Chris Amon Racing
Chris Amon Racing known as Amon, was a Formula One team established by New Zealand driver Chris Amon. It competed as a privateer team in the 1966 Italian Grand Prix as a constructor in its own right in the 1974 Formula One season. Chris Amon made his Formula One debut in 1963. After finding himself without a full-time drive in 1966, he entered a Brabham BT11 powered by a 2-litre BRM engine at the Italian Grand Prix, under the banner of "Chris Amon Racing". With most of the other cars running 3-litre engines, Amon struggled in qualifying and failed to make the grid. From 1967 until 1972, Amon drove for Ferrari and Matra, winning several non-championship F1 races while developing a reputation for bad luck in World Championship events, he struggled in 1973 with the small Italian Tecno team. But encouraged by the potential of the underdeveloped Gordon Fowell chassis, Amon tried running his own Formula One car in 1974. Financial backing came from John Dalton, the car, designed by Fowell, followed the Lotus 72 in some areas of construction, with sophisticated torsion-bar suspension and side radiators.
The venture failed completely: retiring from the first race, Amon withdrew from the second, the car was unable to qualify for two more before the team closed down due to financial problems. The AF101 was the only Formula One car built by Amon Racing. Fowell and Tom Boyce designed the car which featured a single central fuel tank, titanium torsion bars and a forward driving position. One unusual feature of the AF101 was that the fuel tank was located between the driver's cockpit and the engine. Structurally, it proved to be weak and was not ready for a Formula One appearance until the fourth race of the season, the Spanish Grand Prix. Amon was only able to qualify 23rd, due to brake-disc vibration that became worse with the tyres required for the wet race that followed. Despite cautious driving, a brake shaft broke and Amon was forced to retire after 22 laps. Following further work and testing, Amon returned for the Monaco Grand Prix and qualified twentieth, but due to mechanical problems, he was unable to start the race.
Further problems meant Amon was not able to reappear with the AF101 until the German Grand Prix when both Amon and Larry Perkins failed to qualify. Amon did not reappear with the AF101 until the Italian Grand Prix, three races before the end of the season, but this time he was unable to qualify; that signalled the end of both the car and Chris Amon Racing, leaving Amon to close down the team after the race when the money ran out. F1 Rejects profile
Cosworth is a British automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in high-performance internal combustion engines and electronics. Cosworth is based in Northampton, with American facilities in Indianapolis, Shelby Charter Township and Mooresville, North Carolina. Cosworth has collected 176 wins in Formula One as engine supplier, ranking second with most wins behind Ferrari; the company was founded as a British racing internal combustion engine maker in 1958 by Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth. Its company name:'Cosworth', was derived as a portmanteau of the surnames of its two founders. Both of the co-founders were former employees of Lotus Engineering Ltd. and Cosworth maintained a strong relationship with Colin Chapman. When the company was founded in 1958, Duckworth left Lotus, leaving Costin at the company; until 1962, Costin worked on Cosworth projects in his private time, while being active as a key Lotus engineer on the development of Lotus 15 through 26, as well as leading the Team Lotus contingent at foreign races, as evidenced by the 1962 Le Mans Lotus scandal.
Initial series production engines were sold to Lotus and many of the other racing engines up to Mk. XII were delivered to Team Lotus; the success of Formula Junior engines started bringing in non-Lotus revenues, the establishment of Formula B by the Sports Car Club of America allowed the financial foundation of Cosworth to be secured by the increased sales of Mk. XIII, a pure racing engine based on Lotus TwinCam, through its domination of the class; this newly found security enabled the company to distance itself from the Lotus Mk. VII and Elan optional road engine assembly business, allowed its resources to be concentrated on racing engine development; the first Cosworth-designed cylinder head was for SCA series. A real success was achieved with the next gear-driven double overhead camshaft four-valve FVA in 1966, when Cosworth, with a help from Chapman, convinced Ford to purchase the rights to the design, sign a development contract – including an eight-cylinder version; this resulted in the DFV, which dominated Formula One for many years.
