Together they comprise one of the oldest surviving witnesses to any gospel, or any codex. The British Museum lost no time in publishing the text, acquired in the summer of 1934 and it is called the Unknown Gospel, as no ancient source makes reference to it, in addition to being entirely unknown before its publication. The fragmentary manuscript forms part of the Egerton Collection in the British Library, a fourth fragment of the same manuscript has since been identified in the papyrus collection of the University of Cologne. The latter story has no equivalent in canonical Gospels, Jesus walked and stood on the bank of the Jordan river, he reached out his right hand, and then. water. and. before their eyes, and it brought forth fruit. many. for joy. The date of the manuscript is established on paleography alone and this study placed the manuscript to around the time of Bodmer Papyri P66, c. 200, noting that Eric Turner had confirmed the paleographic dating of P66 as around 200 CE, the revised dating for the Egerton Papyrus continues to carry wide support.
The 1987 redating of the Egerton Papyrus had rested on a comment made by Eric Turner in 1971, in the first decade of III AD this practice suddenly becomes extremely common, and persists. This solution has not proved satisfactory for several reasons, The Egerton Gospels parallels to the synoptic gospels lack editorial language peculiar to the authors, Mark. They lack features that are common to the synoptic gospels, on the other hand, suggestions that the Egerton Gospel served as a source for the authors of Mark and/or John lack conclusive evidence. Such traditional sayings are posited for the hypothetical Q Document, the latest possible date would be early in the second century, shortly before the copy of the extant papyrus fragment was made. Helmut Koester and J. D. Crossan have argued that despite its apparent historical importance and it is a mere fragment, and does not bear a clear relationship to any of the four canonical gospels. The Egerton Gospel has been largely ignored outside a circle of scholars.
The work cannot be dismissed as apocrypha or heretical without compromising the orthodoxy of the Gospel of John, nor can it be classed as gnostic and dismissed as marginal. It seems to be almost independent of the gospels and to represent a tradition similar to the canonical John. Additionally it tells us an otherwise unknown miracle, in the Johannine manner, conservative scholar Craig Evans supports a date for Egerton Gospel than the canonical Gospels in a variety of ways. He finds many parallels between the Egerton Gospel and the canonical Gospels that include editorial language particular to Matthew and Luke, while Koester argues that these show a tradition before the other gospels, Craig Evans sees these as drawing from the other Gospels just as Justin Martyr did. He finds words such as the priests that show lack of knowledge of Jewish customs. New Testament apocrypha Bell and Skeat, T. C, fragments of an Unknown Gospel and other Early Christian Papyri
Tauchnitz was the name of a family of German printers and publishers. They published English language literature for distribution on the European continent outside Great Britain, Karl Christoph Traugott Tauchnitz, born at Grossbardau near Grimma, established a printing business in Leipzig in 1796 and a publishing house in 1798. He specialized in the publication of dictionaries and stereotyped editions of the Greek and he was the first publisher to introduce stereotyping into Germany. The business was carried on by his son, Karl Christian Phillipp Tauchnitz, until 1865 and he left large sums to the city of Leipzig for philanthropic purposes. Christian Bernhard, Freiherr von Tauchnitz, the founder of the firm of Bernhard Tauchnitz, was the nephew of the first-mentioned, christians father died when he was young and his uncle played an important part in his development. His printing and publishing firm was started at Leipzig on February 1,1837, Bernhard started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841, a reprint series familiar to anglophone travellers on the continent of Europe.
These inexpensive paperbound editions, a precursor to mass-market paperbacks, were begun in 1841. In 1868 he began the Collection of German Authors, followed in 1886 by the Students Tauchnitz Editions, in fact the books were authorised by the authors or their representatives for Continental sale only. The authors were paid royalties even at a time when no copyright protection for English and that was Baron Tauchnitzs policy from the foundation of his company. In 1841, when Tauchnitz started his English-language editions, there were no copyright treaties between England or the United States and Continental countries, although Tauchnitzs editions were authorised, they were not protected from copyright infringement and he could offer none to the authors he paid. A few years later, various Continental States formed copyright treaties with Britain and Saxony in 1846, France in 1852, in these countries, the Tauchnitz Authorised Edition became the Copyright Edition. Finally, the Berne Convention of 1886 conferred copyright upon authors in its fullest form over the part of the developed world.
