Lake City, Arkansas
Lake City is a city in Craighead County, United States, along the St. Francis River; the population was 2,082 as of the 2010 census. It is included in Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area, it serves as a second county seat. Lake City is located in eastern Craighead County at 35°49′4″N 90°26′24″W, along the west bank of the St. Francis River, it is 16 miles east of downtown Jonesboro. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.1 square miles, of which 3.0 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1.35%, is water. Highway 18 Highway 135 Highway 158 Lake City has the only lift bridge in the world, raised once in its construction. In order to construct a four-lane highway, a new bridge was constructed in 2002 and the lift bridge was moved to a location just south of the new bridge where it remains as a landmark. At 900 Main Street, in 1947, Albert Craigs shot and killed his wife Helen in the head in a middle bedroom turned the gun on himself. Succeeding residents have claimed to have seen shadow figures, hearing strange noises from the middle room, closets opening or slamming shut.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,956 people, 731 households, 546 families residing in the town. The population density was 881.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 776 housing units at an average density of 349.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.67% White, 0.05% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.26% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 1.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 731 households out of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,844, the median income for a family was $33,477. Males had a median income of $27,798 versus $19,205 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,126. About 11.4% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.1% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. Lake City is part of the Riverside School District, formed as a result of consolidation with the Lake City School District with that of nearby Caraway on July 1, 1985; the Riverside High School mascot and athletic teams are known as "the Rebels". There are two elementary schools associated with the school: one is located in Lake City and the other in Caraway
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Jonesboro is a city located on Crowley's Ridge in the northeastern corner of the U. S. State of Arkansas. Jonesboro is one of the home of Arkansas State University. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 71,551 and is the fifth-largest city in Arkansas. Jonesboro is the economic center of northeastern Arkansas, it is the principal city of Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the Jonesboro metropolitan area had a population of 121,026 and a population of 163,116 in the Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area. Jonesboro is a regional center for manufacturing, medicine and trade; the Jonesboro area was first inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, historic tribes included the Osage, the Caddo, the Quapaw; the name of the state of Arkansas comes from the Quapaw language. French and Spanish traders and trappers had relations with these groups. After the United States acquired this territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, American settlers made their way to the area where Jonesboro is located.
They began exploring, hunting and trading with the local Indian tribes. A permanent settlement of Jonesboro was set up shortly after 1815. In 1859, land was taken from nearby Greene and Poinsett counties and was used to form Craighead County. Jonesboro was designated as the original county seat; as the population increased in the west of the county, Lake City was named as the second seat. In 1859 Jonesboro had 150 residents, it was named after State Senator William A. Jones in recognition of his support for the formation of Craighead County. Spelled Jonesborough, the city name was shortened to its present-day spelling. During the late 19th century, the city tried to develop its court system and downtown infrastructure. Shortly after being named county seat, the highest point in Jonesboro was identified and a court house was planned for construction; this was delayed for several years. The first court house was completed but was destroyed by a fire in 1869. A store across from this site was used as a court house.
It was destroyed in an 1876 fire. Another building was constructed on the same site, but it fell to a fire in 1878, a major one that destroyed most of downtown Jonesboro. Soon afterward, another court house was constructed, it still stands; the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known as the Cotton Belt Railroad was constructed through Jonesboro, with its tracks passing just north of the center of the city. During the first train's journey, it became stuck and supplies had to be carried into town, it connected St. Louis to points in Texas. Other major railways began to construct tracks to and from Jonesboro, including the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway and Missouri Pacific Railroad; some of the rail companies still use the tracks that run through Jonesboro. The city set up the Jonesboro School District in 1899. In 1900, St. Bernard's Regional Medical Center was established by the Olivetan Benedictine Sisters; the Grand Leader Department Store, the first department store in the city, was opened in 1900.
Woodland College and two schools within the Jonesboro School District were opened in 1904. Arkansas State College was established in 1909, a year in which the first horseless carriages were driven in the city. There is a recording on a Sanborn Fire Insurance Map dating back to March 1897 of a Presbyterian Church existing at the corner of Church St. and Monroe, a Christian church located at the corner of Union and Huntington Ave. Other early churches of the city were started in the 1910s. First Baptist Church was founded in 1911, First Methodist Church in 1916. On September 10, 1931, Governor Harvey Parnell authorized the Arkansas National Guard to be deployed in Jonesboro to quell the Church War, a clash between the followers of Joe Jeffers and Dow H. Heard, the pastor of the First Baptist Church of Jonesboro. Jeffers' supporters attacked the mayor and police chief, resulting in front-page coverage of the incident in The New York Times. During the 20th century, Jonesboro began to diversify its economy, with industrial businesses that allowed it to grow beyond the cotton culture.
The university attracts educated residents. The Jonesboro Lynching of 1881 took place at midnight on March 12; the Decatur Daily Republican reported that four black men—Green Harris, Giles Peck, John Woods, Burt Hoskins —had been arrested and tried before magistrates Jackson and Akers at New Haven Church, eight miles north of Jonesboro. The hearing, which found that the men were guilty, was attended by several hundred people. According to this and several other reports, the accused made a complete confession; the magistrates bound them over to the grand jury, they were ordered taken to the jail in Jonesboro. The hour being late, however, it was decided to hold them overnight in the church under a strong guard; the large crowd dispersed, “muttering threats of vengeance.” Around midnight, between 200 and 300 masked men surrounded the church, overpowered the guards, broke in the doors and windows. They seized the accused, dragged them to a tree about 200 yards away, hanged them. Once again, the crowd dispersed, “leaving the bodies of their victims dangling in the air and presenting a horrible spectacle in the moonlight.”
According to the Republican, “The crime and punishment form one of the blackest pages in the annals of the state.” On May 15, 1968 an F4 tornado struck Jonesboro. The Westside Middle
Monette is a city in Craighead County, United States. The population was 1,501 at the 2010 census, it is included in Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. Monette is located in eastern Craighead County at 35°53′27″N 90°20′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.3 square miles, of which 0.012 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Highway 18 Highway 139 As of the census of 2009, there were 1,247 people,529 households, 321 families residing in the city; the population density was 721.8 people per square mile. There were 572 housing units at an average density of 348.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 96.61% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 1.44% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. 2.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 525 households out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.6% were non-families.
37.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 25.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,500, the median income for a family was $33,796. Males had a median income of $28,375 versus $20,109 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,517. About 13.3% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.8% of those under age 18 and 25.7% of those age 65 or over. Monette is the headquarters for the Buffalo Island Central School District, which provides public education to more than 850 elementary and secondary school students in Craighead and Mississippi counties.
Students graduate from the Monette-based Buffalo Island Central High School. The school's mascot and athletic emblem is the Mustangs; the Buffalo Island Central School District was established on July 1, 1984. Until that point the Monette School District served the community. Kohn Memorial Library is the city's public library and one of seven branch libraries of the Crowley Ridge Regional library system. Dave Wallace, Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Mississippi County.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol