Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism is defined in contrast to totalitarianism and more corporate social forms. Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Classical liberalism and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization", it has been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual.
Individualism is thus associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors, as with humanist philosophical positions and ethics. In the English language, the word "individualism" was first introduced, as a pejorative, by the Owenites in the late 1830s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by Saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently. A more positive use of the term in Britain came to be used with the writings of James Elishama Smith, a millenarian and a Christian Israelite. Although an early Owenite socialist, he rejected its collective idea of property, found in individualism a "universalism" that allowed for the development of the "original genius." Without individualism, Smith argued, individuals cannot amass property to increase one's happiness. William Maccall, another Unitarian preacher, an acquaintance of Smith, came somewhat although influenced by John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, German Romanticism, to the same positive conclusions, in his 1847 work "Elements of Individualism".
An individual is any specific object in a collection. In the 15th century and earlier, today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics, individual means "indivisible" describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning "a person.". From the 17th century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism. Individuality is the quality of being an individuated being; the principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. For Carl Jung, individuation is a process of transformation, whereby the personal and collective unconscious is brought into consciousness to be assimilated into the whole personality, it is a natural process necessary for the integration of the psyche to take place. Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development. In L'individuation psychique et collective, Gilbert Simondon developed a theory of individual and collective individuation in which the individual subject is considered as an effect of individuation rather than a cause.
Thus, the individual atom is replaced by a never-ending ontological process of individuation. Individuation is an always incomplete process, always leaving a "pre-individual" left-over, itself making possible future individuations; the philosophy of Bernard Stiegler draws upon and modifies the work of Gilbert Simondon on individuation and upon similar ideas in Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud. For Stiegler "the I, as a psychic individual, can only be thought in relationship to we, a collective individual; the I is constituted in adopting a collective tradition, which it inherits and in which a plurality of I's acknowledge each other's existence." Individualism holds that a person taking part in society attempts to learn and discover what his or her own interests are on a personal basis, without a presumed following of the interests of a societal structure. The individualist does not follow one particular philosophy, rather creates an amalgamation of elements of many, based on personal interests in particular aspects that he/she finds of use.
On a societal level, the individualist participates on a structured political and moral ground. Independent thinking and opinion is a common trait of an individualist. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, claims that his concept of "general will" in the "social contract" is not the simple collection of individual wills and that it furthers the interests of the individual. Societies and groups can differ in the extent to which they are based upon predominantly "self-regarding" behaviors, rather than "other-regarding" behaviors. Ruth Benedict made a distinction, relevant in this context, between "guilt" societies with an "internal reference standard", "shame" societies with an "external reference
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy, he became the youngest to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems. In 1889 at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward, a complete loss of his mental faculties, he lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900. Nietzsche's body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, history, tragedy and science, his writing spans philosophical polemics, cultural criticism and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. His early inspiration was drawn from figures such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism. He developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. In his work, he became preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts, reworking his unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with Nazism. Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism and post-structuralism—as well as art, psychology and popular culture.
Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth. Nietzsche's Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, they had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; the family moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study centre. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug, Rudolf Wagner and Wilhelm Pinder, all of whom came from respected families. In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg; because his father had worked for the state the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta.
He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. He found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources, his end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in German. While at Pforta, Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects, he became acquainted with the work of the almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin, calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality." The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, more "German" writers. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric and drunken poet, found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Rich
Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings and/or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. In an extreme case, altruism may become a synonym of selflessness, the opposite of selfishness. In a common way of living, it doesn't deny the singular nature of the subject, but realizes the traits of the individual personality in relation to the others, with a true and personal interaction with each of them, it is focusing both on the whole community. In a Christian practice, it is the law of love direct to his neighbour; the word "altruism" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism. He derived it from the Italian altrui, which in turn was derived from Latin alteri, meaning "other people" or "somebody else".
Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms is an individual performing an action, at a cost to themselves, but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. Steinberg suggests a definition for altruism in the clinical setting, "intentional and voluntary actions that aim to enhance the welfare of another person in the absence of any quid pro quo external rewards". Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty, in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. Much debate exists as to; the theory of psychological egoism suggests that no act of sharing, helping or sacrificing can be described as altruistic, as the actor may receive an intrinsic reward in the form of personal gratification. The validity of this argument depends on whether intrinsic rewards qualify as "benefits"; the term altruism may refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others.
