Madison is the capital of the U. S. state of Wisconsin and the seat of Dane County. As of July 1, 2017, Madison's estimated population of 255,214 made it the second-largest city in Wisconsin by population, after Milwaukee, the 82nd-largest in the United States; the city forms the core of the Madison Metropolitan Area which includes Dane County and neighboring Iowa and Columbia counties for a population of 654,230. Located on an isthmus between Lake Mendota and Lake Monona, the city is home to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the Wisconsin State Capitol, Henry Vilas Zoo, an extensive network of parks and bike trails. Known for its progressive culture and Democratic politics, Madison has been a location for political activity and demonstrations. Madison is a growing technology economy and the region is home to the headquarters of Epic Systems, American Family Insurance, American Girl, Sub-Zero, Lands' End, a regional office for Google, the University Research Park, as well as many biotech and heath systems startups.
A 2018 report ranked Madison 14th among the top fifteen cities worldwide for venture capital deals per capita. Before Europeans, humans inhabited the area around Madison for about 12,000 years. In 1800, the Madison area was Ho-Chunk Country; the Native Americans called this place Taychopera, meaning "land of the four lakes". Effigy mounds, constructed for ceremonial and burial purposes over 1,000 years earlier, dotted the rich prairies around the lakes. Madison's European origins begin in 1829, when former federal judge James Duane Doty purchased over a thousand acres of swamp and forest land on the isthmus between Lakes Mendota and Monona, with the intention of building a city in the Four Lakes region, he purchased 1,261 acres for $1,500. When the Wisconsin Territory was created in 1836 the territorial legislature convened in Belmont, Wisconsin. One of the legislature's tasks was to select a permanent location for the territory's capital. Doty lobbied aggressively for Madison as the new capital, offering buffalo robes to the freezing legislators and promising choice Madison lots at discount prices to undecided voters.
He had James Slaughter plat two cities in the area, Madison and "The City of Four Lakes", near present-day Middleton. Doty named his city Madison for James Madison, the fourth President of the U. S. who had died on June 28, 1836, he named the streets for the other 39 signers of the U. S. Constitution. Although the city existed only on paper, the territorial legislature voted on November 28, 1836 in favor of Madison as its capital because of its location halfway between the new and growing cities around Milwaukee in the east and the long established strategic post of Prairie du Chien in the west, between the populated lead mining regions in the southwest and Wisconsin's oldest city, Green Bay, in the northeast; the cornerstone for the Wisconsin capitol was laid in 1837, the legislature first met there in 1838. On October 9, 1839, Kintzing Prichett registered the plat of Madison at the registrar's office of the then-territorial Dane County. Madison was incorporated as a village in 1846, with a population of 626.
When Wisconsin became a state in 1848, Madison remained the capital, the following year it became the site of the University of Wisconsin. The Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad connected to Madison in 1854. Madison incorporated as a city in 1856, with a population of 6,863, leaving the unincorporated remainder as a separate Town of Madison; the original capitol was replaced in 1863 and the second capitol burned in 1904. The current capitol was built between 1906 and 1917. During the Civil War, Madison served as a center of the Union Army in Wisconsin; the intersection of Milwaukee, East Washington and North Streets is known as Union Corners, because a tavern there was the last stop for Union soldiers before heading to fight the Confederates. Camp Randall, on the west side of Madison, was built and used as a training camp, a military hospital, a prison camp for captured Confederate soldiers. After the war ended, the Camp Randall site was absorbed into the University of Wisconsin and Camp Randall Stadium was built there in 1917.
In 2004 the last vestige of active military training on the site was removed when the stadium renovation replaced a firing range used for ROTC training. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Madison counterculture was centered in the neighborhood of Mifflin and Bassett streets, referred to as "Miffland"; the area contained many three-story apartments where students and counterculture youth lived, painted murals, operated the co-operative grocery store, the Mifflin Street Co-op. Residents of the neighborhood came into conflict with authorities during the administration of Republican mayor Bill Dyke. Dyke was viewed by students as a direct antagonist in efforts to protest the Vietnam War because of his efforts to suppress local protests; the annual Mifflin Street Block Party became a focal point for protest, although by the late 1970s it had become a mainstream community party. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, thousands of students and other citizens took part in anti-Vietnam War marches and demonstrations, with more violent incidents drawing national attention to the city and UW campus.