From this time on, Cosworth was supported by Ford for many years, many of the Cosworth designs were owned by Ford and named as Ford engines under similar contracts. Another success by the BD series in the 1970s put Cosworth on a growing track. Cosworth went through a number of ownership changes. After Duckworth decided he didn't want to be involved with the day-to-day business of running a growing company, he sold out the ownership to United Engineering Industries in 1980, retaining his life presidency and day-to-day technical involvement with Cosworth, becoming a UEI board director. In 1998, Vickers sold Cosworth and Pi Research to Ford. In September, 2004 Ford announced that it was selling Cosworth and Pi Research, along with Cosworth Racing Ltd, its Jaguar Formula One team. On 15 November 2004, the sale of Cosworth was completed, to Champ Car World Series owners Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven, the current Cosworth Group; the road car engine aspect of the business was split from the racing division, following the sale of the engineering division of Cosworth to Volkswagen / Audi Group in September 1998, renamed Cosworth Technology, before being subsequently acquired by Mahle GmbH in 2005.
Cosworth Technology was renamed as MAHLE Powertrain on 1 July 2005. Since 2006, Cosworth has diversified to provide engineering consultancy, high performance electronics, component manufacture services outside of its classic motorsport customer base. Current publicised projects range from an 80 cubic centimetres diesel engine for unmanned aerial vehicles, through to an engineering partnership on some of the world's most powerful aspirated road car engines, including upcoming Aston Martin Valkyrie 1000+bhp V12. Cosworth supplied its last premier class racing engines to one F1 team in 2013, the Marussia F1 Team; the following is the list of initial products, with cylinder heads modified, but not designed by Cosworth, on Ford Kent engine cylinder blocks. The exceptions were Mk. XVII and MAE, which had intake port sleeves for downdraft carburetors brazed into the stock cast iron cylinder head, in place of the normal side draft ports, thus could be considered Cosworth designs. In addition to the above, Cosworth designed and provided the assembly work for Lotus Elan Special Equipment optional road engines with special camshafts and high compression pistons.
The final model of the above initial series was the MAE in 1965, when new rules were introduced in Formula 3 allowing up to 1,000 cubic centimetres engines with 36mm intake restrictor plate. MAE used one barrel of a two barrel Weber IDA downdraft carburetor with the other barrel blanked off; the domination of this engine was absolute as long as these regulations lasted until 1968. As Cosworth had a serious difficulty
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing is a Formula One racing team, racing under an Austrian licence and based in the United Kingdom. The team raced under a British licence from 2005 to 2006 and has raced under an Austrian licence since 2007, it is one of two Formula One teams owned by beverage company Red Bull GmbH, the other being Scuderia Toro Rosso. The team has been managed by Christian Horner since its formation in 2005; the team used engines supplied by Renault between 2007 and 2018. During this partnership they won four successive Drivers' and Constructors' Championship titles from 2010 to 2013, becoming the first Austrian-licensed team to win the title; the team began using Honda engines in 2019. The current Red Bull team can trace its origins back to the Stewart Grand Prix outfit that made its debut in 1997. Jackie Stewart sold his team to the Ford Motor Company late in 1999, Ford made the decision to rebrand the team Jaguar Racing, with little subsequent success over the next five years; the Jaguar Racing Formula One constructor and racing team was put up for sale in September 2004 when its owner, the Ford Motor Company, decided it could "no longer make a compelling business case for any of its brands to compete in F1".
Red Bull, an energy drinks company, agreed its purchase of Jaguar Racing on the final day of the sale, 15 November 2004. BBC Sport reported that Ford asked bidders for a symbolic US$1 in return for a commitment to invest US$400 million in the team over three Grand Prix seasons; the team continued to have access to the Cosworth engine developed for their 2005 chassis, the operation continued under the new title. Christian Horner was installed as the new team boss and lined up David Coulthard and Christian Klien to drive for the team. Red Bull Racing was not the start of Red Bull's involvement in Formula One, as they sponsored Sauber from 1995 to 2004. After buying a Formula One team of its own, Red Bull ended its long-term partnership with the Swiss team; the drinks company runs a young drivers programme, Red Bull Junior Team, whereby Red Bull sponsors promising young drivers. High-profile drivers who have received this backing include Enrique Bernoldi, Christian Klien, Patrick Friesacher, Vitantonio Liuzzi and Scott Speed.
Red Bull sponsors many drivers and teams competing in the Formula 2 Championship, Formula One's "feeder" series. Red Bull's owner, Dietrich Mateschitz tried to recruit former Formula One driver and BMW Motorsport chief Gerhard Berger to help guide the team through its debut season. However, this was never realised. For 2005, the chassis was christened the RB1. Red Bull Racing used Cosworth engines in its maiden year due to the ease of continuing with the engine Jaguar Racing used. Former McLaren driver David Coulthard led the team. Coulthard was chosen for his experience, considered ideal to help lead the fledgling team. For the second car, Red Bull shared the drive between two of its young sponsored drivers: Christian Klien, who had driven for Jaguar in 2004 and 2004 F3000 champion Vitantonio Liuzzi. At first it was announced that Klien and Liuzzi would swap driving duty every four races, but by the end of the season Liuzzi had appeared only four times. Red Bull's first year in Formula One was a massive success compared to their predecessors, Jaguar Racing.
They were 6th in the Constructors' Championship for most of the season, only beaten by the fast-improving BAR Hondas at the end of the season. In a single season they amassed more points than Jaguar had in 2003 and 2004. Coulthard, after a poor 2003 and 2004 with McLaren, was a revelation for the team while Klien showed that he had vastly improved from 2004. Overall they scored 34 points. Red Bull was occasional podium challenger for most of their debut season. American driver Scott Speed, who rose through the ranks in the American equivalent of Red Bull Junior Team, Red Bull Driver Search, was Red Bull Racing's third driver in 2005 for the Canadian and United States Grands Prix. Speed was attractive to Red Bull because of his American nationality, which would raise the profile of both Red Bull and Formula One in America, a market where the sport has traditionally struggled to make an impact. On 23 April 2005, the team announced a deal to use Ferrari engines in 2006; this coincided with a rule change mandating the use of V8 engines, making it that both Red Bull Racing and Ferrari would use the same specification engine.
Red Bull Racing continued to use Michelin tyres, rather than the Bridgestones used by Ferrari. On 8 November 2005, Red Bull Racing poached Adrian Newey, the successful McLaren technical director. On 15 December 2005, the Red Bull RB2, hit the track for the first time. David Coulthard completed a handful of laps of the Silverstone circuit in England, declared the new car was a "sexy looking thing". In early testing Red Bull was plagued with overheating of car components. At the opening race of the 2006 season in Bahrain, Christian Klien qualified eighth. Coulthard had problems when he flat spotted a tyre fighting with Nick Heidfeld, finished 10th. In Malaysia, Coulthard made up several places from back of the grid but was forced to retire with hydraulic problems, while Klien had an opening lap incident with Kimi Räikkönen and after pitting for repairs retired with hydraulic failure. Coulthard got a point in Australia after Scott Speed was penalised for passing him under the yellow flags; the following races were marred with retirements and lowly
Rolf Johann Stommelen was a racing driver from Siegen, Germany. He participated in 63 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one podium, scored a total of 14 championship points, he participated in several non-Championship Formula One races. One of the best endurance sports car racing drivers of the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, Stommelen won the 24 Hours of Daytona 4 times. Stommelen won the pole position for the 1969 24 Hours of Le Mans in a Porsche 917 a year after finishing third in a Porsche 908. In this year, he became the first man to reach speeds exceeding 350 km/h on the Le Mans circuit's Mulsanne Straight in his Porsche 917 LH. In 1970, he made his Formula One debut with Brabham with sponsorship obtained from the German magazine Auto, Motor und Sport and raced both sportscars and Formula 1 throughout the 1970s, he would play a role in the end of the Spanish Grand Prix's tenure at Montjuich Park in Barcelona when he crashed there in the 1975 race after the rear wing of his Hill-GH1 failed which caused his car to fly into the crowd, resulting in the deaths of five spectators and him being injured.
After his recovery, Stommelen returned to sports car racing, winning races for Alfa Romeo and winning the 24 Hours of Daytona a further three times. In 1976 Stommelen had the honour to drive the maiden race of the Porsche 936 at the 300 km Nürburgring race. With a black body and without the air-intake, the 936 of this race became known as the black widow, he qualified second, between the factory Renault Alpine A442 of Patrick Depailler and Jean-Pierre Jabouille in first and third. The Renault team was eager to win at Porsche's home soil. On race-day in heavy rain, Stommelen managed to overtake the Renault in front right after the start. Now in the lead, he rushed towards the Nordkehre and deliberately left room for the Renaults in pursuit to overtake; the Renaults, wanting to take back the lead after 2 of 300 km, rushed past Stommelen into the water puddles and crashed into the catch-fences in tandem, with Stommelen taking back the lead again. This led to the saying "On the Nordschleife, you can never brake than Rolf Stommelen!".
After the sixth lap, the throttle cable of the 936 stuck in the "open" position. But instead of giving up, Stommelen continued the race by turning off the master switch at the bends to brake, turning on the master switch again after the bends to accelerate throughout the rest of the race, taking second place at the end of the race. In 1978 he was given the task by the Porsche factory to drive the Porsche 935 "Moby Dick" in Martini Colors; the 78 "Moby Dick" had a 3.2-litre Turbo Engine that produced 845 HP and Stommelen was, with 235 mph, the fastest man on the Mulsanne Straight, faster than the prototypes like the Porsche 936 and the Renault Alpine A442B which won the race. Due to high fuel-consumption of the engine, Stommelen had to pit too to battle for the win, he continued at Le Mans with the Porsche 935, nearly winning the 24 hours of Le Mans with Dick Barbour and actor Paul Newman as co-drivers in 1979, only to be set back by a 23-minute-long pit stop caused by a stuck wheel nut. The team would not have come so far, if Stommelen had not been seconds faster than his team mates each lap.
He drove Toj SC320 prototype sportscars with some success against the works Alfa team. He competed in one NASCAR Grand National series event in 1971 at Talladega Superspeedway in a former Holman-Moody Ford which Mario Andretti used to win the 1967 Daytona 500, rebuilt as a Mercury Cyclone, with Jake Elder as crew chief; that car was sold to independent driver Darrell Waltrip to use a year in his Winston Cup Series debut in 1972, starting a career which led to Waltrip's International Motorsports Hall of Fame induction in April 2005. He was active in the German GT Championship Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft, winning the championship in 1977 for the Gelo Racing Team in a Porsche 935. A master at the Nürburgring, he was a constant winner of races held there. In the 1980s he was still a sought after prototype pilot and achieved success driving the Kremer CK5, Lancia LC1 and Porsche 956 cars. Stommelen was killed in a crash during the Los Angeles Times Grand Prix 6 hour International Motor Sports Association GT Championship event at Riverside International Raceway on 24 April 1983.
He was running a John Fitzpatrick entered Porsche 935 with codriver Derek Bell. Stommelen had just taken over the car from Bell and was running in second place when the rear wing broke due to mechanical failure at 190 mph; the car became uncontrollable, slammed against a concrete wall and caught fire. Stommelen died of head injuries. ‡ Graded drivers not eligible for European Formula Two Championship points
1972 Austrian Grand Prix
The 1972 Austrian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Österreichring on 13 August 1972. It was race 9 of 12 in both the 1972 World Championship of Drivers and the 1972 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the 54-lap race was won by Lotus driver Emerson Fittipaldi. Denny Hulme finished second for his teammate Peter Revson came in third. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Alta Car and Engineering Company
The Alta Car and Engineering Company was a British sports and racing car manufacturer known as Alta. Their cars contested five FIA World Championship races between 1950 and 1952, as well as Grand Prix events prior to this, they supplied engines to a small number of other constructors, most notably the Connaught and HWM teams. The company was founded by engineer Geoffrey Taylor in Surbiton and produced its first automobile in 1929. Alta's first vehicle was a sports car powered by a 1.1L engine, featuring an aluminium block, wet liners, shaft-driven twin overhead camshafts, which Taylor designed himself. It was offered in aspirated or supercharged form giving 49 or 76 bhp. A choice of four speed non-synchromesh or pre-selector gearboxes was available; these were mounted on a low-slung chassis frame with open two- or four-seat bodies. Thirteen were made; this design, its 1.5L and 2L sister cars, sold but in limited numbers, right up to the outbreak of war in 1939. With the highest power option the car was capable of 0 -- 60 mph in 7 seconds.