Used in this sense, it is contrasted with egoism, which claims individuals are morally obligated to serve themselves first. The concept has a long history in ethical thought; the term was coined in the 19th century by the founding sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, has become a major topic for psychologists, evolutionary biologists, ethologists. Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. In simple terms, altruism is acting to help them. Marcel Mauss's book The Gift contains a passage called "Note on alms"; this note describes the evolution of the notion of alms from the notion of sacrifice. In it, he writes: Alms are the fruits of a moral notion of the gift and of fortune on the one hand, of a notion of sacrifice, on the other. Generosity is an obligation, because Nemesis avenges the poor and the gods for the superabundance of happiness and wealth of certain people who should rid themselves of it.
This is the ancient morality of the gift. The gods and the spirits accept that the share of wealth and happiness, offered to them and had been hitherto destroyed in useless sacrifices should serve the poor and children. Compare Altruism – perception of altruism as self-sacrifice. Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. In the science of ethology, more in the study of social evolution, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. In evolutionary psychology this may be applied to a wide range of human behaviors such as charity, emergency aid, help to coalition partners, courtship gifts, production of public goods, environmentalism. Theories of altruistic behavior were accelerated by the need to produce theories compatible with evolutionary origins. Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies.
Some of the proposed mechanisms are: Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been confirmed in numerous studies across many different cultures. Subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior. One kinship cue is facial resemblance. One study found that altering photographs so that they more resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons. Another cue is having the same family name if rare, this has been found to increase helpful behavior. Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group. Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study; this effect was strong for firstborns, who are close to their families. Vested interests. People are to suffer if their friends and similar social ingroups suffer or disappear. Helping such group members may therefore benefit the altruist.
Making ingroup membership more no
Machiavellianism is defined as the political theory of Niccolò Machiavelli the view that any means can be used if it is necessary to maintain political power. The word comes from the Italian Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, born in 1469, who wrote Il Principe, among other works. In modern psychology however, Machiavellianism is the name of a personality trait, characterized by a duplicitous interpersonal style, a cynical disregard for morality, a lack of empathy, a focus on self-interest and personal gain. After his exile from political life in 1512, Machiavelli took to a life of writing, which led to the publishing of his most famous work, The Prince; the book would become infamous for its recommendation for absolute rulers to be ready to act in unscrupulous ways, such as resorting to deceit and cunning, political assassination, the usage of fear as a means of keeping order and power. Machiavelli's view that acquiring a state and maintaining it may require evil means has been noted as the chief theme of the treatise.
He has become infamous for this advice, to this day the term Machiavellian is defined as "marked by cunning, duplicity, or bad faith". While Machiavelli has become popular for his work on principalities, his other works, such as The Discourses on Livy, focused on republican statecraft, his recommendations for a well ordered republic. Machiavelli noted, he notes how advantageous a government by the public could be as opposed to just a single ruler. However, Machiavelli's more controversial statements on politics can be found in his other works. For example, Machiavelli notes. In one area, he praises Romulus, who killed his brother and co-ruler in order to have power by himself to found the city of Rome. In a few passages he sometimes acts as an advisor of tyrants as well. In one passage of The Prince, Machiavelli subverts the advice given by Cicero to avoid duplicity and violence, by saying that the prince should "be the fox to avoid the snares, a lion to overwhelm the wolves", it would become one of Machiavelli's most notable statements.
Because cruelty and deception play such important roles in his ethics, it is not unusual for related issues—such as murder and betrayal—to rear their heads with regularity. Machiavelli's own concept of virtue is original and is seen by scholars as different from the traditional viewpoints of other political philosophers. Virtú can consist of qualities such as being bold, forceful and being ready to engage in viciousness when it is advantageous. Due to the treatise's controversial analysis on politics, in 1559, the Catholic Church banned The Prince, putting it on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. In the 16th century following the publication of The Prince, Machiavellianism was seen as a foreign plague infecting northern European politics. Reginald Pole read the treatise while he was in Italy, on which he commented: "I found this type of book to be written by an enemy of the human race, it explains every means whereby religion and any inclination toward virtue could be destroyed". Machiavelli's works were received by other popular European authors in England.
The English playwrights William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe incorporated their views into some of their works. Shakespeare's Gloucester Richard III, refers to Machiavelli in Henry VI, Part III, for instance: In The Jew of Malta "Machievel" in person speaks the Prologue, claiming not to be dead, but to have possessed the soul of Guise, "And, now the Guise is dead, is come from France/ To view this land, frolic with his friends". Marlowe's last play, The Massacre at Paris takes the massacre, the following years, as its subject, with the Duke of Guise and Catherine de' Medici both depicted as Machiavellian plotters, bent on evil from the start; the Anti-Machiavel is an 18th-century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, rebutting The Prince, Machiavellianism. It was first published in September 1740, a few months after Frederick became king, is one of many such works. Denis Diderot, the French philosopher, viewed Machiavellianism as "an abhorrent type of politics" and the "art of tyranny".