These include: the 1967 student protest with 74 injured.
Spanish–American War Soldier
Spanish–American War Soldier is a public art work created by the American Bronze Company and located in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The bronze figure depicts a uniformed soldier with an ammunition belt around his waist and a rifle in hand, it is located on West Wisconsin Avenue between North 9th and 10th Streets in the Court of Honor near the Milwaukee Public Library
Birds of Knowledge of Good and Evil
Birds of Knowledge of Good and Evil is a public artwork by Polish sculptor Magdalena Abakanowicz. It is located on the Kilbourn Avenue boulevard in Milwaukee, United States; the 2001 aluminum sculpture consists six pieces organized in columns. The column heights are 4–6 meters, the dimensions of the birds are: height 100–160 cm, width 190–260 cm, length 120–135 cm. Birds of Knowledge of Good and Evil is an aluminum sculpture located near E Kilbourn Ave & N Cass St, Wisconsin 53202; the sculpture faces toward Lake Michigan. It is across from the Woman's Club of Wisconsin, it contains each piece depicting a bird. Three of the birds have the other three birds have four wings. All of the bird's wings are at different angles; the six birds are arranged to mimic the ground. Although the sculpture represents birds they are not depicted in full detail. Like many of Abakanowicz's sculptures Birds of Knowledge of Good and Evil lack heads; when asked about her work Abakanowicz states, "perhaps the experience of the crowd, waiting passively in line, but ready to trample, destroy or afore on command like a headless creature, became the core of my analysis."
Along with the bird's lack of heads their surface is that of an organic texture. This is juxtaposed with their aluminum material. There is a plaque in the lawn, it reads: Magdalena AbakanowiczBirds of Knowledge of Evil. 2001. Commissioned by members of the Woman's Club of Wisconsin on the occasion of its 125th Anniversary. Celebrating Milwaukee's tradition of community service The artist wishes to acknowledge the special assistance of Artur Starewicz, Warsaw Poland Yankee Hill is one of the oldest neighborhoods on Milwaukee's East Side, it was once a wealthy neighborhood and to this day still retains its wealth. In order to honor the Woman's Club of Wisconsin on their 125th anniversary Abakanowicz was commissioned to make a public artwork for Milwaukee; the piece was meant to honor the club, as well as to pay respect to the club's members and their dedicated years of volunteer work. Quotes by Abakanowicz "I'm frightened by crowds of people, birds or insects swarming in great masses. People in an airport, people on a metro or on a tram, can seem threatening, horrible, a brainless entity.
Today we are pushed by quantity in general. I create these crowds of figures as a warning: they're saying we are too many.""I feel overawed by quantity where counting no longer makes sense. By unrepeatability within such a quantity. By creatures of nature gathered in herds, species, in which each individual, while subservient to the mass, retains some distinguishing features. A crowd of people, insects, or leaves is a mysterious assemblage of variants of certain prototype. A riddle of nature's abhorrence of exact inability to produce it. Just as the human hand cannot repeat its own gesture, I invoke this disturbing law, switching my own immobile herds into that rhythm." Agora "Female Artist Month – Magdalena Abakanowicz", Art Factory Białystok
Letter Carriers' Monument
The Letter Carriers' Monument is a piece of public art by American artist Elliot Offner, located on a triangular plot formed by North 2nd Street, North Plankinton Avenue and West Wells Street in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the United States. Created in 1989, the monument depicts three letter carriers and was commissioned in celebration of the centennial of the National Association of Letter Carriers; the bronze sculpture depicts three figures representing letter carriers from across NALC's history: A white man with a mustache wearing a turn of the 20th century uniform. The sculpture is set on a black granite base, with the north and south faces of the base reading: "In honor of the men and women/ who have delivered for America/ in rain and snow./ And in tribute to their Union,/ the National Association of Letter Carriers,/ founded across Plankinton Avenue/ from this site on August 30, 1889./ Dedicated August 30, 1989." The monument measures 66 x 67 x 56 inches, was created in 1989. The sculpture is a tribute to the National Association of Letter Carriers, commissioned to celebrate the centennial of its founding.
