Yuli Markovich Daniel was a Soviet dissident writer, poet and political prisoner. He wrote under the pseudonyms Nikolay Arzhak and Yu. Petrov. Yuli Daniel was born in the son of the Yiddish playwright M. Daniel. In 1942, during World War II, Yuli Daniel lied about his age and volunteered to serve on the 2nd Ukrainian and the 3rd Belorussian fronts. In 1944 he was demobilized. In 1950, Daniel graduated from Moscow Pedagogical Institute, went to work as a schoolteacher in Kaluga and Moscow, he published translations of verse from a variety of languages, like his friend Andrei Sinyavsky, wrote topical stories and novellas and smuggled them to France to be published under pseudonyms. Daniel married Larisa Bogoraz, who also became a famous dissident. In 1965, Daniel and Sinyavsky were tried in the infamous Sinyavsky-Daniel trial. Both writers entered a plea of not guilty. On February 14, 1966, Daniel was sentenced to five years of hard labor for "anti-Soviet activity". In 1967, Andrei Sakharov appealed directly to Yuri Andropov on behalf of Daniel.
Sakharov was told that both Daniel and Sinyavsky would be released under a general amnesty on the fiftieth anniversary of the October revolution. This turned out to be false. According to Fred Coleman, "Historians now have no difficulty pinpointing the birth of the modern Soviet dissident movement, it began in February 1966 with the trial of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel, two Russian writers who ridiculed the Communist regime in satires smuggled abroad and published under pen names. They didn't realize at the time that they were starting a movement that would help end Communist rule." Sinyavsky and Daniel did not intend to oppose the Soviet Union. Daniel was genuinely worried about a resurgence of the Cult of Personality under Khrushchev, which inspired his story "This is Moscow Speaking", while Sinyavsky affirmed that he believed Socialism was the way forward but that the methods employed were at times erroneous. After four years of captivity in Mordovia labor camps of Dubravlag and one year in Vladimir Prison, Daniel refused to emigrate and lived in Kaluga.
Before his death Bulat Okudzhava acknowledged that some translations published under Okudzhava's name had in fact been ghostwritten by Daniel, on the list of authors banned from being published in the Soviet Union. Books"Бегство", 1956 "Человек из МИНАПа", 1960 "Говорит Москва", 1961 "Искупление", 1964 "Руки" "Письмо другу", 1969 "Ответ И.Р.Шафаревичу", 1975 "Книга сновидений" "Я все сбиваюсь на литературу..." Письма из заключения. Стихи, 1972 "This is Moscow Speaking", Other Stories, Harvill: London, 1968, translated by Michael Scammell. ArticlesDaniel, Yuli. "Satirist who stood trial for freedom". Index on Censorship. 18: 42. Doi:10.1080/03064228908534600. "Russia: a bit of fear". Time. 25 February 1966. "World: a day in the life of Yuli Daniel". Time. 6 June 1969. Chapple, Richard. "Criminals and criminality according to the Soviet dissidents–works of Andrey Sinyavsky and Yuly Daniel". In Fox, Vernon. Proceedings of the 21st annual Southern conference on corrections. 21. Tallahassee: Florida State University.
Pp. 149–158. Nivat, Georges. URSS: gli scrittori del dissenso: Bukowsky, Daniel, Pliusc, Solgeniztin. Venezia: La Biennale di Venezia. OCLC 797904993. Daniel, Yuli. тюремные стихи. Translated by Burg, David. Chicago: J. Philip O'Hara, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87955-501-6. Materials of Daniel's case, poetry HRO-Russia Memoirs by Larisa Bogoraz Poetry Memoirs about Yuli Daniel by Natalia Rapoport Толстой, Иван. "Алфавит инакомыслия. Юлий Даниэль". Svoboda.org. Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2016-04-28. Бабицкий, Андрей. "Подкаст Правосудие. Человек имеет право". Svoboda.org. Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2016-04-28
Mogilev Region Mahilyow Voblasts or Mogilyov Oblast, is a region of Belarus with its administrative center at Mogilev. Both Mogilev and Gomel Regions suffered after the Chernobyl nuclear radioactive reactor catastrophe in April 1986. Important cities within the region include Mogilev and Babruysk; the Mahilyow Voblast covers a total area of about 14 % of the national total. The voblast's greatest extent from north to south is 150 km, from east to west - 300 km, while the highest point is 239 metres above sea level and the lowest at 126 m above sea level. Many rivers flow through the Mahilyow Voblast including the Dnieper, Sozh, Druts and Ptsich; the voblast' has small lakes, the largest being the Zaozerye Lake with a surface area of 0.58 km2. The Chihirin Reservoir on the Druts River has an area of 21.1 km2. The extreme eastern point of Belarus is situated within the Mahilyow Voblast to the east of the Khotimsk District. Mogilev Region has a temperate continental climate; the region has warm summers.