Machiavellianism is a term that social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to be unemotional, therefore able to be uninfluenced by conventional morality and hence to deceive and manipulate others. In the 1960s, Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis developed a test for measuring a person's level of Machiavellianism. Christie wanted to study those who manipulated others, used truncated statements from Machiavelli's works to that end, their Mach - IV test, a twenty-statement personality survey, became the standard self-assessment tool of Machiavellianism. People scoring high on the scale tend to endorse statements such as, "Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so," but not ones like, "Most people are good and kind", "There is no excuse for lying to someone else," or "Most people who get ahead in the world lead clean, moral lives". Using their scale and Geis conducted multiple experimental tests that showed that the interpersonal strategies and behavior of "High Machs" and "Low Machs" differ.
Their basic results have been replicated. Measured on the Mach - IV scale, males score, on average higher on Machiavellianism than females. A recent be
Apotheosis is the glorification of a subject to divine level. The term has meanings in theology, where it refers to a belief, in art, where it refers to a genre. In theology, apotheosis refers to the idea. In art, the term refers to the treatment of any subject in a grand or exalted manner. Before the Hellenistic period, imperial cults were known in Ancient Mesopotamia. From the New Kingdom, all deceased pharaohs were deified as the god Osiris. From at least the Geometric period of the ninth century BC, the long-deceased heroes linked with founding myths of Greek sites were accorded chthonic rites in their heroon, or "hero-temple". In the Greek world, the first leader who accorded himself divine honours was Philip II of Macedon. At his wedding to his sixth wife, Philip's enthroned image was carried in procession among the Olympian gods; such Hellenistic state leaders might be raised to a status equal to the gods before death or afterwards. A heroic cult status similar to apotheosis was an honour given to a few revered artists of the distant past, notably Homer.
Archaic and Classical Greek hero-cults became civic, extended from their familial origins, in the sixth century. The Greek hero cults can be distinguished on the other hand from the Roman cult of dead emperors, because the hero was not thought of as having ascended to Olympus or become a god: he was beneath the earth, his power purely local. For this reason hero cults were chthonic in nature, their rituals more resembled those for Hecate and Persephone than those for Zeus and Apollo. Two exceptions were Heracles and Asclepius, who might be honoured as either gods or heroes, sometimes by chthonic night-time rites and sacrifice on the following day. Up to the end of the Republic, Romans accepted only one official apotheosis: the god Quirinus, whatever his original meaning, having been identified with Romulus. Subsequently, apotheosis in ancient Rome was a process whereby a deceased ruler was recognized as having been divine by his successor also by a decree of the Senate and popular consent. In addition to showing respect the present ruler deified a popular predecessor to legitimize himself and gain popularity with the people.
The upper-class did not always take part in the imperial cult, some ridiculed the apotheosis of inept and feeble emperors, as in the satire The Pumpkinification of Claudius attributed to Seneca. At the height of the imperial cult during the Roman Empire, sometimes the emperor's deceased loved ones—heirs, empresses, or lovers, as Hadrian's Antinous—were deified as well. Deified people were awarded posthumously the title Divus to their names to signify their divinity. Traditional Roman religion distinguished between a divus, though not consistently. Temples and columns were erected to provide a space for worship; the Ming dynasty epic Investiture of the Gods deals with deification legends. Numerous mortals have been deified into the Daoist pantheon, such as Guan Yu, Iron-crutch Li and Fan Kuai. Song Dynasty General Yue Fei was deified during the Ming Dynasty and is considered by some practitioners to be one of the three highest ranking heavenly generals. Various Hindu and Buddhist rulers in the past have been represented as deities after death, from Thailand to Indonesia.
