DN Tower 21
DN Tower 21 is an office building in Tokyo, Japan. It includes the former Dai-Ichi Seimei Building, in which Douglas MacArthur had his headquarters during the occupation of Japan following World War II; the Government of Tokyo designated DN Tower 21 as a historical building in 2004. The shorter five-storey building, the former headquarters of SCAP, was completed in 1933 for the headquarters of the Norinchukin Bank, the Dai-Ichi Seimei began to house its offices in the building in 1938; the shorter building was designed by the Japanese architect Yoshikazu Uchida. The taller 21-storey building began construction in 1988 and was completed in 1993, was designed by the Irish-American architect Kevin Roche. Shimizu Corporation was contracted to construct both buildings. Government of Tokyo site
Not to be confused with Camp A. A. Humphreys in Virginia, now known as Fort Belvoir. Camp Humphreys known as United States Army Garrison-Humphreys, is a United States Army garrison located near Anjeong-ri and Pyeongtaek metropolitan areas in South Korea. Camp Humphreys is home to Desiderio Army Airfield, the busiest U. S. Army airfield with an 8,124-foot runway. In addition to the airfield, there are several U. S. Army direct support and tactical units located there, including the Combat Aviation Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division; the garrison cost US$11 billion. Camp Humphreys is the largest U. S. overseas military base, housing some 500 buildings and amenities. In 2004, an agreement was reached between the United States and South Korean governments to move all U. S. forces to garrisons south of the Han River and relocate the United States Forces Korea and United Nations Command Headquarters to Camp Humphreys. Those movements were expected to be completed by 2016 to transform Camp Humphreys into the largest U.
S. Army garrison in Asia, but as of 2018 this has not yet happened. Under that plan, the 28,500 U. S. troop presence in South Korea will be consolidated by 2016 and United States Forces Korea will move from Yongsan Garrison in Seoul to Camp Humphreys. Camp Humphreys is 40 miles south of the former base in Seoul and about 60 miles from the Demilitarized Zone that divides North and South Korea; that puts the base about twice as far from North Korea as its predecessor, one of the main reasons for the move. The town of Anjeong-ri is located adjacent to the Camp Humphreys main gate. Smaller farming villages are located along the perimeter; the installation covers an area of 1,210 acres. As part of the Yongsan Relocation Plan, that number will grow by 2,328 acres to 3,538 acres; the immediate area around Camp Humphreys is agricultural and consists of rice fields. There are some rolling hills in the vicinity, but for the most part the elevations are less than 150 feet. There is a small mountain range about seven miles south of Camp Humphreys, with peaks reaching 958 feet in elevation.
Larger mountains are located to the northeast and southwest, all within 20 miles with peaks reaching to 2,293 feet in elevation to the south and 1,000 feet in elevation to the southeast. Urban areas are situated to the northeast of the airfield. Seoul is located 55 miles northeast; the Ansong River flows from the east to west toward the West Sea and passes three miles northwest of the airfield. About 12 miles west of Camp Humphreys, the river widens and empties into the Asan Bay, near Koon-ni Range; the numerous areas of water around Camp Humphreys has an effect on the weather. The abundant moisture is responsible for stratus which occurs in the area; this is true from the spring through fall. The history of Camp Humphreys dates back to the beginning of the 20th century when, in 1919 the Japanese military built the Pyeongtaek Airfield. During the Korean War, Pyeongtaek Airfield was named K-6 after being repaired and enhanced by the U. S. Air Force to accommodate a U. S. Marine Air Group and the 614th Tactical Control Group.
In 1962, the base was renamed Camp Humphreys in honor of Chief Warrant Officer Benjamin K. Humphreys, a pilot assigned to the 6th Transportation Company, who died in a helicopter accident. In 1964, Humphreys District command was activated as a separate installation command of the Eighth U. S. Army providing all direct support and maintenance, storage of all conventional ammunition in Korea, Adjutant General publications and training aides and the Eighth U. S. Army Milk Plant. In 1974, with the activation of the 19th Support Brigade, Camp Humphreys was redesignated as U. S. Army Garrison, Camp Humphreys. USAG-Camp Humphreys was still responsible for all affairs affecting personnel stationed at Camp Humphreys, but the 19th Support Command was responsible for all support activities vital to the Eighth U. S. Army and its subordinate units; those units reporting to the 23rd Direct Support Group reported to the 19th Support Command in Daegu. Only the basic functions remained with USAG Camp Humphreys.