The group's history began when the United States Postal Service gave employment preference to veterans after the American Civil War. As a result, there were many veterans employed by the Postal Service across the United States. After the Postal Service administration refused to recognize the eight-hour day, a group of veteran Milwaukee postal workers organized 60 postal worker veterans from 18 states who met in a tavern on Plankinton Avenue on August 30, 1889 following the national encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic in Milwaukee; the postal workers agreed to form the National Association of Letter Carriers, demanding an eight-hour work day, a higher pay scale, a pension plan, service stripes for every four years of service. Elliot Offner was commissioned through the Franz Bader Gallery in New York to create the monument, he built the maquette in England while he was there as a visiting artist. He worked with the Tallix Foundry in Beacon, New York to cast the sculpture; the work was sent to Milwaukee by truck from New York.
Centennial celebrations lasted four days and included a parade and the dedication of the monument by Vincent R. Sombrotto, NALC's president. More than four thousand letter carriers and their families attended the festivities; the U. S. Postal Service issued a postage stamp depicting three contemporary letter carriers, to commemorate the centennial day. Buck and Palmer's 1995 Outdoor Sculpture in Milwaukee: A Cultural and Historical Guidebook observes: "The downtown Milwaukee site of the monument is correct in a historical sense, but unsuccessful in its public presence. Site considerations for the monument were overlooked and it stands on the small crowded triangle with annoying awkwardness."The sculpture is well maintained
The Juneau Monument is a public artwork by American artist Richard Henry Park located on the grounds of Juneau Park, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The base of the statue is made of limestone. On top of the base is a bronze statue of Solomon Juneau. On each side of the base are bronze reliefs; the statue is 5 feet wide by 15 feet high. The front of the limestone base is inscribed with the name of the figure depicted in the sculpture, “Solomon Juneau." The back of the base is inscribed, “The gift of Charles T. Bradley, William H. Metcalf to the City of Milwaukee." On the north side of the base is a bronze relief of Juneau being greeted by Native Americans. Underneath the relief, an inscription reads, “Solomon Juneau, First Mayor of Milwaukee, MDCCCXXXXVI." On the south side of the base is a bronze relief of Juneau being elected to Congress. Underneath the relief is the inscription, “Solomon Juneau, First Mayor of Milwaukee, MDCCCXXXXVI.” The memorial statue is 15 by 5 feet in size. The sculpture was unveiled on July 1887 by Juneau's granddaughter, Hattie White.
Solomon Juneau was a French Canadian born in a small village near Montreal, Lower Canada on August 9, 1793. Juneau was a French trader with the American Fur Company. In 1818, the American Fur Company established a trading post in Milwaukee. Juneau decided to purchase the land between the Milwaukee River and Lake Michigan and named it Juneau Town, he was the first president of the Village of Milwaukee. He was elected the first mayor of the City of Milwaukee in 1846. Juneau died in 1856 while making an Indian payment for the U. S. Government at a reservation in Keshena. Shoe manufacturers Charles T. Bradley and William H. Metcalf, friends of the Juneau family, donated the monument as a gift in remembrance of the first mayor of Milwaukee. Melissa Sue Andersen Solomon Juneau from the Smithsonian's Save Outdoor Sculpture! survey Juneau Monument, Greetings from Milwaukee, UWM Archives
The Bronze Fonz is a public artwork by American artist Gerald P. Sawyer, located on the Milwaukee Riverwalk in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the Bronze Fonz depicts Henry Winkler as "The Fonz," a character in the 1970s television series Happy Days, set in Milwaukee. The sculpture, made of bronze, depicts actor Henry Winkler as he appeared in his role as Arthur Fonzarelli. Fonzarelli was an iconic character in the 1970s television show Happy Days, a sitcom about a family in 1950s–1960s Milwaukee, he stands in his usual attire, a leather jacket and jeans, gives a two-handed thumbs up gesture, as he did in Happy Days. The statue is located on the Milwaukee Riverwalk, just south of Wells Street, it is accompanied by an inscription. The Bronze Fonz was commissioned by Visit Milwaukee, a non-profit group with the purpose of promoting tourism and bringing new businesses to Milwaukee. Visit Milwaukee raised $85,000 to commission the statue. Several other American cities had erected statues portraying 1950s and 1960s television characters, including a statue of Mary Tyler Moore in Minneapolis and a statue of Jackie Gleason outside the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan.