In 1937 the company introduced front independent suspension to the chassis. They became popular among club racers due to their ability to be converted from 1.5L to 2L or vice versa, allowing drivers on a limited budget to contest more than one class without having to buy a second car. In 1934, Taylor produced the first Alta to be designed for competition; the resulting light-weight, off-set single seat voiturette cars achieved quite a reputation in shorter events such as hill-climbs and time-trials. Once again, Alta's keen pricing, in comparison to the expensive ERA models, resulted in many sales to amateur racers. However, a lack of reliability kept the Alta name out of the long distance Grand Prix events. A revised voiturette design appeared with independent front suspension. George Abecassis had some success with this design, winning a string of events before the Second World War interrupted; as war approached, Taylor was drafting designs for a new straight-8 engine and a third-generation voiturette, this time with independent suspension.
This last prewar car was advanced for its time, was nearly complete in late 1939. However, as soon as war was declared, Alta's production capabilities were given over to the war effort, production of the new designs was halted. Despite Alta's diminutive size, their status as a road car manufacturer, Alta was in fact the first British constructor to produce a new Grand Prix car following the end of World War II. Austerity limitations of raw materials did not stop Taylor beginning production of designs he had been developing throughout the war years, the Alta GP car appeared in 1948, he restarted production of the road-going sports cars, although without further development funding the popularity of these models dwindled. Prior to 1948, the last pre-war Alta was campaigned with varying degrees of success; the Alta GP car was a development of the pre-war design, but was powered by a supercharged 1.5L engine, developing 230bhp, retained the 4-speed pre-selector gearbox of the prewar cars. Taylor developed the independent suspension design further, introducing wishbones and rubber linkage bushings.
The first car was supplied to privateer driver George Abecassis, who campaigned it throughout 1948 and into 1949, but only finished once. Abecassis would go on to use Alta engines to power his HWM team from 1951 to 1955. Modifications were made to the bodywork and gearchange for the subsequent 1949 and 1950 GP2 and GP3 vehicles, GP3 gaining a two-stage supercharger. Once again they were built to order, supplied to Geoffrey Crossley and Joe Kelly respectively. Crossley could only manage seventh place. In 1950 he set a number of speed records over 50 km and 100 km at the Montlhéry circuit. Kelly concentrated on Irish races, his best finish was third in the 1952 Ulster Trophy. Both drivers took their respective chassis to the 1950 British Grand Prix, the first Formula One World Championship race. However, while Kelly finished, he was unclassified. Kelly carried out extensive modification and rebuilding work on GP3, running it as the Irish Racing Automobiles car during 1952 and 1953, his most significant change was to replace the Alta engine with a Bristol unit.
Lacking the funding necessary to develop a Formula One successor to the GP design, Taylor decided to move into the junior Formula Two category. The engine produced was a 1970 cc inline 4-cylinder aspirated unit, developing around 130 bhp. Alta's own chassis design followed the preceding GP car closely, this resulted in an overweight car considering the reduced power available from the unsupercharged motors. Tony Gaze and Gordon Watson took F2/1 and F2/2 on a tour of European races, but good results were hard to come by. Indeed, the F2 chassis was so much like the GP design that the uncompleted GP/4 machine was converted and became F2/3. F2/3 was no more successful than its siblings. F2/4 followed in construction and was sold to Orlando Simpson before Peter Whitehead placed an order for what was to become the last Alta car built: F2/5; this F2 Alta was entered for World Championship Grands Prix events, first driven by himself in the 1952 French Grand Prix, by his half-brother Graham Whitehead at the 1952 British Grand Prix.
