click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eicosanoid

Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length. Eicosanoids are a sub-category of oxylipins, i.e. oxidized fatty acids of diverse carbon units in length, are distinguished from other oxylipins by their overwhelming importance as cell signaling molecules. Eicosanoids function in diverse physiological systems and pathological processes such as: mounting or inhibiting inflammation, allergy and other immune responses. In performing these roles, eicosanoids most act as autocrine signaling agents to impact their cells of origin or as paracrine signaling agents to impact cells in the proximity of their cells of origin. Eicosanoids may act as endocrine agents to control the function of distant cells. There are multiple subfamilies of eicosanoids, including most prominently the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins and eoxins. For each subfamily, there is the potential to have at least 4 separate series of metabolites, two series derived from ω-6 PUFAs, one series derived from the ω-3 PUFA, one series derived from the ω-9 PUFA.

This subfamily distinction is important. Mammals, including humans, are unable to convert ω-6 into ω-3 PUFA. In consequence, tissue levels of the ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs and their corresponding eicosanoid metabolites link directly to the amount of dietary ω-6 versus ω-3 PUFAs consumed. Since certain of the ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA series of metabolites have diametrically opposing physiological and pathological activities, it has been suggested that the deleterious consequences associated with the consumption of ω-6 PUFA-rich diets reflects excessive production and activities of ω-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids while the beneficial effects associated with the consumption of ω-3 PUFA-rich diets reflect the excessive production and activities of ω-3 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In this view, the opposing effects of ω-6 PUFA-derived and ω-3 PUFA-derived eicosanoids on key target cells underlie the detrimental and beneficial effects of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA-rich diets on inflammation and allergy reactions, hypertension, cancer growth, a host of other processes.

"Eicosanoid" is the collective term for straight-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 carbon units in length that have been metabolized or otherwise converted to oxygen-containing products. The PUFA precursors to the eicosanoids include: Arachidonic acid, i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid is ω-6 fatty acid, with four double bonds in the cis configuration each located between carbons 5-6, 8-9, 11-12, 14-15. Adrenic acid, 7,10,13,16-docosatetraenoic acid, is an ω-6 fatty acid with four cis double bounds, each located between carbons 7-8, 10-11, 13-14, 17-18. Eicosapentaenoic acid, i.e.i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid is an ω-3 fatty acid with five cis double bonds, each located between carbons 5-6, 8-9, 11-12, 14-15, 17-18. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, 8Z, 11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid with three cis double bonds, each located between carbons 8-9, 11-12, 14-15. Mead acid, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid, is an ω-9 fatty acid containing three cis double bonds, each located between carbons 5-6, 8-9, 11-12.

A particular eicosanoid is denoted by a four-character abbreviation, composed of: its two-letter abbreviation, one A-B-C sequence-letter, A subscript or plain script number following the designated eicosanoid's trivial name indicates the number of its double bonds. Examples are: The EPA-derived prostanoids have three double bonds while leukotrienes derived from EPA have five double bonds; the AA-derived prostanoids have two double bonds while their AA-derived leukotrienes have four double bonds. Hydroperoxy-, hydroxyl-, oxo-eicosanoids possess a hydroperoxy, hydroxy, or oxygen atom substituents link to a PUFA carbon by a single or double bond, their trivial names indicate the substituent as: HP for a hydroperoxy residue. The number of their double bounds is indicated by their full and trivial names: AA-derived hydroxy metabolites have four double bonds (e.g. 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid or 5-HETE. The stereochemistry of the eicosanoid products formed may differ among the pathways. For prostaglandins, this is indicated by Greek letters.

For hydroperoxy and hydroxy eicosanoids an S or R designates the chirality of their substituents. Since eicosanoid-forming enzymes make S isomer products either with marked preference or exclusively, the use of S/R designations has be

SOX4

Transcription factor SOX-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX4 gene. This intronless gene encodes a member of the SOX family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate; the encoded protein may act as a transcriptional regulator after forming a protein complex with other proteins, such as syndecan binding protein. The protein may function in the apoptosis pathway leading to cell death as well as to tumorigenesis and may mediate downstream effects of parathyroid hormone and PTH-related protein in bone development; the solution structure has been resolved for the HMG-box of a similar mouse protein. Sox4 is required for B lymphocyte development. A genomic region close to the SOX4 gene has been associated with endometrial cancer development. SOX4 has been shown to interact with SDCBP. SOX genes SOX4+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain

Association football in the Republic of Ireland

Association football known as football is the team sport with the highest level of participation in the Republic of Ireland. It is the third most popular spectator sport overall with 16% of total attendances at sports events, behind only Gaelic football and hurling; the national governing body for the sport is the Football Association of Ireland, which runs the national football team and the League of Ireland, the top level of the sport in the country. The term "football" is used interchangeably in Ireland between association football and Gaelic football. Rugby union, another popular type of football is called "rugby", while rugby league, Australian Rules football and American football are niche and minority sports referred to by their long title. For spectators in Ireland, English football is popular compared with the domestic league, with up to 120,000 Irish fans travelling to watch games in the UK each year. Irish school children are seen wearing replica shirts of English league teams. In addition two Scottish football clubs with strong Irish roots, Celtic F.

C. and, to a lesser extent, Hibernian F. C. maintain strong followings in Ireland. In its earliest days, association football was confined to the city of Dublin and its surrounding county, it became more widespread throughout the country, to the point where in the modern day there are clubs in all of the counties of Ireland. Average league attendances at matches in the League of Ireland is around 2,000. Many of the country's top players move to leagues outside of the country the Premier League in England, one of the reasons why significant numbers of locals follow clubs in that league. Having said that, the best Irish players have always followed the best wages; this did not stop the game entering into a "golden period" after the second world war when grounds would be full every weekend to watch a league game. It was the start of televised football in England, the amateur setup in Ireland, that led to a decrease in attendances and a lack of support for the home teams; the sport is played at all levels in the country.

The national team's performance in the 1990 FIFA World Cup, where they reached the quarter-finals is their best to date. Although the sport was being played in Ireland in the 1860s, it was based in Ulster and it was not until the 1880s that the game spread to other areas of the country; the Leinster Football Association was formed in 1892. Clubs from outside the Belfast area thought that the IFA favoured Ulster based clubs and when the IFA reneged on a promise to play the Irish Cup semi-final replay in Dublin and instead scheduled the match for Belfast a meeting of southern associations and clubs was arranged and on 1 June 1921, the Football Association of Ireland was formed in Molesworth Hall in Dublin; the League of Ireland was established with eight teams taking part. St. James's Gate F. C. won the first title, they were winners of the first FAI Cup called the Free State Cup, in 1922. In 1923, the FAI was recognised by FIFA as the governing body of the Irish Free State under the name Football Association of the Irish Free State and at the 1924 Olympics, the Irish Free State made their international debut.

On 28 May at the Stade Olympique, they beat Bulgaria 1–0, with Paddy Duncan scoring the team's first goal. As a result of this they qualified for the quarter-finals. On 14 June 1924, the Irish Free State made their home debut against the United States, who had embarked on a brief European tour after competing in the same Olympics. Ed Brookes scored a hat-trick in a 3–1 home win at Dalymount Park; the Irish Free State did not play their next game until 21 March 1926. This was an away game against Italy which they lost 3–0. In subsequent years the status of the Olympic Games football competition was downgraded and as a result this game is regarded as the Irish Free State's first official game; the 1930s saw the erosion of Dublin's dominance in the league. During the 20s, Bohemians, St James's Gate and Shamrock Rovers had a monopoly over the domestic game, but Dundalk and Sligo Rovers both won championships while Cork F. C. and Waterford collected FAI Cups as football spread to the provinces. The Second World War curtailed international matches between 1939 and 1946, but league football went ahead with Cork United F.

C. dominating, winning four titles between 1940 and 1945. On the international front, England won a match at Dalymount Park 1–0, but Ireland got their revenge three years when they became the first'foreign' side to defeat England on English soil. Ireland won the Goodison Park encounter 2–0. In 1950, FIFA directed both the FAI and IFA to pick players only from within their own boundaries rather than picking players from all over the island. FIFA ruled that the FAI's team would be known as the Republic of Ireland with the IFA's side being called Northern Ireland. Up to that point, both Associations referred to their teams as'Ireland'; the Dublin based clubs reasserted their dominance with only Cork United capable of challenging their dominance. 1958 saw a League of Ireland side enter European competition for the first time with Shamrock Rovers going out 9–2 on aggregate to Manchester United in the first round of the European Cup. In the 1960s Waterford United became one of the league's most successful clubs as they won three titles during the decade, though Shamrock Rovers were the team of the 60s.

The Hoops won six FAI Cups in a row during a feat that has never been repeated. In 1969 the FAI decided to appoint a national team manager instead of a team of selectors. Mick Meagan became the first manager

Oldham Central and Royton (UK Parliament constituency)

Oldham Central and Royton was a parliamentary constituency centred on the Oldham and Royton areas in the north-west of Greater Manchester, England. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the constituency was created for the 1983 general election, abolished for the 1997 general election, when it was replaced by the new constituency of Oldham West & Royton. The Metropolitan Borough of Oldham wards of Alexandra, Royton North, Royton South, St James's, St Mary's, St Paul's, Waterhead

ISO 19439

ISO 19439:2006 Enterprise integration—Framework for enterprise modelling, is an international standard for enterprise modelling and enterprise integration developed by the International Organization for Standardization, based on CIMOSA and GERAM. ISO 19439 framework wants to provide a "unified conceptual basis for model-based enterprise engineering that enables consistency and interoperability of the various modelling methodologies and supporting tools; the framework does not encompass methodological processes. This standard specifies a framework, which "serves as a common basis to identify and coordinate standards development for modelling of enterprises, but not restricted to, computer integrated manufacturing, it serves as the basis for further standards for the development of models that will be computer-enactable and enable business process model-based decision support leading to model-based operation and control". According to David Shorter the ISO19439 is alike CIMOSA, has defines three dimensions for enterprise modelling: Model phase: "The enterprise model phases are based on the idea that enterprise models have a life cycle, related to the life cycle of the entity being modeled.

The phases defined in the standard are: Domain Identification, Concept Definition, Requirements Definition, Design Specification, Implementation Description, Domain Operation, Decommission Definition." View dimension: "This is based on the idea that both enterprise modelers and users filter their observations of the real world by particular views. The predefined views are: Function View, Information View, Resource View, Organization View/Decision View." Genericity dimension: "This defines the dimension from general concepts to particular models. The standard defines three levels of genericity: Generic Level, Partial Level, Particular Level" Enterprise architecture framework List of ISO standards Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology ISO 19439 description at iso.org

Theonistus

For the martyr of Vercelli, see Theonestus of Vercelli. Saint Theonistus is a saint venerated by the Catholic Church. Theonistus is venerated with two companions and Tabratha. Medieval documents give accounts of his life, which are confused, his legend is confused and complex. He may have been a martyr of the end of the end of the 5th century, his legend is presented in a shorter, older version of the 10th century, which calls him a bishop of an island called Namsia or Namsis, a longer version of the 11th century, which calls him a bishop of Philippi. According to the 11th-century account, along with Alban of Mainz, Tabra and Ursus, attended a council in Carthage, went on a pilgrimage to Rome, they met Saint Ambrose at Milan, were sent to serve as missionaries to Gallia. Ursus was killed either at Augsburg. Albinus was a cephalophore. A miracle allowed Theonistus and Tabratha to escape from Mainz, they managed to reach either Gothia or Gallia, reached Otranto or Sicily, they were martyred at Roncade or Altino by beheading, were said to have been cephalophores.

The chronological information in the sources is contradictory. Bede dates their martyrdom to the time of Diocletian, while Rabanus and Notker the Stammerer date their martyrdom to the time of Theodosius II. However, their martyrdom may date to the time of Hunneric; as evidenced by their African names and Tabratha may have been African martyrs whose relics arrived at Altino or Treviso during the persecutions of the Arian Vandals. Theonistus' cultus in Italy is attested by the foundation of a monastery dedicated to him in 710. At Treviso and his companions are first mentioned in a local calendar of 1184, their association with Saint Alban may have come from confusion with Theonistus, an early fifth century bishop of Mainz. This figure is mentioned by Gregory of Tours: "Theomastus was noted for his holiness in accordance with the meaning of his name, he is said to have been bishop of Mainz. For some unknown reason, he went to Poitiers. There he ended his present life by remaining in a pure confession.”

The grave of this Theonistus was attested to in 791 AD. According to one scholar, “Albanus of Mentz, martyred at Mentz no one knows when, according to Baeda under Diocletian according to Sigebert, who says he had been driven from Philippi with Theonistus its bishop, in 425.” This scholar goes on to write that Rabanus Maurus “goes so far abroad as to call an African bishop flying from Hunneric...”There is another martyr by this name, Theonistus of Vercelli. All three figures’ histories may have been confused; the relics of Theonistus and his two companions may have been enshrined with those associated with Liberalis of Treviso at the cathedral of Torcello after 639 AD. Theonistus' cultus remained strong. In the early 19th century, inhabitants of Trevignano hung a picture depicting St. Jerome at the feet of St. Theonistus. Villagers of Falzé, whose patron saint was St. Jerome, protested to the bishop about this "insolent picture." Bruno W. Häuptli. "Theonistus". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.

22. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 1344–1346. ISBN 3-88309-133-2. San Teonesto