Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu
Odyssey Studios was a recording studio based near Marble Arch in London and opened in 1979. It was set up by Wayne Bickerton as an extension of State Records, the label he had set up with Tony Waddington and John Fruin in 1975; the studio closed in 1989 and the building was subsequently sold to Jazz FM. Through the 1980s, many artists recorded at Odyssey Studios, including Cliff Richard, Paul McCartney, Kate Bush, George Michael, Spandau Ballet and Roger Daltrey. Below is a list of some albums recorded either in part or at Odyssey Studios. Studio One in Odyssey was 1,400 square feet and had room for 50 musicians, which meant it could facilitate orchestral recordings and could be used for other activities such as video shoots. Studios 1 and 2 were equipped with tape machines. Peter Jones went to home of MCI, to commission all the equipment. At the time, they were the largest consoles that MCI had produced, a hole in the factory wall was required to accommodate the extra length of the chassis; the studio was designed by Keith Slaughter and constructed on the "floating" principle to ensure total sound insulation.
Studio Two, a mixing suite with capacity for 8 musicians, had an MCI 6000 48 Channel Desk which offered up to 48 tracks of recording, or the capacity to mixdown. Upstairs there was a radio facility, which offered a studio and separate control room plus a lounge area. Odyssey was one of the first studios to install a satellite linkup, which turned the studio into a miniature radio station and allowing it to broadcast any session live around the world
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Let's Get It On
Let's Get It On is the thirteenth studio album by American singer and producer Marvin Gaye. It was released on August 1973, by the Motown Records subsidiary label Tamla. Recording sessions for the album took place during June 1970 to July 1973 at Hitsville U. S. A. and Golden World Studio in Detroit, at Hitsville West in Los Angeles. Serving as Gaye's first venture into the funk genre and romance-themed music, Let's Get It On incorporates smooth soul, doo-wop, quiet storm, it has been noted by critics for its sexually suggestive lyrics, was cited by one writer as "one of the most sexually charged albums recorded". Following the breakthrough success of his conscious album What's Going On, Let's Get It On helped establish Gaye as a sex icon and furthered his mainstream appeal, it produced three singles—the title track, "Come Get to This", "You Sure Love to Ball"—that attained Billboard chart success. Let's Get It On became the most commercially successful album of Gaye's recording career, it further expanded his creative control during his tenure with Motown.
Its sexual balladry, multi-tracking of Gaye's vocals, seductive, funk sound influenced R&B artists and production. The album has been regarded by many music critics as a landmark recording in soul music, it furthered funk music's popularity during the 1970s, its smooth soul sound marked a change for his record label's previous success with the "Motown Sound" formula. Let's Get It On has been ranked on many critics and publications' lists of the best albums of all time. In 2001, it was reissued by Motown Records as a two-disc deluxe edition release. In the spring of 1972, Marvin Gaye was suffering from writer's block. Following the release of his most commercially successful album up to that point, What's Going On, the soundtrack album to the blaxploitation film Trouble Man, Gaye had struggled to come up with new material after Motown Records had renegotiated a new contract with him; the contract provided him with more creative control over his recordings. The deal was worth $1 million, making him the highest-earning soul artist, as well as the highest-earning black artist, at the time.
He was struggling with deciding whether or not to relocate to Los Angeles, following Motown-CEO Berry Gordy's move of the record label and replacement of the Detroit-based Hitsville U. S. A. recording studio with the Hitsville West studio in Los Angeles. Amid relocation and his lack of material, Gaye was struggling with his conscience, as well as dealing with expectations from his wife, Gordy's sister Anna. Gaye's separation from Gordy pressured him emotionally. During this time, he had been attempting to cope with past issues that had stemmed from his childhood. During his childhood, Gaye had been physically abused by his preacher father Marvin Gay, Sr. who disciplined his son under moralistic and fundamentalist Christian teachings. As a result, the meaning and practice of sex had become a disturbing question for Gaye; as an adult, he suffered with sexual impotence and became plagued by sadomasochistic fantasies, which haunted him in his dreams and provoked some guilt in his conscience. According to Gaye's biographer David Ritz, "his view of sex was unsettled, riddled with pain".
