Egyptians are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian identity is tied to geography; the population of Egypt is concentrated in the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity; the daily language of the Egyptians is the local variety of Arabic, known as Egyptian Arabic or Masri. Additionally, a sizable minority of Egyptians living in Upper Egypt speak Sa'idi Arabic. Egyptians are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam with a Shia minority and a significant proportion who follow native Sufi orders. A considerable percentage of Egyptians are Coptic Christians who belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose liturgical language, Coptic, is the most recent stage of the ancient Egyptian language and is still used in prayers along with Egyptian Arabic.
Egyptians receive or have received several names: Egyptians, from Greek Αἰγύπτιοι, from Αἴγυπτος, Aiguptos "Egypt". The Greek name is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah, meaning "home of the ka of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Αἴγυπτος had evolved as a compound from Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως Aegaeou huptiōs, meaning "below the Aegean". In English, the noun "Egyptians" appears in the 14th century, in Wycliff's Bible, as Egipcions. Copts a derivative of the Greek word Αἰγύπτιος, that appeared under Muslim rule that overtooked the Roman rule in Egypt, to refer to the Egyptian locals and to separate them from the Arabs rulers. Coptic was the language of the state and people but got replaced by Arabic after the Muslim conquest, Islam became the dominant religion centuries after the Muslim conquest in Egypt due to centuries of conversion from Christianity to Islam due to the higher rate of tax on Christians despite a tax all Egyptians had to pay, the modern term became associated with Egyptian Christianity and Coptic Christians who are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church or Coptic Catholic Church, though references to native Muslims as Copts are attested until the Mamluk period.
Masryeen, the modern Egyptian name, which comes from the ancient Semitic name for Egypt and connoted "civilization" or "metropolis". Classical Arabic Miṣr is directly cognate with the Biblical Hebrew Mitsráyīm, meaning "the two straits", a reference to the predynastic separation of Upper and Lower Egypt. Edward William Lane writing in the 1820s, said that Egyptians called themselves El-Maṣreyyīn'the Egyptians', Ewlad Maṣr'the Children of Egypt' and Ahl Maṣr'the People of Egypt', he added that the Turks "stigmatized" the Egyptians with the name Ahl-Far'ūn or the'People of the Pharaoh'. / rmṯ n Km.t, the native Egyptian name of the people of the Nile Valley, literally'People of Kemet'. In antiquity, it was shortened to Rmṯ or "the people"; the name is vocalized as rem/en/kī/mi ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ in the Coptic stage of the language, meaning "Egyptian". There are an estimated 92.1 million Egyptians. Most are native to Egypt. 84–90% of the population of Egypt are Muslim adherents and 10–15% are Christian adherents according to estimates.
The majority live near the banks of the Nile River. Close to half of the Egyptian people today are urban. A large influx of fellahin into urban cities, rapid urbanization of many rural areas since the early 20th century, have shifted the balance between the number of urban and rural citizens. Egyptians form smaller minorities in neighboring countries, North America and Australia. Egyptians tend to be provincial, meaning their attachment extends not only to Egypt but to the specific provinces and villages from which they hail. Therefore, return migrants, such as temporary workers abroad, come back to their region of origin in Egypt. According to the International Organization for Migration, an estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad and contribute to the development of their country through remittances, circulation of human and social capital, as well as investment. 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries and the remaining 30% are living in Europe and North America. Their characteristic rootedness as Egyptians explained as the result of centuries as a farming people clinging to the banks of the Nile, is reflected in sights and atmosphere that are meaningful to all Egyptians.