January's average temperature reaches from −8.2 °C in the northeast to −6.5 °C in the southwest. July's average temperature reaches from 17.8 °C in the northeast to 18.7 °C in the southwest. The region's average yearly vegetative period lasts around 183–194 days; the average precipitation is 575–675 millimetres a year with 70% falling during the warm season. With a total population of 1,088,100, 353,600 inhabitants live in rural areas and 855,000 live in cities or towns. There are 639,300 women and 567,300 men in the region, of which 288,100 are under 18 while 267,300 are elderly people. Of the major nationalities living in the Mahilyow Voblast, 1,044,000 inhabitants are Belarusians, 132,000 are Russians, 3,500 are Jewish, 2,800 are Poles, 2,110 are Ukrainians, 1,700 are Tatars, 1,300 are Lithuanians, 1,100 are Armenians, 1,070 are Romani; the number of travel agencies in Mogilev Region has grown from 20 in 2000 to 50 in 2010, 12 of which provide agent services, the others are tour operators.
Mogilev Region hosts 3-4% of all the organized tourist arrivals to the Republic of Belarus. Most popular cities to visit in the region are Bobruisk. Today the region consists of 21 districts, 195 selsovets, 14 towns, 3 city municipalities, 12 urban-type settlements; the twenty-one raions of the Mahilyow Voblast are: Mahilyow - 365,100 Babruysk - 220,800 Asipovichy - 34,700 Horki - 34,000 Krychaw - 28,200 Bykhaw - 17,300 Kastsyukovichy - 16,100 Klimavichy - 16,000 Shklow - 15,900 Mstsislaw or Amstsislaw - 11,700 Chavusy - 10,800 Cherykaw - 8,400 Slawharad - 8,300 Klichaw - 7,500 Subdivisions of Belarus / Mogilev Regional Executive Committee
Anton Vladimirovich Antonov-Ovseyenko was a Russian historian and writer. Born on 23 February 1920, he was the son of a Bolshevik military leader Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko. In 1935, he joined the historical faculty of the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. In 1938, he was expelled from Komsomol and the institute wherein, however, he was reinstated in the same year, he was spent 13 years in labor camps. Antonov-Ovseyenko is best known for his biography of Lavrentiy Beria and he wrote several books. Antonov-Ovseyenko operated a state museum on the Gulag, for which the Moscow administration provided a building in August 2001; when he died in 2013, he was still working two full days a week to continue documenting what he called "the evils of the Soviet era" and to help with plans for a new, larger space. The Time of Stalin: Portrait of a Tyranny, Harper & Row, 1981, ISBN 0-06-010148-2 Theater of Joseph Stalin Moscow. "Grėgori-Pėĭdzh", 1995. ISBN 5-900493-15-6 Enemy of the people, Moscow. Intellekt, 1996.