Gaye learned to cope with his personal issues with a newly found spirituality. He began incorporating his new outlook into his music, as expressed through the conscious album What's Going On, along with promotional photos of him wearing a kufi in honor of African traditional religions and his faith. By winning over record executives with the success of What's Going On, Gaye attained more creative control, which he would use, following his brief separation from wife Anna Gordy, to record an album, meant to surface themes beyond sex; as with What's Going On, Gaye wanted to have a deeper meaning than the general theme, used to portray it. In his book Divided Soul: The Life of Marvin Gaye, David Ritz wrote of Gaye and the musical inspiration behind Gaye's second landmark record: If the most profound soul songs are prayers in secular dress, Marvin's prayer is to reconcile the ecstasy of his early religious epiphany with a sexual epiphany; the hope for such a reconciliation, the search for sexual healing, is what drives his art...
The paradox is this: The sexiest of Marvin Gaye's work is his most spiritual. That's the paradox of Marvin himself. In his struggle to wed body and soul, in his exploration of sexual passion, he expresses the most human of hungers—the hunger for God. In those songs of loss and lament—the sense of separation is heartbreaking. On one level, the separation is between woman. On a deeper level, the separation is between God. In the album's liner notes, Gaye explained his views on the themes of sex and love, stating "I can't see anything wrong with sex between consenting anybodies. I think. After all, one's genitals are just one important part of the magnificent human body... I contend that SEX IS SEX and LOVE IS LOVE; when combined, they work well together. But they are two discrete needs and should be treated as such. Time and space will not permit me to expound further in the area of the psyche. I don't believe in overly moralistic philosophies. Have your sex, it can be exciting. I hope the music that I present here makes you lucky."
Gaye proceeded to record some more politically conscious material at the Golden World Records studio, known as Motown's Studio B, as well as the preliminary vocals and instrument
You're All I Need
You're All I Need is the second studio album by soul musicians Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell, released in August 1968 on Motown-subsidiary label Tamla Records. Highlighted by three hit singles written by Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson, You're All I Need was recorded throughout 1966 and 1967 and features two Top 10 Billboard Hot 100 hits, "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" and "You're All I Need to Get By", it peaked at #60 on the U. S. Billboard 200 Album Chart. You're All I Need was the two singers' final collaboration effort, as Terrell would become ill following recording, before succumbing to a brain tumor in 1970; the album was recorded in 1966 and 1967 during the time Gaye and Terrell's first collaboration album United was released. After recording You're All I Need, Tammi Terrell collapsed onstage while performing with Gaye at the Hampden–Sydney College homecoming in Virginia, she was diagnosed with a brain tumor, could no longer record nor perform live. According to Gaye, the final Gaye/Terrell album, would be completed by having Valerie Simpson fill in for Tammi Terrell on most of the album's songs, having Gaye overdub archived Terrell solo tracks for two tracks.
Simpson vehemently denies this and says they had to record Tammi's vocals in pieces in order to get the project done, but in the Unsung documentary about Terrell, she admits to singing guide vocals intended for the unavailable Terrell. Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson produced the singles "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing", "Keep On Loving Me Honey," and "You're All I Need to Get By." Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol produced the rhythm tracks and Terrell's vocal for "You Ain't Livin"Til You're Lovin'," with Ashford and Simpson completing the production and supervising Gaye's vocal. Fuqua and Bristol produced "I'll Never Stop Loving You Baby" while Motown CEO Berry Gordy, Jr.'s brother Robert Gordy produced "I Can't Help But Love You." Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol produced "Come On and See Me," "Baby Dont'cha Worry," "Give In, You Just Can't Win," "When Love Comes Knocking At Your Heart," "That's How It Is," and "Memory Chest" as Tammi Terrell solo tracks in 1965 and 1966, had Gaye overdub his vocals to them to create duet versions.
