A quarter note or crotchet is a note played for one quarter of the duration of a whole note. Musicians will say that a crotchet is one beat, but this is not always correct, as the beat is indicated by the time signature of the music. Quarter notes are notated with a straight, flagless stem; the stem points upwards if it is below the middle line of the stave or downwards if it is on or above the middle line. However, the stem direction may differentiate more than one part; the head of the note reverses its orientation in relation to the stem. In Unicode, the symbol is U+2669. A related value is the quarter rest, it denotes a silence of the same duration as a quarter note. It appears as the symbol, or as the older symbol; the note derives from the semiminima of mensural notation. The word "crotchet" comes from Old French crochet, meaning'little hook', diminutive of croc,'hook', because of the hook used on the note in black notation. However, because the hook appeared on the eighth note in the white notation, the modern French term croche refers to an eighth note.
The quarter note is played for twice that of an eighth note. It is one beat in a bar of 44; the term "quarter note" is a calque of the German term Viertelnote. The names of this note in many other languages are calqued from the same source; the Bulgarian, Croatian, Japanese, Polish, Russian and Slovak names mean "quarter" and "quarter's pause". List of musical symbols
In typography, a dingbat is an ornament, character, or spacer used in typesetting employed for the creation of box frames. The term continues to be used in the computer industry to describe fonts that have symbols and shapes in the positions designated for alphabetical or numeric characters. Examples of characters included in Unicode: The advent of Unicode and the universal character set it provides allowed used dingbats to be given their own character codes. Although fonts claiming Unicode coverage will contain glyphs for dingbats in addition to alphabetic characters, fonts that have dingbats in place of alphabetic characters continue to be popular for ease of input; such fonts are sometimes known as pi fonts. Some of the dingbat symbols have been used as signature marks, used in bookbinding to order sections; the Dingbats block was added to the Unicode Standard in June 1993, with the release of version 1.1. This code block contains decorative character variants, other marks of emphasis and non-textual symbolism.
Most of its characters were taken from Zapf Dingbats. The Dingbats block contains 33 emoji: U+2702, U+2705, U+2708–U+270D, U+270F, U+2712, U+2714, U+2716, U+271D, U+2721, U+2728, U+2733–U+2734, U+2744, U+2747, U+274C, U+274E, U+2753–U+2755, U+2757, U+2763–U+2764, U+2795–U+2797, U+27A1, U+27B0 and U+27BF; the block has 40 standardized variants defined to specify emoji-style or text presentation for the following twenty base characters: U+2702, U+2708–U+2709, U+270C–U+270D, U+270F, U+2712, U+2714, U+2716, U+271D, U+2721, U+2733–U+2734, U+2744, U+2747, U+2753, U+2757, U+2763–U+2764 and U+27A1. The Dingbats block has four emoji, they can be modified using U+1F3FB–U+1F3FF to provide for a range of skin tones using the Fitzpatrick scale: Additional human emoji can be found in other Unicode blocks: Emoticons, Miscellaneous Symbols, Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs, Supplemental Symbols and Pictographs and Transport and Map Symbols. The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Dingbats block: The Ornamental Dingbats block was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.
This code block contains ornamental leaves and ampersands, quilt squares, checkerboard patterns. It is a subset of dingbat fonts Webdings and Wingdings 2. Arrows in Unicode blocks Fleuron, known as a class of horticultural dingbats Punctuation Text semigraphics, a method for emulating raster graphics using text mode video hardware Unicode symbols Webdings, a TrueType dingbat font designed at Microsoft and published in 1997 Wingdings, a TrueType dingbat font assembled by Microsoft in 1990, using glyphs from Lucida Arrows, Lucida Icons, Lucida Stars, three fonts they licensed from Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes Zapf Dingbats, a dingbat font designed by Hermann Zapf in 1978, licensed by International Typeface Corporation Retinart: A history of often-seen typographic marks Dingbat Depot: a large, well-known archive of free dingbat fonts
In musical notation, stems are the, "thin, vertical lines that are directly connected to the head." Stems may point down. Different-pointing stems indicate the voice for polyphonic music written on the same staff. Within one voice, the stems point down for notes on the middle line or higher, up for those below. If the stem points up from a notehead, the stem originates from the right-hand side of the note, but if it points down, it originates from the left. There is an exception to this rule: if a chord contains a second, the stem runs between the two notes with the higher being placed on the right of the stem and the lower on the left. If the chord contains an odd numbered cluster of notes a second apart, the outer two will be on the correct side of the stem, while the middle note will be on the wrong side; the length of a stem should be that of an octave on the staff, going to either an octave higher or lower than the notehead, depending on which way the stem is pointing. If a note head is on a ledger line more than an octave away from the middle line of a staff, the stem will be elongated to touch the middle line.