Dominating the intangible pull of Egypt is the present Nile, more than a constant backdrop. Its varying colors and changing water levels signal the coming and going of the Nile flood that sets the rhythm of farming in a rainless country and holds the attention of all Egyptians. No Egyptian is far from his river and, except for t
Ancient Egyptian cuisine
The cuisine of ancient Egypt covers a span of over three thousand years, but still retained many consistent traits until well into Greco-Roman times. The staples of both poor and wealthy Egyptians were bread and beer accompanied by green-shooted onions, other vegetables, to a lesser extent meat and fish. Depictions of banquets can be found in paintings from both New Kingdom, they started sometime in the afternoon. Men and women were separated. Seating varied according to social status, with those of the highest status sitting on chairs, those lower sat on stools and those lowest in rank sat on the raw floor. Before the food was served, basins were provided along with perfumes and cones of scented fat were lit to spread pleasant smells or to repel insects, depending on the type. Lily flowers and flower collars were handed out and professional dancers entertained, accompanied by musicians playing harps, drums and clappers. There were considerable amounts of alcohol and abundant quantities of foods.
The dishes consisted of stews served with great amounts of bread, fresh vegetables and fruit. For sweets there were cakes sweetened with honey; the goddess Hathor was invoked during feasts. Food could be prepared by stewing, boiling, frying, or roasting. Spices and herbs were added for flavor, though the former were expensive imports and therefore confined to the tables of the wealthy. Food such as meats was preserved by salting, dates and raisins could be dried for long-term storage; the staples bread and beer were prepared in the same locations, as the yeast used for bread was used for brewing. The two were prepared either in special bakeries or, more at home, any surplus would be sold. Egyptian bread was made exclusively from emmer wheat, more difficult to turn into flour than most other varieties of wheat; the chaff does not come off through threshing, but comes in spikelets that needed to be removed by moistening and pounding with a pestle to avoid crushing the grains inside. It was dried in the sun and sieved and milled on a saddle quern, which functioned by moving the grindstone back and forth, rather than with a rotating motion.
The baking techniques varied over time. In the Old Kingdom, heavy pottery molds were filled with dough and set in the embers to bake. During the Middle Kingdom tall cones were used on square hearths. In the New Kingdom a new type of a large open-topped clay oven, cylindrical in shape, was used, encased in thick mud bricks and mortar. Dough was slapped on the heated inner wall and peeled off when done, similar to how a tandoor oven is used for flatbreads. Tombs from the New Kingdom show images of bread in sizes. Loaves shaped like human figures, various animals and fans, all of varying dough texture. Flavorings used for bread included coriander seeds and dates, but it is not known if this was used by the poor. Other than emmer, barley was grown to make bread and used for making beer, so were lily seeds and roots, tiger nut; the grit from the quern stones used to grind the flour mixed in with bread was a major source of tooth decay due to the wear it produced on the enamel. For those who could afford there was fine dessert bread and cakes baked from high-grade flour.
In Egypt beer was a primary source of nutrition, consumed daily. Beer was such an important part of the Egyptian diet that it was used as currency. Like most modern African beers, but unlike European beer, it was cloudy with plenty of solids and nutritious, quite reminiscent of gruel, it was an important source of protein and vitamins and was so valuable that beer jars were used as a measurement of value and were used in medicine. Little is known about specific types of beer, but there is mention of, for example, sweet beer but without any specific details mentioned. Globular-based vessels with a narrow neck that were used to store fermented beer from pre-dynastic times have been found at Hierakonpolis and Abydos with emmer wheat residue that shows signs of gentle heating from below. Though not conclusive evidence of early beer brewing it is an indication that this might have been what they were used for. Archeological evidence shows that beer was made by first baking "beer bread", a type of well-leavened baked bread that did not kill the yeasts, crumbled over a sieve, washed with water in a vat and left to ferment.
