcano.
Eruptions are not centralized at the main summit as with other volcanic types, occur at vents around the summit and from fissure vents radiating out of the center. Hawaiian eruptions begin as a line of vent eruptions along a fissure vent, a so-called "curtain of fire." These die down. Central-vent eruptions, meanwhile take the form of large lava fountains, which can reach heights of hundreds of meters or more; the particles from lava fountains cool in the air before hitting the ground, resulting in the accumulation of cindery scoria fragments. If eruptive rates are high enough, they may form splatter-fed lava flows. Hawaiian eruptions are extremely long lived. Another Hawaiian volcanic feature is the formation of active lava lakes, self-maintaining pools of raw lava with a thin crust of semi-cooled rock. Flows from Hawaiian eruptions are basal
Basalt is a mafic extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich lava exposed at or near the surface of a terrestrial planet or a moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Basalt lava has a low viscosity, due to its low silica content, resulting in rapid lava flows that can spread over great areas before cooling and solidification. Flood basalt describes the formation in a series of lava basalt flows. By definition, basalt is an aphanitic igneous rock with 45–53% silica and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume, where at least 65% of the rock is feldspar in the form of plagioclase; this is as per definition of the International Union of Geological Sciences classification scheme. It is the most common volcanic rock type on Earth, being a key component of oceanic crust as well as the principal volcanic rock in many mid-oceanic islands, including Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Réunion and the islands of Hawaiʻi. Basalt features a fine-grained or glassy matrix interspersed with visible mineral grains.
The average density is 3.0 g/cm3. Basalt is defined by its mineral content and texture, physical descriptions without mineralogical context may be unreliable in some circumstances. Basalt is grey to black in colour, but weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic minerals into hematite and other iron oxides and hydroxides. Although characterized as "dark", basaltic rocks exhibit a wide range of shading due to regional geochemical processes. Due to weathering or high concentrations of plagioclase, some basalts can be quite light-coloured, superficially resembling andesite to untrained eyes. Basalt has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too for large mineral crystals to grow; these phenocrysts are of olivine or a calcium-rich plagioclase, which have the highest melting temperatures of the typical minerals that can crystallize from the melt. Basalt with a vesicular texture is called vesicular basalt, when the bulk of the rock is solid; this texture forms when dissolved gases come out of solution and form bubbles as the magma decompresses as it reaches the surface, yet are trapped as the erupted lava hardens before the gases can escape.
The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt, but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic groundmass are referred to as diabase or, when more coarse-grained, as gabbro. Gabbro is marketed commercially as "black granite." In the Hadean and early Proterozoic eras of Earth's history, the chemistry of erupted magmas was different from today's, due to immature crustal and asthenosphere differentiation. These ultramafic volcanic rocks, with silica contents below 45% are classified as komatiites; the word "basalt" is derived from Late Latin basaltes, a misspelling of Latin basanites "very hard stone", imported from Ancient Greek βασανίτης, from βάσανος and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica, libri XII. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg at Stolpen, believing it to be the same as the "very hard stone" described by Pliny the Elder in Naturalis Historiae.
Tholeiitic basalt is rich in silica and poor in sodium. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor, most large oceanic islands, continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. High and low titanium basalts. Basalt rocks are in some cases classified after their titanium content in High-Ti and Low-Ti varieties. High-Ti and Low-Ti basalts have been distinguished in the Paraná and Etendeka traps and the Emeishan Traps. Mid-ocean ridge basalt is a tholeiitic basalt erupted only at ocean ridges and is characteristically low in incompatible elements. E-MORB, enriched MORB N-MORB, normal MORB D-MORB, depleted MORB High-alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated, it has greater than 17% alumina and is intermediate in composition between tholeiitic basalt and alkali basalt. Alkali basalt is poor in silica and rich in sodium, it may contain feldspathoids, alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt, erupted in back-arc basins, distinguished by its low titanium content and trace-element composition.
Ocean island basalt Lunar basalt The mineralogy of basalt is characterized by a preponderance of calcic plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Olivine can be a significant constituent. Accessory minerals present in minor amounts include iron oxides and iron-titanium oxides, such as magnetite and ilmenite; because of the presence of such oxide minerals, basalt can acquire strong magnetic signatures as it cools, paleomagnetic studies have made extensive use of basalt. In tholeiitic basalt and calcium-rich plagioclase are common phenocryst minerals. Olivine may be a phenocryst, when
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Country rock (geology)
Country rock is a geological term meaning the rock native to an area, in which there is an intrusion of viscous geologic material magma, or rock salt or unconsolidated sediments. Magma is less dense than the rock it intrudes and filling existing cracks, sometimes melting the already-existing country rock; the term "country rock" is similar to, in many cases interchangeable with, the terms basement and wall rocks. Country rock can denote the widespread lithology of a region in relation to the rock, being discussed or observed. Settings in geology when the term country rock is used include: When describing a pluton or dike, the igneous rock can be described as intruding the surrounding country rock, the rock into which the pluton has intruded; when country rock is intruded by dyke, perpendicular to the bedding plane, it is called discordant intrusion, while a parallel intrusion by a sill indicates a sub-parallel or concordant intrusion. Most intrusions into country rock are via magma. Country rock is intruded by an igneous body of rock which formed when magma forced upward through fractures, or melted through overlying rock.
Magma cooled into solid rock, different from the surrounding country rock. Sometimes, a fragment of country rock will break off and become incorporated into the intrusion, is called a xenolith, from Greek, ξένος, xenos, "strange,", λίθος, the ancient Greek word for "stone." The heat of the intrusions changes the country rock to contact metamorphic rock. Hornfels is produced, or skarn; when describing recent alluvium, the material that has arrived through volcanic, glacial or fluvial action can be described as a veneer on the country rock
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C. The structures resulting from subsequent solidification and cooling are sometimes described as lava; the molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption; when it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is shortened to lava. Although lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than water, lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying because of its thixotropic and shear thinning properties. Explosive eruptions produce a mixture of volcanic ash and other fragments called tephra, rather than lava flows; the word lava comes from Italian, is derived from the Latin word labes which means a fall or slide.
The first use in connection with extruded magma was in a short account written by Francesco Serao on the eruption of Vesuvius in 1737. Serao described "a flow of fiery lava" as an analogy to the flow of water and mud down the flanks of the volcano following heavy rain; the composition of all lava of the Earth's crust is dominated by silicate minerals feldspars, pyroxenes, amphiboles and quartz. Igneous rocks, which form lava flows when erupted, can be classified into three chemical types: felsic and mafic; these classes are chemical, the chemistry of lava tends to correlate with the magma temperature, its viscosity and its mode of eruption. Felsic or silicic lavas such as rhyolite and dacite form lava spines, lava domes or "coulees" and are associated with pyroclastic deposits. Most silicic lava flows are viscous, fragment as they extrude, producing blocky autobreccias; the high viscosity and strength are the result of their chemistry, high in silica, potassium and calcium, forming a polymerized liquid rich in feldspar and quartz, thus has a higher viscosity than other magma types.
Felsic magmas can erupt at temperatures as low as 650 to 750 °C. Unusually hot rhyolite lavas, may flow for distances of many tens of kilometres, such as in the Snake River Plain of the northwestern United States. Intermediate or andesitic lavas are lower in aluminium and silica, somewhat richer in magnesium and iron. Intermediate lavas form andesite domes and block lavas, may occur on steep composite volcanoes, such as in the Andes. Poorer in aluminium and silica than felsic lavas, commonly hotter, they tend to be less viscous. Greater temperatures tend to destroy polymerized bonds within the magma, promoting more fluid behaviour and a greater tendency to form phenocrysts. Higher iron and magnesium tends to manifest as a darker groundmass, occasionally amphibole or pyroxene phenocrysts. Mafic or basaltic lavas are typified by their high ferromagnesian content, erupt at temperatures in excess of 950 °C. Basaltic magma is high in iron and magnesium, has lower aluminium and silica, which taken together reduces the degree of polymerization within the melt.
Owing to the higher temperatures, viscosities can be low, although still thousands of times higher than water. The low degree of polymerization and high temperature favors chemical diffusion, so it is common to see large, well-formed phenocrysts within mafic lavas. Basalt lavas tend to produce low-profile shield volcanoes or "flood basalt fields", because the fluidal lava flows for long distances from the vent; the thickness of a basalt lava on a low slope, may be much greater than the thickness of the moving lava flow at any one time, because basalt lavas may "inflate" by supply of lava beneath a solidified crust. Most basalt lavas are of pāhoehoe types, rather than block lavas. Underwater, they can form pillow lavas, which are rather similar to entrail-type pahoehoe lavas on land. Ultramafic lavas such as komatiite and magnesian magmas that form boninite take the composition and temperatures of eruptions to the extreme. Komatiites contain over 18% magnesium oxide, are thought to have erupted at temperatures of 1,600 °C.
At this temperature there is no polymerization of the mineral compounds, creating a mobile liquid. Most if not all ultramafic lavas are no younger than the Proterozoic, with a few ultramafic magmas known from the Phanerozoic. No modern komatiite lavas are known, as the Earth's mantle has cooled too much to produce magnesian magmas; some lavas of unusual composition have erupted onto the surface of the Earth. These include: Carbonatite and natrocarbonatite lavas are known from Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, the sole example of an active carbonatite volcano. Iron oxide lavas are thought to be the source of the iron ore at Kiruna, Sweden which formed during the Proterozoic. Iron oxide lavas of Pliocene age occur at the El Laco volcanic complex on the Chile-Argentina border. Iron oxide lavas are thought to be the result of immiscible separation of iron oxide magma from a parental magma of calc-alkaline or alkaline composition. Sulfur lava flows up to 250 metres 10 metres wide occur at Lastarria volcano, Chile.
They were formed by the melting of sulfur deposits at temperatures as low as 113 °C