The 23rd Direct Support Group and 19th Support were renamed 23rd Support Group and 19th Theater Army Area Command. On 17 June 1996 the United States Army Support Activity Area III was established and made responsible for the peacetime support mission for Camp Humphreys, Camp Long, Camp Eagle and U. S. Army units assigned to Suwon Airbase. On 1 June 2005, the U. S. Army announced that Camps Long would close. Both camps were later closed on 4 June 2010, consolidating installation support activities on Camp Humphreys; the Daechuri Protests were a series of large protests against the South Korean and American governments' plan to expand Camp Humphreys to make it the main base for most U. S. troops in South Korea. It concluded when residents of Daechuri and other small villages near Pyeongtaek agreed to a government settlement to leave their homes in 2006 and allow for the base expansion. Compensation for the land averaged 600 million won per resident. Under a 2004 land-swap pact, the U. S. promised to return a combined 170 square kilometers of land housing 42 military bases and related facilities to South Korea and move U.
S. military forces from garrisons in and north of Seoul to Camp Humphreys. With the creation of the Installation Management Command on 24 October 2006, U. S. Army Support Activity Area III was redesignated as U. S. Army Garrison Humphreys and Area III on 15 March 2007. On 13 November 2007, USFK and South Korean officials conducted a groundbreaking ceremony for the expansion of Camp Humphreys. Under th
South West Pacific theatre of World War II
The South West Pacific theatre, during World War II, was a major theatre of the war between the Allies and the Axis. It included the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Borneo and its mandate Territory of New Guinea and the western part of the Solomon Islands; this area was defined by the Allied powers' South West Pacific Area command. In the South West Pacific theatre, Japanese forces fought against the forces of the United States and Australia. New Zealand, the Netherlands, the Philippines, United Kingdom, other Allied nations contributed forces; the South Pacific became a major theatre of the war following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. US warplans called for a counteroffensive across the Central Pacific, but this was disrupted by the loss of battleships at Pearl Harbor. During the First South Pacific Campaign, US forces sought to establish a defensive perimeter against additional Japanese attacks; this was followed by the Second South Pacific Campaign. The U. S. General Douglas MacArthur had been in command of the American forces in the Philippines in what was to become the South West Pacific theatre, but was part of a larger theatre that encompassed the South West Pacific, the Southeast Asian mainland and the North of Australia, under the short lived American-British-Dutch-Australian Command.
Shortly after the collapse of ABDACOM, supreme command of the South West Pacific theatre passed to MacArthur, appointed Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area on 30 March 1942. In the other major theatre in the Pacific region, known as the Pacific Ocean theatre, Allied forces were commanded by US Admiral Chester Nimitz. Both MacArthur and Nimitz were overseen by the US Joint Chiefs and the Western Allies Combined Chiefs of Staff. Most Japanese forces in the theatre were part of the Southern Expeditionary Army, formed on November 6, 1941, under General Hisaichi Terauchi; the Nanpo gun was responsible for Imperial Japanese Army ground and air units in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. The Combined Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy was responsible for all Japanese warships, naval aviation units and marine infantry units; as the Japanese military did not formally utilize joint/combined staff at the operational level, the command structures/geographical areas of operations of the Nanpo gun and Rengō Kantai overlapped each other and those of the Allies.