Several Sultans of Yogyakarta were semi-deified, posthumously. Deceased North Korean leader Kim Il-Sung is the principal object of the North Korean cult of personality in which he is treated to an explicitly apotheosized leader, with statues of and monuments dedicated to the "Eternal President", the annual commemoration of his birth, the paying of respects by newlyweds to his nearest statue, the North Korean calendar being a Juche calendar based on Kim Il-sung's date of birth. Instead of the word "apotheosis", Christian theology uses in English the words "deification" or "divinization" or the Greek word "theosis". Traditional mainstream theology, both East and West, views Jesus Christ as the preexisting God who undertook mortal existence, not as a mortal being who attained divinity, it holds that he has made it possible for human beings to be raised to the level of sharing the divine nature: he became one of us to make us "partakers of the divine nature" "For this is why the Word became man, the Son of God became the Son of man: so that man, by entering into communion with the Word and thus receiving divine sonship, might become a son of God."
"For He was made man that we might be made God." "The only-begotten Son of God, wanting to make us sharers in his divinity, assumed our nature, so that he, made man, might make men gods." The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology contains the following in an article titled "Deification": Deification is for Orthodoxy the goal of every Christian. Man, according to the Bible, is'made in the image and likeness of God.'... It is possible for
Egocentrism is the inability to differentiate between self and other. More it is the inability to untangle subjective schemas from objective reality and an inability to understand or assume any perspective other than one's own. Although egocentrism and narcissism appear similar, they are not the same. A person, egocentric believes they are the center of attention, like a narcissist, but does not receive gratification by one's own admiration. Both egotists and narcissists are people whose egos are influenced by the approval of others, while for egocentrists this may or may not be true. Although egocentric behaviors are less prominent in adulthood, the existence of some forms of egocentrism in adulthood indicates that overcoming egocentrism may be a lifelong development that never achieves completion. Adults appear to be less egocentric than children because they are faster to correct from an egocentric perspective than children, not because they are less to adopt an egocentric perspective. Therefore, egocentrism is found across the life span: in infancy, early childhood and adulthood.
It contributes to the human cognitive development by helping children develop theory of mind and self-identity formation. The main concept infants and young children learn by beginning to show egocentrism is the fact that their thoughts and behaviors are different from those of others known as the theory of mind; when children begin to have social interactions with others the caregivers, they misinterpret that they are one entity, because they are together for a long duration of time and the caregivers provide for the children's needs. For example, a child may misattribute the act of their mother reaching to retrieve an object that they point to as a sign that they are the same entity, when in fact they are separate individuals; as early as 15 months old, children show a mix of egocentrism and theory of mind when an agent acts inconsistently with how the children expect him to behave. In this study the children observed the experimenter place a toy inside one of two boxes, but did not see when the experimenter removed the toy from the original box and placed it in the other box, due to obstruction by a screen.
When the screen was removed the children watched the experimenter reach to take the toy out of one of the boxes, yet because the children did not see the switching part, they looked at the experimenter's action much longer when she reached for the box opposite to the one she put the toy in. Not only does this show the existence of infants' memory capacity, but it demonstrates how they have expectations based on their knowledge, as they are surprised when those expectations are not met. Piaget explained that egocentrism during infancy does not mean selfishness, self-centredness, or egotism because it refers to the infant's understanding of the world in terms of their own motor activity as well as an inability to understand it. In children's social development, the infancy is the period where the individual performs few social functions due to the conscious and subconscious concern with the fulfillment of physical needs. According to George Butterworth and Margaret Harris, during childhood, one is unable to distinguish between what is subjective and objective.
According to Piaget, "an egocentric child assumes that other people see and feel the same as the child does."Jean Piaget developed a theory about the development of human intelligence, describing the stages of cognitive development. He claimed that early childhood is the time of pre-operational thought, characterized by children's inability to process logical thought. According to Piaget, one of the main obstacles to logic that children possess includes centration, "the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of others." A particular type of centration is egocentrism – "self-centeredness." Piaget claimed that young children are egocentric, capable of contemplating the world only from their personal perspective. For example, a three-year-old presented his mother a model truck as her birthday present; the three-year-old boy had not chosen the present out of selfishness or greediness, but he failed to realize that, from his mother's perspective, she might not enjoy the model car as much as he would.
Piaget was concerned with two aspects of egocentricity in children: morality. He believed that egocentric children use language for communication with oneself. Piaget observed that children would talk to themselves during play, this egocentric speech was the child's thoughts, he believed. He theorized that as the child matures cognitively and the amount of egocentric speech used would be reduced. However, Vygotsky felt that egocentric speech has more meaning, as it allows the child's growth in social speech and high mental development. In addition to Piaget's theory, he believed that when communicating with others, the child believes that others know everything about the topic of discussion and become frustrated when asked to give further detail. Piaget believed that egocentrism affects the child's sense of morality. Due to egocentrism, the child is only concerned with the final outcome of an event rather than another's intentions. For example, if someone breaks the child's toy, the child would not forgive the other and the child would not be able to understand that the person who broke the toy did not intend to break it.