In 1860 he was ennobled with the title of Freiherr for his services to literature, from 1866 to 1895 he was British Consul-General for the kingdom and duchies of Saxony. Christian Bernhard was succeeded in the business by his son, Christian Karl Bernhard and he made a tour of Europe, stayed some time in England, and learned to speak and write English with barely a flaw. In 1866, he entered partnership with his father at his firm. The two authors who first attracted Tauchnitzs attention were Dickens and Lytton with the novels Pickwick Papers, twenty-two years later, in 1863, the five-hundredth title of the series was published under the title Five Centuries of the English Language and Literature. In 1869, an English-language edition of The New Testament, exhibiting the differences between the original Alexandrine and Vatican manuscripts, was the one-thousandth title. It was dedicated by the Baron To my English and American Authors, as a Token of Esteem for the Living, by 1901,3,500 books had been published
Stefan Zweig Collection
The Stefan Zweig Collection is an important collection of autograph manuscripts formed by the Austrian writer Stefan Zweig. After his death in 1942 his heirs continued to develop the collection, the collection includes a large number of literary and music manuscripts, mainly in the composers own hands. The collection contains 206 numbered items, MS 1-131 are musical manuscripts, MS 132-200 and MS206 are literary or historical manuscripts, most of the musical manuscripts have been digitised. The bulk of the consists of 131 autograph manuscripts by notable composers, most. One particularly prominent item is Mozarts Verzeichnüß aller meiner Werke, his own handwritten thematic catalogue of his works from 1784 to 1791. As well as a number of Mozart manuscripts, a range of prominent composers are represented, including Johann Sebastian Bach, Joseph Haydn, George Frideric Handel. Unusual pieces include a duet by Friedrich Nietzsche. The remaining five items in the collection include editions of Rimbaud, and a two-volume printed edition of Schuberts vocal music
A manuscript is any document written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some automated way. More recently, it is understood to be a written, typed, or word-processed copy of a work. Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts, manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in form, scrolls or in codex format. Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately embossed initial letters or full-page illustrations. The traditional abbreviations are MS for manuscript and MSS for manuscripts, while the forms MS. ms or ms. for singular, and MSS. mss or mss. for plural are accepted. The second s is not simply the plural, by an old convention, it doubles the last letter of the abbreviation to express the plural, just as pp. means pages. Before the invention of printing in China or by moveable type in a printing press in Europe.
Historically, manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls or books, manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrus, and on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived, in India, the palm leaf manuscript, with a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, when Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made simultaneously by scribes in a scriptorium, each making a single copy from an original that was declaimed aloud. Manuscripts in Tocharian languages, written on leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, the manuscripts that were being most carefully preserved in the libraries of antiquity are virtually all lost. Originally, all books were in manuscript form, in China, and other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century.
The earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of 868, in the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about 1450. Manuscript copying of books continued for a least a century, as printing remained expensive, private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century. In the Philippines, for example, as early as 900AD, specimen documents were not inscribed by stylus and this type of document was rare compared to the usual leaves and bamboo staves that were inscribed. However, neither the leaves nor paper were as durable as the document in the hot
Burney Collection of Newspapers
The Burney Collection consists of over 1,270 17th-18th century newspapers and other news materials, gathered by Charles Burney, most notable for the 18th-century London newspapers. The original collection, totalling almost 1 million pages, is held by the British Library, 18th-century London newspapers are the richest part of the collection. The following is an incomplete list of titles covering some of the most popular, due to rapid deterioration of the collection, a decision was made to microfilm the collection and restrict access to physical copies. The success of the project led to many other book collections being preserved on film. The Joint Information Systems Committee provides free access to the collection for all UK Further and Higher Education institutions. 92–93, ISBN 978-3-598-21846-0 Terras, Melissa M
The British Librarys Garrick Collection is a collection of early printed editions of English drama amassed by the actor and playwright David Garrick. The collection was bequeathed to the British Museum in 1779, little evidence about the provenance of Garricks collection is found in his archives and correspondence. Other notable previous owners of items in the Garrick Collection include Humfrey Dyson, Richard Smith, Lewis Theobald, Narcissus Luttrell, Richard Warner, Thomas Astle, and William Cartwright. The latter bequeathed his library to Dulwich College Library and there is speculation that Garrick had free access to the library of Dulwich College. And pillaged without scruple or remorse, the collection, in its original state, comprised approximately 1300 individual items. However, on its arrival at the Museum it was found that the collection was incomplete, in addition to this, since becoming the property of the British Museum, some items have been sold in duplicate sales. In total more than 70 items that were owned by Garrick are not in his collection as it now exists in the British Library.
A manuscript catalogue compiled by Edward Capell, one of Garricks closest friends, the layout of Capells catalogue is idiosyncratic and difficult to use. In constructing a more up-to-date catalogue George Kahrl writes that the arrangement of the catalogue baffles understanding. The earliest item in the collection, a Wynkyn de Worde printing of Robert the Devil, the latest item is a collected edition of William Wycherleys Plays printed in 1735. The collection, as received by the Museum in April 1780, did not include Garricks copy of Shakespeares First Folio, following her death in 1822 the remainder of Garricks library, including the Shakespeare volume, was sold at auction. The folio passed through several hands before being bought by Queens College, David Garricks collection of old plays was well known during his lifetime and he made it available to friends and acquaintances. Various contemporary works make reference to his library and this afterwards came into the possession of the late Mr.
Garrick, with great additions, hath since been bequeathed by him to the British Museum. Garricks library contained for the service of this work, since it can be said to have had a turbulent history. In 1767 the British Museum had been authorised by an act of Parliament to exchange, sell, or dispose of, laying out the money arising by such sale, in the purchase of other things that may be wanting in, or proper for, the said Museum. The first such sale took place in 1769 and raised £564, the second sale occurred in March 1788 and raised £529. Included in the sale were approximately 43 items from the Garrick Collection identified as duplicate items. The checking of copies was, not rigorous and the Museum ended up selling unique editions, in the period 1805-06 the Museum implemented a policy of transferring items from other collections to supplement the now incomplete Garrick Collection
The Kings Library was one of the most important collections of books and pamphlets of the Age of Enlightenment. Assembled by George III, this library of over 65,000 volumes was subsequently given to the British nation by George IV. It was housed in a specially built gallery in the British Museum from 1827 to 1997, as a learned man, George III had a genuine regard for learning, developed under the influence of his tutor the Earl of Bute. On becoming king he began assembling a new collection of mainly scholarly works. Smith had been collecting in Venice for several decades, acquiring books from a range of sources in north Italy, the collection was notable for its 260 incunabula, including many early Venetian and north Italian volumes with fine illumination and bindings. In total the king bought 6,000 volumes from Smith and these were not kept together in George IIIs library, but nevertheless can be identified by the word Smith marked in each volume by the kings librarian. There do not seem to have any further large purchases before 1766.
However, from 1766 onwards the king began to develop the collection significantly, a particularly important period was 1768-71, when Frederick Augusta Barnard, one of the library staff, travelled extensively in Europe on the kings behalf, and made major purchases. Important acquisitions came from the libraries of James West, Anthony Askew, Richard Farmer, the Library was kept at the Queens House, the residence to be extended and renamed Buckingham Palace. There it occupied four specially built rooms, from at least the 1770s bookbinding was carried out on the premises, and by 1776 the bindery occupied five rooms in the basement. The Library style of binding can be described as fine, Richard Dalton, employed as a librarian by George III from 1755 onwards, was in charge of the collection until 1774. He was followed by Barnard, who was librarian until the collections transfer to the British Museum. Samuel Johnson advised on the Librarys collection policy, the Library was open to anyone with a genuine scholarly purpose, and in Georges lifetime was visited by John Adams and Joseph Priestley as well as Johnson.