In any polyphonic music in which two parts are written on the same staff, stems are shortened to keep the music visually centered upon the staff. Stems may be altered in various ways to alter the rhythm or other method of performance. For example, a note with diagonal slashes through its stem is played tremolo. Beam Notehead
In music, a demisemiquaver or thirty-second note is a note played for 1⁄32 of the duration of a whole note. It lasts half as long as a sixteenth note and twice as long as a sixty-fourth. Thirty-second notes are notated with an oval, filled-in note head and a straight note stem with three flags or beams. A single thirty-second note is always stemmed with flags, while two or more are beamed in groups; as with all notes with stems, thirty-second notes are drawn with stems to the right of the notehead, extending up, when they are below the middle line of the musical staff. When they are on or above the middle line, they are drawn with stems on the left of the note head, extending down. Flags are always on the right side of the stem, curve to the right. On stems extending up, the flags start at the curve down; when multiple thirty-second notes or eighth notes are next to each other, the flags may be connected with a beam. Similar rules apply to smaller divisions such as sixty-fourth notes. A related symbol is the thirty-second rest or demisemiquaver rest, which denotes a silence for the same duration.
List of musical symbols
Mensural notation is the musical notation system used for European vocal polyphonic music from the part of the 13th century until about 1600. The term "mensural" refers to the ability of this system to describe measured rhythmic durations in terms of numerical proportions between note values, its modern name is inspired by the terminology of medieval theorists, who used terms like musica mensurata or cantus mensurabilis to refer to the rhythmically defined polyphonic music of their age, as opposed to musica plana or musica choralis, i.e. Gregorian plainchant. Mensural notation was employed principally for compositions in the tradition of vocal polyphony, whereas plainchant retained its own, older system of neume notation throughout the period. Besides these, some purely instrumental music could be written in various forms of instrument-specific tablature notation. Mensural notation grew out of an earlier, more limited method of notating rhythms in terms of fixed repetitive patterns, the so-called rhythmic modes, which were developed in France around 1200.
An early form of mensural notation was first described and codified in the treatise Ars cantus mensurabilis by Franco of Cologne. A much expanded system allowing for greater rhythmic complexity was introduced in France with the stylistic movement of the Ars nova in the 14th century, while Italian 14th-century music developed its own, somewhat different variant. Around 1400, the French system was adopted across Europe, became the standard form of notation of the Renaissance music of the 15th and 16th centuries. After around 1600, mensural notation evolved into modern measure notation; the decisive innovation of mensural notation was the systematic use of different note shapes to denote rhythmic durations that stood in well-defined, hierarchical numerical relations to each other. While less context dependent than notation in rhythmic modes, mensural notation differed from the modern system in that the values of notes were still somewhat context-dependent. In particular, a note could have the length of either two or three units of the next smaller order, whereas in modern notation these relations are invariably binary.
Whether a note was to be read as ternary or binary was a matter of context rules and of a system of mensuration signs comparable to modern time signatures. There was a complex system of temporarily shifting note values by proportion factors like 2:1 or 3:2. Mensural notation used no bar lines, it sometimes employed special connected note forms inherited from earlier medieval notation. Unlike in the earliest beginnings of the writing of polyphonic music, unlike in modern practice, mensural notation was not written in a score arrangement but in individual parts. Mensural notation was extensively codified by contemporary theorists; as these writings, like all academic work of the time, were in Latin, many features of the system are still conventionally referred to by their Latin terms. The system of note types used in mensural notation corresponds to the modern system; the mensural brevis is nominally the ancestor of the modern double whole note. Mensural notation used yet smaller subdivisions, such as the semifusa.
On the other hand, there were two larger values, the longa and the maxima, which are no longer in regular use today. Despite these nominal equivalences, each note had a much shorter temporal value than its modern counterpart. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, composers introduced new note shapes for smaller temporal divisions of rhythm, the older, longer notes were slowed down in proportion; the basic metrical relationship of a long to a short beat shifted from longa–breve in the 13th century, to breve–semibreve in the 14th, to semibreve–minim by the end of the 15th, to minim–semiminim in modern notation. Thus, what was the shortest of all note values used, the semibreve, has become the longest note used today, the whole note. All notes were written in solid, filled-in form. In the mid-15th century, scribes began to use hollow note shapes, reserving black shapes only for the smallest note values; this change was motivated by the change from parchment to paper as the most common writing material, as paper was less suited to holding large dots of ink.
As with the notes, the shapes of the rest symbols in mensural notation are similar to their modern descendants. The rest symbols of the larger values had a clear visual logic reflecting their time durations, based on the breve rest being a vertical stroke the length of one staff space. For the longa rests, a visual distinction was made depending on whether the longa was imperfect or perfect. Accordingly, their signs were visually twice or three times the length of a breve rest while the semibreve rest was half that length. Maxima rests, in turn, were groups of three longa rests combined. If several longa rests followed each other, groups of either two or three of them were written together on the same staff line to indicate whether they were supposed to be grouped into perfect or imperfect ma
Double whole note
In music, a double whole note, breve, or double note is a note lasting two times as long as a whole note. It is the second-longest note value still in use in modern music notation. In medieval mensural notation, the brevis was one of the shortest note lengths in use —hence its name, the Latin etymon of "brief". In "perfect" rhythmic mode, the brevis was a third of a longa, or in "imperfect" half a longa. In modern notation, a breve is represented in either of two ways: by a hollow oval note head, like a whole note, with one or two vertical lines on either side, as on the left of the image, or as the rectangular shape found in older notation, shown in the middle of the image; because it lasts longer than a bar in most modern time signatures in common use, the breve is encountered except in English music, where the half-note is used as the beat unit. A related symbol is the double whole rest, which denotes a silence for the same duration. Double whole rests are drawn as filled-in rectangles occupying the whole vertical space between the second and third lines from the top of the musical staff.
They are used in long silent passages which are not divided into separate bars to indicate a rest of two bars. This and longer rests are collectively known as multiple rests. Alla breve, the time signature 22, takes its name from the note value breve. In the mensural notation of the Renaissance, it was an alternative term for proportio dupla, which meant that the brevis was to be considered the unit of time, instead of the usual semibrevis; the old symbol, used as an alternative to the numerical proportion 2:1 in mensural notation, is carried over into modern notational practice to indicate a smaller relative value per note shape. It is used for music in a quick tempo, where it indicates two minim beats in a bar of four crotchets, while is the equivalent of 44, with four crotchet beats. List of musical symbols Baker, Theodore. 1895. “Note”, A Dictionary of Musical Terms: Containing Upwards of 9,000 English, German, Italian and Greek Words and Phrases, third edition and enlarged. New York: G. Schirmer.
Burrowes, John Freckleton. 1874. Burrowes' Piano-forte Primer: Containing the Rudiments of Music Adapted for Either Private Tuition Or Teaching in Classes Together with a Guide to Practice, new edition and modernized, with important additions, by L. H. Southard. Boston and New York: Oliver Ditson. Gehrkens, Karl Wilson. 1914. Music Notation and Terminology. New York: The A. S. Barnes Co.. Gerou and Linda Lusk. 1996. Essential Dictionary of Music Notation. Essential Dictionary Series. Los Angeles: Alfred Music Publishing. ISBN 0-88284-730-9. Hoppin, Richard H. 1978. Medieval Music. W W Norton & Company ISBN 0-393-09090-6. Jacob, Archibald. 1960. Musical Handwriting: Or, How to Put Music on Paper, A Handbook for All Musicians and Amateur, second edition, revised. London: Oxford University Press. Read, Gardner. 1969. Music Notation: A Manual of Modern Practice, second edition. Boston: Alleyn and Bacon, Inc. Wright, Peter. 2001. "Alla breve". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell.
London: Macmillan Publishers