The hit title track was revived 25 years as a duet between rapper Method Man and hip-hop soul singer Mary J. Blige, their rendition, titled "I'll Be There for You/You're All I Need," won Method Man and Blige a Grammy Award for Best Rap Vocal Performance by a Duo or Group in 1995. "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" "Keep On Lovin' Me Honey" "You're All I Need to Get By" "Baby Don't Cha Worry" "You Ain't Livin"Til You're Lovin'" "Give In, You Just Can't Win" "When Love Comes Knocking At My Heart" "Come On and See Me" "I Can't Help But Love You" "That's How It Is" "I'll Never Stop Loving You Baby" "Memory Chest" Lead vocals by Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell Background vocals by Nickolas Ashford, Valerie Simpson, The Originals, The Andantes and The Spinners Instrumentation by The Funk Brothers
I Heard It Through the Grapevine (album)
I Heard It Through the Grapevine! is the eighth studio album by soul musician Marvin Gaye, released on August 26, 1968 on the Motown-subsidiary label Tamla Records. Released as In the Groove, it was the first solo studio album Gaye released in two years, in which during that interim, the singer had emerged as a successful duet partner with female R&B singers such as Kim Weston and Tammi Terrell; the album and its title track are considered both as Gaye's commercial breakthrough. By 1968, Marvin Gaye had released only a few solo singles in three years. Between his Kim Weston duet, "It Takes Two" and his Tammi Terrell duets, "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" and "Your Precious Love" among others, Gaye released only one single, "Your Unchanging Love", which peaked at number 33 on the Billboard Hot 100. Motown brought Gaye back to the studio to record a solo album. Recording difficulties aside, Gaye's vocals went through a transition through this period. Done on purpose, Gaye's earlier collaborator Norman Whitfield and his pupil, Frank Wilson, began to write songs they felt fit the singer's chaotic personal life: Gaye's marriage to Anna Gordy was turbulent as was life on the road in which Gaye grew a constant dislike to live performances and his personal disagreements with Motown CEO Berry Gordy had started to create strain in his relationship with the Motown label.
On top of that, during an October 1967 engagement at Hampden-Sydney College with Terrell, the younger Terrell collapsed from exhaustion into Gaye's waiting arms. Terrell was diagnosed at the end of the year with having a brain tumor, which depressed Gaye; some speculate Terrell's illness and subsequent death two and a half years affected Gaye's performances in which he went from being a soul stylist in the same way his idol Sam Cooke had been into a more gospel-influenced soul vocalist who sounded more in par with Otis Redding, James Brown, Temptations lead singer David Ruffin. However, during the recording of what would become Gaye's biggest-selling and signature single of his career, "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", Whitfield decided to force Gaye to raise his vocal register higher than what he was used to, which Whitfield tried on Ruffin during the recording of the Temptations hit, "Ain't Too Proud to Beg". Though Gaye and Whitfield argued over the sessions of "Grapevine", Whitfield was able to get what he wanted from Gaye, the duo started a collaboration that lasted into the beginning of 1970.
When Whitfield presented "Grapevine" to Berry Gordy, the producer was stunned when Gordy turned it down sensing the song "wasn't a hit" and that "it sucked". Whitfield released a version of the song by Gladys Knight & the Pips in an attempt to "out-funk Aretha Franklin's "Respect". Gordy agreed to allow "Grapevine" in the album, now titled In the Groove, but Whitfield was still determined to get Gaye's version of the song released as a single. Motown instead issued the Ivy Jo Hunter-produced "You", recorded after "Grapevine" and showcased Gaye hollering in falsetto for the first time. Another single, "Chained", would peak at number 32 on the pop chart; the latter song was climbing the chart when radio deejays began playing "Grapevine", much to Berry Gordy's chagrin. To everyone's surprise, when Gordy allowed the release of Gaye's version of "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", the song blew up on the charts upon its October 1968 release. By the end of the year, the song had hit number-one on both the Billboard Hot 100 and the Hot-Selling Soul Singles charts and by 1969 had reached number one on the UK Singles chart becoming Gaye's first international smash.
However, when Gaye heard about its success, he acted coldly to it due to his depressed state over Tammi Terrell. He told a biographer he felt the song's success was "undeserved". Motown re-released the album as I Heard It Through the Grapevine and, due to the song's success, the album shot up to number 2 on the R&B albums chart and peaked at number 63 on the pop albums chart. Gaye's album wasn't the only album to be re-released after a hit single: in 1970, The Miracles' Make It Happen album released in 1967, was re-released in 1970 as Tears of a Clown, after that song hit number-one in the US and internationally; that same year, Diana Ross' self-titled debut album was re-released as Ain't No Mountain High Enough after that song's success. Though Whitfield only produced just one song on the album and Whitfield will embark on a two-album collaboration. However, after "That's the Way Love Is" became a hit for Gaye in 1969, Motown released the song a second time on the album of the same name; this album marked Gaye's first attempts at producing himself in the studio with his own self-penned songs, the funky gospel dancer, "At Last I Found a Love", the smoother "Change What You Can".
Marvin Gaye – lead vocals The Andantes – background vocals The Originals – background vocals Gladys Knight & The Pips – background vocals Telma Hopkins – background vocals Joyce Vincent Wilson – background vocals Pamela Vincent – background vocals The Funk Brothers – instrumentation Detroit Symphony Orchestra – instrumentation Norman Whitfield – producer Ivy Jo Hunter – producer Frank Wilson – producer
Romantically Yours was the second posthumous release by American recording artist Marvin Gaye released by Columbia Records in 1985. Marvin Gaye died in April 1984, leaving behind two albums left on his contract with Columbia Records. In May 1985, Columbia issued the compilation album, Dream of a Lifetime, which performed modestly on the chart. A little over six months Columbia assembled tracks from Gaye's Motown period of traditional pop and vocal jazz tunes that Gaye had recorded in the 1960s and 1970s and named it "Romantically Yours". Starting in 1968, Gaye had begun working on a pop vocal album with producer and arranger Bobby Scott. Among the songs they recorded were "Why Did I Choose You", "More", "Maria", "Fly Me To The Moon" and "I Won't Cry Anymore". Midway through recording, depressed over personal issues and upset over his career, stopped recording sessions with Scott and wouldn't visit the work with Scott for over a decade. During the 1970s, Gaye revisited the studio and composed songs over a jazz setting, including "Just Like", "Walkin' in the Rain" and "Stranger in My Life".
The song "I Live For You" was recorded during sessions for Let's Get It On. Having revisited his Scott productions in the late 1970s, Gaye recorded several different versions of the song "The Shadow of Your Smile". In the version featured on Romantically Yours, Gaye sings in both falsetto. In addition to these songs, a song composed in the early 1960s by Eddie Holland and Norman Whitfield, "Happy Go Lucky", was included. Most of the songs were reworked by Harvey Fuqua; the album was released in November 1985, intended for Gaye's fans, rather than for commercial assumption, the case of In Our Lifetime. With the release of Romantically Yours, Columbia completed Gaye's contract. In 1997, several of the songs featured in a different sound culled from the 1979 sessions of an album titled The Ballads, were included in the Motown compilation, Vulnerable. "More" – 2:40 "Why Did I Choose You" – 2:36 "Maria" – 3:06 "The Shadow of Your Smile" – 3:03 "Fly Me to the Moon" – 3:19 "I Won't Cry Anymore" – 2:40 "Just Like" – 4:08 "Walkin' in the Rain" – 2:54 "I Live for You" – 2:40 "Stranger in My Life" – 3:41 "Happy Go Lucky" – 2:35