This phenomenon can a
Johann Kaspar Schmidt, better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher, seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, psychoanalytic theory and individualist anarchism. Stirner's main work is The Ego and Its Own known as The Unique And Its Property, first published in 1845 in Leipzig and since appeared in numerous editions and translations, with his German original title translating as The Individual and His Property. Stirner was born in Bavaria. What little is known of his life is due to the Scottish-born German writer John Henry Mackay, who wrote a biography of Stirner, published in German in 1898 and translated into English in 2005. Stirner was the only child of Sophia Elenora Reinlein, his father died of tuberculosis on 19 April 1807 at the age of 37. In 1809, his mother settled in West Prussian Kulm; when Stirner turned 20, he attended the University of Berlin, where he studied philology and theology. He attended the lectures of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, to become a source of inspiration for his thinking.
He attended Hegel's lectures on the history of philosophy, the philosophy of religion and the subjective spirit. Stirner moved to the University of Erlangen, which he attended at the same time as Ludwig Feuerbach. Stirner returned to Berlin and obtained a teaching certificate, but he was unable to obtain a full-time teaching post from the Prussian government. While in Berlin in 1841, Stirner participated in discussions with a group of young philosophers called Die Freien and whom historians have subsequently categorized as the Young Hegelians; some of the best known names in 19th century literature and philosophy were involved with this group, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Bruno Bauer and Arnold Ruge. Contrary to popular belief, Feuerbach was not a member of Die Freien, although he was involved in Young Hegelian discourse. While some of the Young Hegelians were eager subscribers to Hegel's dialectical method and attempted to apply dialectical approaches to Hegel's conclusions, the left-wing members of the group broke with Hegel.
Feuerbach and Bauer led this charge. The debates would take place at Hippel's, a wine bar in Friedrichstraße, attended by among others Marx and Engels, who were both adherents of Feuerbach at the time. Stirner met with Engels many times and Engels recalled that they were "great friends", but it is still unclear whether Marx and Stirner met, it does not appear that Stirner contributed much to the discussions, but he was a faithful member of the club and an attentive listener. The most-often reproduced portrait of Stirner is a cartoon by Engels, drawn forty years from memory at biographer Mackay's request, it is likely that this and the group sketch of Die Freien at Hippel's are the only firsthand images of Stirner. Stirner worked as a teacher in a school for young girls owned by Madame Gropius when he wrote his major work, The Ego and Its Own, which in part is a polemic against Feuerbach and Bauer, but against communists such as Wilhelm Weitling and the anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he resigned from his teaching position in anticipation of controversy from this work's publication in October 1844.
Stirner married twice. His first wife was Agnes Burtz, the daughter of his landlady, whom he married on 12 December 1837. However, she died from complications with pregnancy in 1838. In 1843, he married an intellectual associated with Die Freien, they divorced in 1846. The Ego and Its Own was dedicated "to my sweetheart Marie Dähnhardt". Marie converted to Catholicism and died in 1902 in London. After The Ego and Its Own, Stirner wrote Stirner's Critics and translated Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations and Jean-Baptiste Say's Traite d'Economie Politique into German to little financial gain, he wrote a compilation of texts titled History of Reaction in 1852. Stirner died in 1856 in Berlin from an infected insect bite and it is said that Bruno Bauer was the only Young Hegelian present at his funeral, held at the Friedhof II der Sophiengemeinde Berlin; the philosophy of Stirner is credited as a major influence in the development of nihilism and post-modernism as well as individualist anarchism, post-anarchism and post-left anarchy.
Stirner's main philosophical work was Its Own. Stirner argues that individuals are impossible to comprehend. All mere concepts of the self will always be inadequate to describe the nature of our experience. Stirner has been broadly understood as a proponent of both psychological egoism and ethical egoism, although the latter position can be disputed as there is no claim in Stirner's writing in which one ought to pursue one's own interest and further claiming any ought could be seen as a new fixed idea. Stirner may be understood as a rational egoist in the sense that he considered it irrational not to act in one's self-interest. However, how this self-interest is defined is subjective, allowing both selfish and altruistic normative claims to be included. Individual self-realization rests on each individual's desire to fulfill their egoism; the difference between an unwilling and a willing egoist is that the former will be possessed by an "empty idea" and believe that they are fulfilling a higher cause, but being unaware that they are only fulfilling their own desires to be happy or secure.