Neither run produced a points finish, but this was not to be the last time that the Alta name appeared in Formula One. While the F2 engine
Williams Grand Prix Engineering
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited racing in Formula One as ROKiT Williams Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded by team owner Sir Frank Williams and automotive engineer Sir Patrick Head, it is still run by Williams; the team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams's two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations: Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf–Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called "FW" a number, the FW being the initials of team owner, Frank Williams; the team's first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the following year, Switzerland's Clay Regazzoni won Williams's first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. At the 1997 British Grand Prix, Canadian Jacques Villeneuve scored the team's 100th race victory, making Williams one of only three teams in Formula One, alongside Ferrari and fellow British team McLaren, to win 100 races.
Williams won nine Constructors' Championships between 1980 and 1997. This stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Drivers for Williams have included Australia's Alan Jones; each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one Drivers' title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones and Villeneuve defended their title while still with the team. Piquet moved to Lotus after winning the 1987 championship, Mansell moved to the American-based Indy Cars after winning the 1992 championship, Prost retired from racing after his 4th World Championship in 1993, while Hill moved to Arrows after winning in 1996. No driver who has won a drivers' title with Williams has managed to win a title again. Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most with Renault, winning five of their nine Constructors' titles with the French company. Along with Ferrari, McLaren and Renault, Williams is one of a group of five teams that won every Constructors' Championship between 1979 and 2008 and every Drivers' Championship from 1984 to 2008.
Williams F1 has business interests beyond Formula One racing. Based in Grove, Oxfordshire, UK, Williams has established Williams Advanced Engineering and Williams Hybrid Power which take technology developed for Formula One and adapt it for commercial applications. In April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a technology centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfit, Frank Williams Racing Cars, failed to achieve the success he desired. Despite the promise of a new owner, Canadian millionaire Walter Wolf, the team's rebranding as Wolf–Williams Racing in 1976, the cars were not competitive. Williams left the rechristened Walter Wolf Racing and moved to Didcot to rebuild his team as "Williams Grand Prix Engineering". Frank recruited young engineer Patrick Head to work for the team, creating the "Williams–Head" partnership. Reuters reported on 20 November 2009 that Williams and Patrick Head had sold a minority stake in the team to an investment company led by Austrian Toto Wolff who said that it was purely a commercial decision.
In February 2011, Williams F1 announced plans to raise capital through an initial public offering on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in March 2011, with Sir Frank Williams remaining the majority shareholder and team principal after the IPO. As of December 2017, ownership is as follows: Frank Williams. Williams entered a custom March 761 for the 1977 season. Lone driver Patrick Nève appeared at 11 races that year, starting with the Spanish Grand Prix; the new team failed to score a point. For the 1978 season, Patrick Head designed his first Williams car: the FW06. Williams signed Australian Alan Jones, who had won the Austrian Grand Prix the previous season for a devastated Shadow team following the death of their lead driver, Tom Pryce. Jones's first race for the team was the Argentine Grand Prix where he qualified the lone Williams car in 14th position, but retired after 36 laps with a fuel system failure; the team scored its first championship points two rounds at the South African Grand Prix when Jones finished fourth.
Williams managed their first podium position at the United States Grand Prix, where the Australian came second, some 20 seconds behind the Ferrari of future Williams driver Carlos Reutemann. Williams ended the season in tenth place in the Constructors' Championship, with a respectable 16 points, while Alan Jones finished 12th in the Drivers' Championship. Towards the end of 1978 Frank Williams recruited Frank Dernie to join Patrick Head in the design office. Head designed the FW07 for the 1979 season with Frank Dernie picking up the aerodynamic development and skirt design; this was the team's first ground effect car, a technology first introduced by Colin Chapman and Team Lotus. Williams obtained membership of the Formula One Constructors' Association which expressed a preference for teams to run two cars, so Jones was partnered by Swiss driver Clay Regazzoni, it was not until the seventh round of the championship, the Monaco Grand Prix, that they achieved a points-scoring position. Regazzoni came close to taking the team's first win but finished second, less than a second behind race winner Jody Scheckter.
The next round at Dijon is remembered for