This "beer bread" resembles the bouza, still consumed in Egypt today. There are claims of dates or malts having been used. Microscopy of beer residue points to a different method of brewing where bread was not used as an ingredient. One batch of grain was sprouted; the next batch was cooked in water, dispersing the starch and the two batches were mixed. The enzymes began to consume the starch to produce sugar; the resulting mixture was sieved to remove chaff, yeast was added to begin a fermentation process that produced alcohol. This method of brewing is still used in parts of non-industrialized Africa. Most beers were made of barley and only a few of emmer wheat, but so far no evidence of flavoring has been found. Vegetables were eaten as a complement to bread. There was lettuce, certain types of cucumber and some types of Old World gourds and
The Egyptian (film)
The Egyptian is a 1954 American epic drama film made by 20th Century Fox. Filmed in CinemaScope with color by DeLuxe, it was directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck, it is based on Mika Waltari's novel of the same name and the screenplay was adapted by Philip Dunne and Casey Robinson. Leading roles were played by Edmund Purdom, Bella Darvi, Jean Simmons, Victor Mature, Gene Tierney, Peter Ustinov, Michael Wilding. Cinematographer Leon Shamroy was nominated for an Academy Award in 1955. Sinuhe, a struggling physician in 18th dynasty Egypt, is thrown by chance into contact with the pharaoh Akhnaton, he rises to and falls from great prosperity, wanders the world, becomes drawn towards a new religion spreading throughout Egypt. His companions throughout are a shy tavern maid named Merit. While out lion hunting with his sturdy friend Horemheb, Sinuhe discovers Egypt's newly ascendant pharaoh Akhnaton, who has sought the solitude of the desert in the midst of a religious epiphany.
While praying, the ruler is stricken with an epileptic seizure, with which Sinuhe is able to help him. The grateful Akhnaton makes his savior court physician and gives Horemheb a post in the Royal Guard, a career denied to him by low birth, his new eminence gives Sinuhe an inside look at Akhnaton's reign, made extraordinary by the ruler's devotion to a new religion that he feels has been divinely revealed to him. This faith rejects Egypt's traditional gods in favor of monolatristic worship of the sun, referred to as Aten. Akhnaton intends to promote Atenism throughout Egypt, which earns him the hatred of the country's corrupt and politically active traditional priesthood. Life in court does not prove to be good for Sinuhe, he squanders all of his and his parents' property in order to buy her gifts, only to have her reject him nonetheless. Returning dejectedly home, Sinuhe learns that his parents have committed suicide over his shameful behavior, he has their bodies embalmed so that they can pass on to the afterlife, having no way to pay for the service, works off his debts in the embalming house.
Lacking a tomb in which to put his parents' mummies, Sinuhe buries them in the sand amid the lavish funerary complexes of the Valley of the Kings. Merit warns him that Akhnaton has condemned him to death. Merit urges Sinuhe to flee Egypt and rebuild his career elsewhere, the two of them share one night of passion before he takes ship out of the country. For the next ten years Sinuhe and Kaptah wander the known world, where Sinuhe's superior Egyptian medical training gives him an excellent reputation as healer. Sinuhe saves enough money from his fees to return home. Akhnaton is in any case ready to forgive Sinuhe, according to his religion's doctrine of mercy and pacifism; these qualities have made Aten-worship popular amid the common people, including Merit, with whom Sinuhe is reunited. He finds that she bore him a son named Thoth, a result of their night together many years ago, who shares his father's interest in medicine. Meanwhile, the priests of the old gods have been fomenting hate crimes against the Aten's devotees, now urge Sinuhe to help them kill Akhnaton and put Horemheb on the throne instead.
The physician is given extra inducement by the princess Baketamun. The princess now suggests that Sinuhe could poison both Akhnaton and Horemheb and rule Egypt himself. Sinuhe is still reluctant to perform this evil deed until the Egyptian army mounts a full attack on worshipers of the Aten. Kaptah manages to smuggle Thoth out the country, but Merit is killed while seeking refuge at the new god's altar. In his grief Sinuhe blames Akhnaton for the whole mess and administers poison to him at their next meeting; the pharaoh realizes what accepts his fate. He still believes that he has understood it imperfectly. Enlightened by Akhnaton's dying words, Sinuhe warns Horemheb that his wine is poisoned, thus allowing him to marry the Princess and become Pharaoh. Sinuhe is brought before his old friend for preaching the same ideals Akhnaton believed in, is sentenced to be exiled to the shores of the Red Sea, where he spends his remaining days writing down his life story, in the hope that it may be found by Thoth or his descendants.
It is revealed that "These things happened thirteen centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ". The script was based on the Waltari novel of the same name, it is elaborated in the book, but not the film, that Sinuhe was named by his mother from The Story of Sinuhe, which does include references to Aten but was written many centuries before the 18th dynasty. The use of the "Cross of Life" ankh to represent Akhnaton's "new" religion reflects a popular and esoteric belief in the 1950s that monolatristic Atenism was a sort of p
Southern Illinois is the southern third of the state of Illinois. The southern part of Illinois has a unique regional history. Part of downstate Illinois, the Southern Illinois region is bordered by the two most voluminous rivers in the United States: the Mississippi River and its connecting Missouri River to the west, the Ohio River to the east and south with the Wabash as tributary. Southern Illinois' most populated city is Belleville at 44,478. Other principal cities include Alton, Collinsville, Effingham, O'Fallon, Herrin, Mt. Vernon and Carbondale, where the main campus of Southern Illinois University is located. Residents may travel to amenities in St. Louis and Cape Girardeau, Missouri; the region is home to a major military installation. The area has a population of 1.2 million people, who live in rural towns and cities separated by extensive farmland and the Shawnee National Forest. The two higher density areas of population are Metro-East, the industrialized Illinois portion of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area, centered on Carbondale and Marion, a two-county area, home to 123,272 residents.
The first European settlers were French colonists in the part of their North American empire called Illinois Country. Settlers migrated from the Upland South of the United States, traveling by the Ohio River; the region was affiliated with the southern agricultural economy, based on enslaved African Americans as workers on major plantations, rural culture. Some settlers owned slaves before the territory was organized and slavery was prohibited. Many areas developed an economy based on coal mining. Except for the counties in the St. Louis MSA, much of Southern Illinois is still culturally affiliated with the Mid-South: Western Kentucky, Southwestern Indiana, West Tennessee, the Missouri Bootheel; the people speak with similar accents throughout this area. Southern Illinois, the earliest settled and once the wealthiest part of Illinois, is known for its rich history and the abundance of antebellum architecture remaining in its small towns and cities; the earliest inhabitants of Illinois are thought to have arrived about 12,000 BC.
They were indigenous hunter-gatherers, but they developed a primitive system of agriculture. After AD 1000, the production of agricultural surpluses resulted in the development of complex, hierarchical societies. With the rise of the Mississippian culture in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, tribal leaders organized thousands of workers to build complex urban areas featuring numerous large earthworks – pyramidal and conical mounds used for religious and ceremonial purposes. Cahokia, located within the boundaries of present-day Collinsville, was the major regional center of this culture, it contains the largest prehistoric earthworks in the Americas, has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The mound builders' culture seems to have collapsed between AD 1400–1500; the Mississippians had abandoned Cahokia long. The Illinois tribes, for whom the state is named, other historic tribes migrated to Southern Illinois around AD 1500. Archeologists say, they had migrated from eastern areas, where Algonquian-language tribes emerged along the Atlantic Coast and waterways.
The Illini left numerous artifacts, including burial sites, burned-out campfires along the bases of bluffs, flint implements, weapons. Structures built by them include stone forts or "pounds". Visitors can see a stone fort in Giant City State Park near Makanda. At least eight other such structures are known in the region. In about 1673, French explorers from Quebec became the first Europeans to reach Illinois; the French named the area Illinois after the Indians. The French explored the Mississippi River, establishing outposts and seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean and the Far East; as increasing Indian unrest and warfare began in Northern Illinois over the lucrative fur trade along the Great Lakes, the French concentrated on building outposts in Southern Illinois. The earliest European settlers were concentrated along the Mississippi and Wabash rivers, which provided easy routes for travel and trade; the settlements including Cahokia town and Chartres became important market villages and supply depots between Canada and the French ports on the lower Mississippi River.
Other important early outposts in Southern Illinois were at Old Shawneetown and Fort Massac on the Ohio River. After defeating the French in the French and Indian War and signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the English ruled the Great Lakes region. At the time, many French settlers moved from towns on the eastern side of the Mississippi to the western side, ruled by Spain after the war, it took over all the Louisiana Territory west of the river. During the American Revolutionary War, the Southern Illinois area was the scene of the best known campaign in what was the American west, when Virginians sought to occupy it against the British. European-American settlers were slow to arrive in Illinois after the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War. By 1800, fewer than 2,000 European Americans lived in Illinois. Soon more settlers came from the backwoods areas of Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolinas; these early settlers w
Gregory Broussard, better known by his stage name Egyptian Lover, is an American musician, producer and DJ, was an important part of the L. A. dance music and rap scene in the early 1980s. The Egyptian Lover started out as a DJ in Los Angeles with Uncle Jamm's Army, DJing dances as large as the L. A. Sports Arena with 10,000 people, he began recording around Los Angeles in 1982 as a member of the Radio Crew, as well as Uncle Jamm's Army. Most of the Egyptian Lover's successful recordings were 12" singles, he released some of the earliest rap LPs, but they were less popular than his singles. On the strength of an alternate mix of his most popular single "Egypt, Egypt", 1984's On the Nile was moderately successful. After a break in the early 1990s, Egyptian Lover returned in 1994 with Back from the Tomb, his first full-length album in over ten years; the Egyptian Lover established his own record company, Egyptian Empire Records, which included artists such as Rodney O & Joe Cooley 2 Oclock & Te & Joezee.
His 2015 release, 1984, continues his tradition of using all analog equipment, including his famed Roland TR-808, along with much of the same gear used on his recordings of the 1980s. The name "1984" refers to his earlier albums; the album was recorded at Skip Saylor, Encore Studios, at RUSK Studios, the same studio where On The Nile was recorded in 1984. It is available on double gatefold LP, CD and cassette tape. 2005 – New single "Party", backed with "Dancefloor" February 2006 – Platinum Pyramids was released End of 2006 – Recorded "UFO" and "Futuristic" with Jamie Jupiter for Jupiter's new 12" single 2007 – Remade "Modernaire" by Dez Dickerson for the label Citinite 2007 – Collaborated with Clone Machine and Egypt Ear Werk December 2008 – Released exclusive songs on iTunes: "Electro Pharaoh", "Freaky D. J.", "Scandinavian Summer" 2008 – Joined Who Cares on the song "They Killed the Radio" 2008 – Worked with Jamie Jones on the song "Galactic Space Bar" 2008 – Worked with M. I. A. on "Rock off Shake off" for new artist Rye Rye May 2009 – Collaborated with Debonaire on "Do U Wanna Get Down?" for a new Street Sounds compilation May 2009 – New video "Freaky D.
J." with producer/director Victor Brooks a.k.a. Who007 2009 – New album that included songs "Electro Pharaoh", "U. F. O.", "Freaky D. J.", "BellyDance", "Scandinavian Summer", "Do U Wanna Get Down?" June 2009 – Remix of James Pants's Cosmic Rapp was released 2011 – work on new album entitled 1984 begins 2014 – Collaborated with Dye on the song "She's Bad" 2015 - 1984 released The Egyptian Lover began touring again in 2004 throughout Europe and North America. His performances begin with mixing records on turntables before segueing into his original compositions. In 2008, he supported M. I. A. in her People vs. Money Tour. Albums 1984 – On the Nile 1986 – One Track Mind 1988 – Filthy 1989 – King of Ecstasy 1993 – Pyramix 1994 – Back from the Tomb 1998 – Get Into It 2006 – Platinum Pyramids 2015 – 1984 2018 – 1985EPs 1984 – "Egypt, Egypt EP" 2009 – "Electro Pharaoh" 2009 – "James Pants Meets Egyptian Lover" Compilation albums 2016 – 1983-1988 Westcoastpioneers Biography page Egyptian Lover discography at Discogs Egyptian Lover on MySpace
Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes and fruit from Egypt's rich Nile Valley and Delta. It shares similarities with the food of the Eastern Mediterranean region, such as rice-stuffed vegetables, grape leaves, shawerma and kofta. Examples of Egyptian dishes include ful medames, mashed fava beans. Pita bread, known locally as eish baladi is a staple of Egyptian cuisine, cheesemaking in Egypt dates back to the First Dynasty of Egypt, with domty being the most popular type of cheese consumed today. Common meats in Egyptian cuisine are rabbit, pigeon and duck. Lamb and beef are used for grilling. Offal is a popular fast food in cities, foie gras is a delicacy, prepared in the region since at least 2500 BCE. Fish and seafood are common in Egypt's coastal regions. A significant amount of Egyptian cuisine is vegetarian, due to both the high price of meat and the needs of the Coptic Christian community, whose religious restrictions require vegan diets for much of the year. Tea is the national drink of Egypt, beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage.
While Islam is the majority faith in Egypt and observant Muslims tend to avoid alcohol, alcoholic drinks are still available in the country. Popular desserts in Egypt include baqlawa and kunafa. Common ingredients in desserts include dates and almonds. Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies on legume and vegetable dishes. Though food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Egypt's Red Sea ports were the main points of entry for spices to Europe. Easy access to various spices has, throughout the years, left its mark on Egyptian cuisine. Cumin is the most used spice. Other common spices include coriander, chili, bay leaves, parsley, cinnamon and cloves. Common meats featured in Egyptian cuisine are rabbit, pigeon and duck; these are boiled to make the broth for various stews and soups. Lamb and beef are the most common meats used for grilling.
Grilled meats such as kofta and grilled cutlets are categorically referred to as mashwiyat. Offal, variety meats, is popular in Egypt. Liver sandwiches, a specialty of Alexandria, are a popular fast-food in cities. Chopped-up pieces of liver fried with bell peppers, garlic and other spices are served in a baguette-like bread called eish fino. Cow and sheep brain are eaten in Egypt. Foie gras, a well-known delicacy, is still enjoyed today by Egyptians, its flavor is described as rich and delicate, unlike that of an ordinary duck or goose liver. Foie gras is sold whole, or is prepared into mousse, parfait, or pâté, may be served as an accompaniment to another food item, such as steak; the technique involves gavage, cramming food into the throat of domesticated ducks and geese, dates as far back as 2500 BC, when the ancient Egyptians began keeping birds for food. Cheese is thought to have originated in the Middle East. Two alabaster jars found at Saqqara, dating from the First Dynasty of Egypt, contained cheese.
These were placed in the tomb about 3,000 BC. They were fresh cheeses coagulated with acid or a combination of acid and heat. An earlier tomb, that of King Hor-Aha may have contained cheese which, based on the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the two jars, appears to be from Upper and Lower Egypt; the pots are similar to those used today. Although many rural people still make their own cheese, notably the fermented mish, mass-produced cheeses are becoming more common. Cheese is served with breakfast, it is included in several traditional dishes, in some desserts. Cheeses include the most widely-eaten in Egypt. Bread made from a simple recipe forms the backbone of Egyptian cuisine, it is consumed at all Egyptian meals. The local bread is a form of hearty, gluten-rich pita bread called eish baladi rather than the Arabic خبز ḫubz; the word "" comes from the Semitic root ع-ي-ش ʕ-Ī-Š with the meaning "to live, be alive." The word ʿayš itself has the meaning of "life, way of living.... In modern Egypt, the government subsidizes bread.
In 2008, a major food crisis caused ever-longer bread lines at government-subsidized bakeries where there would be none. Egyptian dissidents and outside observers of the former National Democratic Party regime criticized the bread subsidy as an attempt to buy off the Egyptian urban working classes in order to encourage acceptance of the authoritarian system. On a culinary level, bread is used as gamosa, a utensil, at the same time providing carbohydrates and protein to the Egyptian diet. Egyptians use bread to scoop up food and dips and to wrap kebabs, falafel, to keep the hands from becoming greasy. Most pita breads are baked at high temperatures, causing the flattened rounds of dough to pu