Russian text online Beria Moscow, ACT, 1999, ISBN 5-237-03178-1 Naprasnyi podvig? Moscow: ACT, 2003. ISBN 5-17-017525-6 Anton Antonov-Ovseyenko on IMDb Anton Antonov Ovseyenko, Who Exposed Stalin Terror, Dies at 93 New York Times, July 10, 2013
Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry for Political Purposes
The Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry for Political Purposes was an offshoot of the Moscow Helsinki Group and a key source of information on psychiatric repression in the Soviet Union. The commission was established on 5 January 1977 on the initiative of Alexandr Podrabinek along with a 47-year-old self-educated worker Feliks Serebrov, a 30-year-old computer programmer Vyacheslav Bakhmin and Irina Kuplun and was composed of five open members and several anonymous ones, including a few psychiatrists who, at great danger to themselves, conducted their own independent examinations of cases of alleged psychiatric abuse; the leader of the commission was Alexandr Podrabinek who published a book Punitive Medicine containing a ‘white list’ of two hundred of prisoners of conscience in Soviet mental hospitals and a ‘black list’ of over one hundred medical staff and doctors who took part in committing people to psychiatric facilities for political reasons. The psychiatric consultants to the Commission were Dr Alexander Voloshanovich and Dr Anatoly Koryagin.
The task stated by the Commission was not to diagnose persons or to declare people who sought help mentally ill or mentally healthy. However, in some instances individuals who came for help to the Commission were examined by a psychiatrist who provided help to the Commission and made a precise diagnosis of their mental condition. At first it was psychiatrist Aleksandr Voloshanovich from the Moscow suburb of Dolgoprudny, who made these diagnoses, but when he had been compelled to emigrate on 7 February 1980, his work was continued by the Kharkov psychiatrist Anatoly Koryagin. Koryagin's contribution was to examine former and potential victims of political abuse of psychiatry by writing psychiatric diagnoses in which he deduced that the individual was not suffering from any mental disease; those reports were employed as a means of defense: if the individual was picked up again and committed to mental hospital, the Commission had vindication that the hospitalization served non-medical purposes.
Some foreign psychiatrists including the Swedish psychiatrist Harald Blomberg and British psychiatrist Gery Low-Beer helped in examining former or potential victims of psychiatric abuse. The Commission publicly referred to them when it was essential; the commission gathered as much information as possible of victims of psychiatric terror in the Soviet Union and published this information in their Information Bulletins. For the four years of its existence, the Commission published more than 1,500 pages of documentation including 22 Information Bulletins in which over 400 cases of the political abuse of psychiatry were documented in great detail. Summaries of the Information Bulletins were published in the key samizdat publication, A Chronicle of Current Events; the Information Bulletins were sent to the Soviet officials, with request to verify the data and notify the Commission if mistakes were found, to the West, where human rights defenders used them in the course of their campaigns. The Information Bulletins were used to provide the dissident movement with information about Western protests against the political abuse.
The Working Commission gathered information about relevant international events and published reports on the Honolulu Congress of the World Psychiatric Association, including the texts of the key resolutions, printed translations of long letters by Professor Peter Berner about the course of establishing the Review Committee on abuse. Over fifty victims examined by psychiatrists of the Moscow Working Commission between 1977 and 1981 and the files smuggled to the West by Vladimir Bukovsky in 1971 were the material which convinced most psychiatric associations that there was distinctly something wrong in the USSR. Peter Reddaway said that after he had studied official documents in the Soviet archives, including minutes from meetings of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, it became evident to him that Soviet officials at high levels paid close attention to foreign responses to these cases, if someone was discharged, all dissidents felt the pressure had played a significant part and the more foreign pressure the better.
In the autumn of 1978, the British Royal College of Psychiatrists carried a resolution in which it reiterated its concern over the abuse of psychiatry for the suppression of dissent in the USSR and applauded the Soviet citizens, who had taken an open stance against such abuse, by expressing its admiration and support for Semyon Gluzman, Alexander Podrabinek, Alexander Voloshanovich, Vladimir Moskalkov. Members of the Working Commission have been stifled through impisonment. All of its members were forced to emigrate; the Working Commission ceased to exist on 21 July 1981 when its last member Feliks Serebrov was sentenced to 5 years of camps and 5 years of exile. Prior to that, members of the Working Commission were arrested and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment and exile: Alexander Podrabinek was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment, Vyacheslav Bakhmin was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment, Leonard Ternovsky was sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment, Irina Grivnina was sentenced to 5 years of exile, Anatoly Koryagin was sentenced to severe punishment under Part 1 of Article of 70 the RSFSR Criminal Code, 7 years in prison camps and 5 years of subsequent exile.
The charge was anti-Soviet activities for having corresponded with the British medical journal The Lancet, which published an article by Koryagin critical of the Soviet government's use of involuntary psychiatric confinement for political reasons
David Devdariani was a Professor of Jurisprudence and Head of Law Faculty at Georgian Technical University. He was the son of the famous Georgian revolutionary Gaioz Devdariani, executed during the Great Purge in 1938 by orders of Joseph Stalin. David was born in Tbilisi and attended the Russian gymnasium in Ukraine. In 1950, just before applying for university studies in Tbilisi, he was arrested by MVD for being “the son of the enemy of the people” and charged with Article 58 of counter-revolutionary activities. In KGB operated jail Devdariani suffered a great ordeal. While imprisoned Devdariani began a dissident activities for Independence of Georgia from USSR. In 1956 after condemnation of Stalinism in USSR, Devdariani was released by the orders of Nikita Khrushchev. Soon after his release Devdariani enrolled in the Tbilisi State University and graduated with honours from the Faculty of Law. In the 1970s, he became the Head of the Faculty of Law and Jurisprudence at Georgian Polytechnic University and lived with his sister Medea Devdariani.
During the pro-independence movement in Tbilisi in 1989, Devdariani was involved in various demonstrations and activities for the support of Georgian independence. In 1992-1993, he began petitioning and working for the peaceful conflict settlement in Georgia’s breakaway region of Abkhazia. Devdariani wrote numerous appeals and letters to the United Nations, heads of G8 and introduced his reform proposal of United Nations Security Council to Kofi Annan. Devdariani published numerous articles on Law, United Nations reforms and Conflictology. In 2001, Devdariani was awarded Order of Honor by the President of Georgia Edward Shevardnadze for his contributions for the study of Jurisprudence and raising the awareness about the tragedy in Abkhazia. In 2005, he published the book: "The Oath Book of the 21st Century," which contained propositions and recommendations for the reformation of UN and the peaceful settlements of Post-Soviet conflicts. David Devdariani died in Tbilisi on June 2006 from cancer.
Vasile Bătrânac was the head of the anti-Soviet group Arcaşii lui Ştefan and a political prisoner in the Soviet Union. His father was Ion Bătrânac, arrested in 1944 for anti-Soviet activity. National Organization of Bessarabia Arcaşii lui Ştefan was formed in 1945, on the territory of the former Soroca County by teachers Vasile Bătrânac, Victor Solovei, Nicolae Prăjină, Teodosie Guzun, Anton Romaşcan a student, Nichita Brumă. Vasile Bătrânac was the head of the organization. Vasile Plopeanu is a conspirative name that Vasile Bătrânac used while he was the head of the organization from Soroca. In March 1947, the organization had 140 members. On March 23, 1947, Vasile Bătrânac and Vasile Cvasniuc were arrested. On June 11, 1947, he was sent to Siberia. Ştefan Tudor, Organizaţia Naţională din Basarabia "Arcaşii lui Ştefan", Basarabia, 1992, nr.9 Ştefan Tudor, O. N. B. "Arcaşii lui Ştefan" în Literatura şi Arta, nr 14, 16, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26 1997, aprilie-iunie Mihail Ursachi, Organizatia Nationala Din Basarabia Arcaşii lui Ştefan: Amintiri, Rezistenţă armată anticomunistă Organizația Națională din Basarabia “Arcașii lui Ștefan”
Vasily Pavlovich Aksyonov was a Soviet and Russian novelist. He became known in the West as the author of The Burn and of Generations of Winter, a family saga following three generations of the Gradov family between 1925 and 1953. Vasily Aksyonov was born to Pavel Aksyonov and Yevgenia Ginzburg in Kazan, USSR on August 20, 1932, his mother, Yevgenia Ginzburg, was a successful journalist and educator and his father, Pavel Aksyonov, had a high position in the administration of Kazan. Both parents "were prominent communists." In 1937, both were arrested and tried for her alleged connection to Trotskyists. They were both sent to Gulag and to exile, "each served 18 years, but remarkably survived." "Later, Yevgenia came to prominence as the author of a famous memoir, Into the Whirlwind, documenting the brutality of Stalinist repression."Aksyonov remained in Kazan with his nanny and grandmother until the NKVD arrested him as a son of "enemies of the people", sent him to an orphanage without providing his family any information on his whereabouts.