The sculpture was unveiled on August 18, 2008. Most of the Happy Days cast, including Winkler, Marion Ross, Tom Bosley, Erin Moran, Don Most, Anson Williams, attended the dedication ceremony. Winkler referred to the statue as "unbelievable." Mike Brenner a local gallery owner and executive director of Milwaukee Artist Resource Network, objected to the statue, planned to be located at the intersection of Wisconsin and Water Streets, a prominent downtown site. He threatened to close his gallery and resign his position in MARN if "that stupid Fonzie sculpture" was erected there. Brenner received death threats for speaking out against the Bronze Fonz, reposted several on his web site; the CEO of the Milwaukee Art Museum, David Gordon, along with Milwaukee Journal Sentinel arts critic Mary-Louise Schumacher and other Milwaukee arts dignitaries opposed the statue, erected instead at the Riverwalk site. Brenner closed his gallery in May 2008, opened a Milwaukee microbrewery; the statue is referenced in the lyrics of the 2014 song "Milwaukee" by The Both.
The song, which recounted the local origin of the collaboration between the duo of Aimee Mann and Ted Leo, was the first single from their self-titled debut album. In the 2015 novel In the Drink by Allyson K. Abbott, part of a cozy mystery series set in Milwaukee, the body of a murder victim is found underneath the Bronze Fonz statue
RiverSculpture! are public art displays found along the Milwaukee Riverwalk in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Information kiosks stationed near each presentation offer self-guided walking tours of this annual outdoor exhibition; each year, new sculpture pieces are unveiled at the opening of RiverSplash!, a three-day summer festival held annually along the Milwaukee River, until the festival's cancellation prior to the 2010 festival. The 2009 exhibition featured 15 unique contemporary sculptures from various artists, which are positioned at locations between Wisconsin Avenue and Cherry Street. Limitation Series: Bowls by Paul Sebben, 1993 Epiphanic Recurve Redux by Bilhenry Walker, 1995 Laureate by Seymour Lipton, 1969 Acqua Grylli by Beth Sahagian, 2001 Pere Jacques Marquette restored by Tom Queoff, 1987 Trigon by Allen Ditson, 1970 Victoria by Jim Agard, 2001 Round Ring by John Ready, 2009 Dream with the Fishes for Aurora by Cork Marcheschi, 1998 Gertie the Duck by Gwendolyn Gillen, 1997 Octagonal Ring by John Ready, 2009 Dancing Through Life by Schomer Lichtner, 2003 Gertie Gets Her Ducks in a Row by Benjamin Rothschild, 2007 You Rise Above The World by Richard Taylor, 1999 The Manpower Sculpture Collection In 1998, seven sculptors from Wisconsin were selected by a committee of educators, business people and architects, to lend artworks for installation along the Milwaukee River.
The first installment included: Stephen Feren's OK Ready for Zora, Narendra Patel's Cuculidae, Bilhenry Walker's Epiphanic Recurve Redux, John Richardson's Dura-Membrane, Claire Lieberman's Riversponge, Thomas Uebelherr's Bath Tub Madonna, Peter Flanary's Island. An initial 30,000 brochures were printed to describe each piece and give locations to the various sculptures, which included permanent sculptures by Seymour Lipton, Allen Ditson and Gwendolyn Gillen; the sculptures are intended to be on loan for one year, but the artists or owners of the artworks have allowed for longer displays, a few are owned by the Milwaukee Riverwalk District which organizes the exhibit. Since its first presentation, RiverSculpture! has displayed works by more than 75 sculptors, includes 12 permanent sculptures. John Ready's River Gems Urban Jewelry Collection, created from items of daily life was the featured installation of 2009; the entire multi-piece sculpture exhibit will be on display through October 2010.