It is noteworthy that the king allowed scholars such as Priestley, whose political and religious opinions he disagreed with, to use the Library. These issues were resolved in January 1823 when, after a period of negotiation with the government, in the intervening period rumours had appeared in the British press that he was considering selling the library to the Tsar, it is not known if there was any truth in these. He specified that the library was to be together. The Museum lacked the room to house the collection, but fortunately plans for a significant neoclassical extension of the Museums buildings had already drawn up by the architect Robert Smirke. While the government had for some time resisted the Museums requests for money for this project, thus the arrival of the Kings Library was a catalyst for the growth of the Museum into the grand building we see today
The Harleian Library, Harley Collection, Harleian Collection and other variants is one of the main closed collections of the British Library in London. The collection is 7660 manuscripts, including 2200 illuminated manuscripts, more than 14,000 original legal documents and it was formed by Robert Harley and his son Edward. In 1753, it was purchased for £10,000 by the British government, together with the collections of Sir Robert Cotton and Hans Sloane it formed the basis of the British Museums collection of manuscripts, which moved to the new British Library in 1973. The collection contains illuminated manuscripts spanning the early Middle Ages to the Renaissance, there are important early British manuscripts, many from Western Europe, and several Byzantine manuscripts in Greek and other languages. 7334 Harleian prayerbook Cotton Library British Library Journal vol.15 is devoted to Robert Harley, C. E. and C. R. Wright, eds. The Diary of Humfrey Wanley 1715–1726,2 vols, the foundation collections at the Catalogue of Illuminated manuscripts List of medicine and alchemist manuscripts PDF,192 KB Trilingual Psalter Harley Bestiary The Book of Nunnaminster
The Cotton or Cottonian library was collected privately by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton MP, an antiquarian and bibliophile, and was the basis of the British Library. Cottons skill lay in finding and preserving these ancient documents, the leading scholars of the era, including Francis Bacon, Walter Raleigh, and James Ussher, came to use Sir Roberts library. Richard James acted as his librarian, the library is of especial importance for sometimes having preserved the only copy of a work, such as happened with Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. At the time of the dissolution of monasteries, official records and important papers were poorly kept. Sir Robert collected and bound over a hundred volumes of official papers, such important evidence was highly valuable at a time when the politics of the Realm were historically disputed between the King and Parliament. Sir Robert knew his library was of public interest and, although he made it freely available to consult. On 3 November 1629 he was arrested for disseminating a pamphlet held to be seditious, Sir Roberts library included his collection of books, manuscripts and medallions.
After his death the collection was maintained and added to by his son, Sir Thomas Cotton, Sir Roberts grandson, Sir John Cotton, donated the Cotton library to Great Britain upon his death in 1702. At this time, Great Britain did not have a library. It went first to Essex House, The Strand, however, was regarded as a risk, and to Ashburnham House. From 1707 the library housed the Old Royal Library. Ashburnham House became the residence of the keeper of the libraries, Richard Bentley. The manuscript of The Battle of Maldon was destroyed, and that of Beowulf was heavily damaged, severely damaged was the Byzantine Cotton Genesis, the illustrations of which nevertheless remain an important record of Late Antique iconography. Mr. Speaker Onslow, as one of the trustees of the library, directed. The published report of work is of major importance in bibliography. Fortunately, copies had been made of some, but by no means all, of works that were lost. In 1753 the Cotton library was transferred to the new British Museum, at the same time the Sloane Collection and Harley Collection were acquired and added, so that these three became the Museums three foundation collections.
The Royal manuscripts were donated by George II in 1757, in 1973 all these collections passed to the newly established British Library