Aksyonov "remained until rescued in 1938 by his uncle, with whose family he stayed until his mother was released into exile, having served 10 years of forced labour." "In 1947, Vasily joined her in exile in the notorious Magadan, Kolyma prison area, where he graduated from high school." Vasily's half-brother Alexei died from starvation in besieged Leningrad in 1941. His parents, seeing that doctors had the best chance to survive in the camps, decided that Aksyonov should go into the medical profession. "He therefore entered the Kazan University and graduated in 1956 from the First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Peterburg" and worked as a doctor for the next 3 years. During his time as a medical student he came under surveillance by the KGB, who began to prepare a file against him, it is that he would have been arrested had the liberalisation that followed Stalin's death in 1953 not intervened. "during the liberalisation that followed Stalin's death in 1953, Aksyonov came into contact with the first Soviet countercultural movement of zoot-suited hipsters called stilyagi."
As a result, He fell in love with their slang, libertine lifestyles and their music. From this point on began his lifelong romance with jazz. Interest in his new milieu, western music and literature turned out to be life-changing for Aksyonov, who decided to dedicate himself to chronicling his times through literature, he remained a keen observer of youth, with its ever-changing styles and trends. Like no other Soviet writer, he was attuned to the changes in popular culture. In 1956, he was "discovered" and heralded by the Soviet writer Valentin Kataev for his first publication, in the liberal magazine Youth. "His first novel, was based on his experiences as a doctor." "His second, Ticket to the Stars, depicting the life of Soviet youthful hipsters, made him an overnight celebrity."In the 1960s Aksyonov was a frequent contributor to the popular Yunost magazine and became a staff writer. Aksyonov thus became "a leading figure in the so-called "youth prose" movement and a darling of the Soviet liberal intelligentsia and their western supporters: his writings stood in marked contrast to the dreary, socialist-realist prose of the time."
"Aksyonov's characters spoke in a natural way, using hip lingo, they went to bars and dance halls, had premarital sex, listened to jazz and rock'n'roll and hustled to score a pair of cool American shoes." "There was a feeling of freshness and freedom about his writings, similar to the one emanating from black-market recordings of American jazz and pop." "He soon became one of the informal leaders of the Shestidesyatniki – which translates as "the'60s generation" – a group of young Soviets who resisted the Communist Party's cultural and ideological restrictions." "'It was amazing: We were being brought up robots, but we began to listen to jazz,' Aksyonov said in a 2007 documentary about him."For all his hardship, Aksyonov, as a prose stylist, was at the opposite pole from Mr. Solzhenitsyn, becoming a symbol of youthful promise and embracing fashion and jazz rather than dwelling on the miseries of the gulag. However, he shared Mr. Solzhenitsyn's fate of exile from the Soviet Union. Solzhenitsyn is all about the imprisonment and trying to get out, Aksyonov is the young person whose mother got out and he can live his life now, said Nina L. Khrushcheva, a granddaughter of Nikita Khrushchev and a friend of the Aksyonov family and who teaches international affairs at the New School in New York.
It was important to have the Aksyonov light, that light of personal freedom and personal self-expression. However, as Mark Yoffe notes in Aksyonov's obituary, his "open pro-Americanism and liberal values led to problems with the KGB." "And his involvement in 1979 with an independent magazine, led to an open confrontation with the authorities." His next two celebrated dissident novels, The Burn and The Island of Crimea, could not be published in the USSR. "The former explored the plight of intellectuals under communism and the latter was an imagining of what life might have been like had the white army staved off the Bolsheviks in 1917.""When The Burn was published in Italy in 1980, Aksyonov accepted an invitation for him and his wife Maya to leave Russia for the US." "Soon afterwards, he was stripped of his Soviet citizenship, regaining it only 10 years during Gorbachev's p