Battle of the Philippines Battle of Bataan Battle of Corregidor Dutch East Indies campaign, 1941–42 Battle of Badung Strait 19–20 February 1942 Battle of the Java Sea 27 February 1942 Battle of Sunda Strait 28 February – 1 March 1942 Second Battle of the Java Sea 1 March 1942 Solomon Islands campaign 1943–45 New Georgia Campaign, June–August 1943 Battle of Kula Gulf 6 July 1943 Battle of Kolombangara 13 July 1943 Battle of Vella Gulf 6–7 August 1943 Naval Battle of Vella Lavella 6–7 October 1943 Battle of Empress Augusta Bay 2 November 1943 Battle of Cape St. George 25 November 1943 New Guinea campaign, 1942–45 Battle of Rabaul, January–February 1942 Invasion of Salamaua–Lae, March 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea 4–8 May 1942 Invasion of Buna-Gona, July 1942 Kokoda Track campaign, July–November 1942 Battle of Goodenough Island, October 1942 Battle of Buna-Gona, November 1942 – January 1943 Battle of Wau, January 1943 Battle of the Bismarck Sea 2 March 1943 Operation Chronicle 1943 Landing at Nassau Bay 1943 Salamaua-Lae campaign, April–September 1943 Finisterre Range campaign, September 1943 – April 1944 Huon Peninsula campaign, September 1943 – March 1944 Bougainville Campaign, November 1943 – August 1945 New Britain campaign 26 December 1943 Admiralty Islands campaign 29 February 1944 Invasion of Hollandia 22 April 1944 Battle of Biak 27 May 1944 Battle of Noemfoor 2 July 1944 Battle of Morotai 15 September 1944 Aitape-Wewak campaign November 1944 Battle of Timor 1942–43 Philippines campaign Battle of Leyte, October–December 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf, 23-26 October 1944 Battle of Mindoro, December 1944 Battle of Lingayen Gulf, January 1945 Battle of Luzon, January–August 1945 Battle of Manila, February–March 1945 Battle of Corregidor, February 1945 Invasion of Palawan, February–April 1945 Battle of the Visayas, March–July 1945 Battle of Mindanao, March–August 1945 Battle of Maguindanao, January–September 1945 Borneo campaign, 1945 Battle of Tarakan, May–June 1945 Battle of North Borneo, June–August 1945 Battle of Balikpapan, July 1945 American-British-Dutch-Australian Command Cressman, Robert J..
The Official Chronology of the U. S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-149-1. Dull, Paul S.. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Potter, E. B.. Sea Power. Prentice-Hall. Silverstone, Paul H.. U. S. Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company. Sulzberger, C. L.. The American Heritage Picture History of World War II. Crown Publishers. Drea, Edward J.. In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0. Eichelberger, Robert. Our Jungle Road to Tokyo. New York: Battery Press. ISBN 0-89839-132-6. Griffith, Thomas E. Jr.. MacArthur's Airman: General George C. Kenney and the War in the Southwest Pacific. Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0909-1. Krueger, Walter. From Down Under to Nippon: Story of the 6th Army in World War II. Zenger. ISBN 0-89201-046-0. United State
11th Airborne Division (United States)
The 11th Airborne Division was a United States Army airborne formation, first activated on 25 February 1943, during World War II. Consisting of one parachute and two glider infantry regiments, with supporting troops, the division underwent rigorous training throughout 1943, it played a vital role in the successful Knollwood Maneuver, organized to determine the viability of large-scale American airborne formations after their utility had been called into question following a disappointing performance during the Allied invasion of Sicily. Held in reserve in the United States for the first half of 1944, in June the division was transferred to the Pacific Theater of Operations. Upon arrival it entered a period of intense training and acclimatization, by November was judged combat-ready; the 11th Airborne saw its first action on the island of Leyte in the Philippines, but in a traditional infantry role. In January 1945 the division took part in the invasion of Luzon; the two glider infantry regiments again operated as conventional infantry, securing a beachhead before fighting their way inland.
The parachute infantry regiment was held in reserve for several days before conducting the division's first airborne operation, a combat drop on the Tagaytay Ridge. Reunited, the division participated in the Liberation of Manila, two companies of divisional paratroopers conducted an audacious raid on the Los Baños internment camp, liberating two thousand civilians; the 11th Airborne's last combat operation of World War II was in the north of Luzon around Aparri, in aid of combined American and Philippine forces who were battling to subdue the remaining Japanese resistance on the island. On 30 August 1945 the division was sent to southern Japan as part of the occupation force. Four years it was recalled to the United States, where it became a training formation. One parachute infantry regiment was detached for service in the Korean War, but on 30 June 1958 the division was inactivated, it was reactivated on 1 February 1963 as the 11th Air Assault Division to explore the theory and practicality of helicopter assault tactics, was inactivated on 29 June 1965.
The division's personnel and equipment were transferred to the newly raised 1st Cavalry Division. Inspired by the pioneering German use of large-scale airborne formations during the Battle of France in 1940 and the invasion of Crete in 1941, the various Allied powers decided to raise airborne units of their own. One of the resultant five American and two British airborne divisions, the 11th Airborne Division, was activated on 25 February 1943 at Camp Mackall in North Carolina, under the command of Major General Joseph Swing; as formed the division consisted of the 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment, the 187th Glider Infantry Regiment and the 188th Glider Infantry Regiment, with a complement of 8,321 men was around half the strength of a regular U. S. infantry division of World War II. The division remained in the United States for training, which in common with all airborne units was arduous to befit their elite status. Training included lengthy forced marches, simulated parachute landings from 34-and-250-foot towers, practice jumps from transport aircraft.
The washout rate was high, but there was never a shortage of candidates because in American airborne units the rate of pay was much higher than that of an ordinary infantryman. Before training was complete a debate developed in the U. S. Army over whether the best use of airborne forces was en masse or as small, compact units. On 9 July 1943, the first large-scale Allied airborne operation was carried out by elements of the U. S. 82nd Airborne Division and the British 1st Airborne Division in support of the Allied invasion of Sicily, code-named Operation Husky. The 11th Airborne Division's commanding general, Major General Swing, was temporarily transferred to act as airborne advisor to General Dwight D. Eisenhower for the operation, observed the airborne assault which went badly; the 82nd Airborne Division had been inserted by parachute and glider and had suffered high casualties, leading to a perception that it had failed to achieve many of its objectives. Eisenhower reviewed the airborne role in Operation Husky and concluded that large-scale formations were too difficult to control in combat to be practical.
Lieutenant General Leslie J. McNair, the overall commander of Army Ground Forces, had similar misgivings: once an airborne supporter, he had been disappointed by the performance of airborne units in North Africa and more Sicily. However, other high-ranking officers, including the Army Chief of Staff George Marshall, believed otherwise. Marshall persuaded Eisenhower to set up a review board and to withhold judgement until the outcome of a large-scale maneuver, planned for December 1943, could be assessed; when Swing returned to the United States to resume command of the 11th Airborne in mid-September 1943, he was given the role of preparing the exercise. McNair ordered him to form a committee—the Swing Board—composed of air force, glider infantry, artillery officers, whose arrangements for the maneuver would decide the fate of divisional-sized airborne forces; as the 11th Airborne Division was in reserve in the United States and had not yet been earmarked for combat, the Swing Board selected it as the test formation.
The maneuver would additionally provide the 11th Airborne and its individual units with further training, as had occurred several months in an earlier large-scale exercise conducted by the 101st and the 82nd Airborne Divisions. The 11th Airborne, as the attacking force, was assigned the objective of cap
Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population, the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture, it lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area. Yokohama's population of 3.7 million makes it Japan's largest city. Yokohama developed as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the mid-19th century, is today one of its major ports along with Kobe, Nagoya, Hakata and Chiba. Yokohama means "horizontal beach"; the current area surrounded by Maita Park, the Ōoka River and the Nakamura River had been a gulf divided by a sandbar from the open sea. This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach". Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period, when Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little contact with foreigners.
A major turning point in Japanese history happened in 1853–54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity. It was agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign ships would be the bustling town of Kanagawa-juku on the Tōkaidō, a strategic highway that linked Edo to Kyoto and Osaka. However, the Tokugawa shogunate decided that Kanagawa-juku was too close to the Tōkaidō for comfort, port facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing village of Yokohama; the Port of Yokohama was opened on June 2, 1859. Yokohama became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai, residential districts expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.
Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district, was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. Interactions with the local population young samurai, outside the settlement caused problems. To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese came to settle in the city. Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan. Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863 and rugby union in 1866. A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866 and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow – attracting foreigners and Japanese alike.
After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper, first gas-powered street lamps and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his read novel Around the World in Eighty Days, capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city. In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company; the city was incorporated on April 1, 1889. By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.
The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki, which grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area; the growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato the largest slum in Japan. Much of Yokohama was destroyed on September 1923 by the Great Kantō earthquake; the Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771 dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of 434,170. Fuelled by rumours of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. Many people believed. Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930. Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.
S. air raids during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp