Eilean Chaluim Chille
Eilean Chaluim Chille is an unpopulated island in the Outer Hebrides. It lies off the east coast of Lewis at the mouth of Loch Erisort. At low tide Eilean Chaluim Chille is connected by a causeway to the mainland of Lewis at Crobeag. At the southern end of the island lie the ruins of St Columba's Church; this was once an important centre of religion, being cited in a report of 1549 as the main place of worship for the parish of Lochs. There was a church there from about 800 AD, built by St Columba's followers. St Columba died on Iona in 597 AD; the cemetery was in use until 1878. Eilean Chaluim Chille is protected by Historic Scotland as an ancient monument
Stornoway is the main town of the Western Isles and the capital of Lewis and Harris in Scotland. The town's population is around 8,000, making it by far the largest town in the Hebrides, as well as the second largest island town in Scotland after Kirkwall in Orkney; the traditional civil parish of Stornoway, which includes various nearby villages, has a combined population of just over 10,000. Stornoway is administrative centre of the Outer Hebrides, it is home to Comhairle nan Eilean Siar and a variety of educational and media establishments. Observance of the Christian Sabbath has long been an aspect of the island's culture. Recent changes mean that Sunday on Lewis now more resembles Sunday on the other Western Isles or the mainland of Scotland; the town was founded by Vikings with the Old Norse name Stjórnavágr. The settlement grew up around a sheltered natural harbour near the centre of the island. At some point in the mid 1500s, the ancient MacLeod castle in Stornoway'fell victim to the cannons of the Duke of Argyle'.
By the early 1600s rumbling trade wars came to a head, all further government attempts to curtail traditional shipping rights were resisted by the islanders, as was an attempt by James VI, King of Scotland, to establish on the island the Scottish trading company known as the Fife Adventurers around 1598. As a result, James VI transferred Lewis to the MacKenzies of Seaforth in 1610. In 1844, the MacKenzies sold Stornoway, the Isle of Lewis as a whole, to Sir James Matheson who built the present Lews Castle on a hill overlooking the bay of Stornoway. Fragmentary ruins of the old Stornoway Castle had survived in the bay until that time, can be seen in Victorian photographs, but Matheson destroyed them in 1882, in order to expand the harbour. In 1918, Matheson sold the island to 1st Viscount Leverhulme. Lord Leverhulme held the island for a short time, his economic plans for the island overstretched his finances. Faced with failure in Lewis, he gave; the Stornoway Trust continues to administer the parish for the people.
Today the harbour hosts a fishing fleet somewhat reduced from its heyday, a small marina and moorings for pleasure craft, a small shipyard and slipway, three larger piers for commercial traffic and Stornoway Lifeboat Station, run by the RNLI and home to a Severn-class lifeboat, Tom Sanderson. Her Majesty's Coastguard operates a Maritime Rescue Sub Centre from a building near the harbour. A lighthouse, seaweed processing plant and a renewable energy manufacturing yard are situated on Arnish Point at the mouth of the harbour and visually dominate the approaches. Arnish Point is earmarked by AMEC as the landfall for its proposed private sub-sea cable which would export the electricity generated from the Lewis Windpower wind farm with a planning application for 181 turbines submitted to the Scottish Executive. In 2008 the Scottish Government rejected the plans - the company responsible is planning their next move; the Arnish area was surveyed by SSE for a second sub-sea cable but lost out in favour of Gravir to the south as the preferred site.
SSE prefers Arnish Point as of 2016. The manufacturing yard was established in the 1970s as a fabrication plant for the oil industry but suffered regular boom and bust cycles; the downturn in business from the North Sea oil industry in recent years led to a move away from serving this market. The yard is now earmarked as a key business in the development of the whole Arnish Point industrial estate and has received large amounts of funding in recent years. In 2007 the Arnish yard was taken over by its third tenant in as many years. Cambrian Engineering fell into liquidation as did Aberdeen-owned Camcal Ltd with large-scale redundancies. Both firms were affected by the absence of a regular stream of orders and left a chain of large debts impacting upon local suppliers. Altissimo Ltd is a new firm backed by a group of Swiss and Dutch investors, has purchased the Camcal name from the previous operator. In December 2007, the yard won a contract to construct 49 towers for wind turbines in Turkey; this will ensure employment for around 70 employees for over six months.
On 1 January 1919, the Iolaire sank at the entrance of the harbour, one of the worst maritime disasters in Scottish or UK waters, with a death toll of 205 men, who were returning home from World War I. Like much of the British Isles, Stornoway has an oceanic climate, with little variation of temperature and damp conditions throughout the year.. Winters are exceptionally mild for such a northerly location. Summers are cool. Precipitation falls as rain, October through January are the wettest months due to frequent, sometimes intense storms from the North Atlantic, which can bring heavy rain and high winds. April through July represents a markedly drier season, when storm frequency and intensity diminish markedly. Ju
Bayble Island is an uninhabited island off the south coast of the Eye Peninsula of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Bayble Island lies at the southern end of Bayble Bay, it consists of two islands. The hamlets of Upper and Lower Bayble overlook the bay. Rats are thought to have arrived on the island, as to the Shiant Islands, from a shipwreck. Gannets and other seabirds can be seen on the island and diving into the surrounding waters
Killegray is an island in the Sound of Harris in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Situated in the Sound of Harris, a channel of water between North Uist and the Isle of Harris, Killegray is 1 1⁄2 miles long; the south end of the island is nearly all deep uncultivated moss. There is better cultivated land at the north. Rubha Claidhe in the north is the site of a ruined chapel, Teampull na h-Annait, which may be the origin of the island's name. Uninhabited, the island was occupied by a family of around three to five people from 1861 to 1931. Two people were temporarily living on the island; the 19th-century Killegray House, the only house on the island was renovated as holiday accommodation in 1991. The shallow waters and reefs are a rich breeding ground for velvet lobsters. Jacobs Babtie has investigated building a combination of bridges and causeways across the Sound of Harris. Wind turbines and tidal generators could be incorporated in the scheme from Berneray via Killegray and Ensay to Harris.
The estimated cost of £75 million could rise to £145 million with the renewable energy devices
The Minch called North Minch, is a strait in north-west Scotland, separating the north-west Highlands and the northern Inner Hebrides from Lewis and Harris in the Outer Hebrides. It was known as Skotlandsfjörð in Old Norse; the Lower Minch known as the Little Minch, is the Minch's southern extension, separating Skye from the lower Outer Hebrides: North Uist, South Uist, Barra etc. It opens into the Sea of the Hebrides; the Little Minch is the northern limit of the Sea of the Hebrides. The Minch and Lower Minch form part of the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland, as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization; the Minch ranges from 14 to 45 miles wide and is 70 miles long. It is believed to be the site of the biggest meteorite to hit the British Isles; the Lower Minch is about 15 miles wide. In June 2010 Eilidh Macdonald became the first person to swim across it from Waternish Point on Skye to Rodel on Harris, in a time of 9.5 hours. A Traffic Separation Scheme operates in the Little Minch, with northbound traffic proceeding close to Skye, southbound close to Harris.
Commercial ferry services across the Minch are operated by Caledonian MacBrayne. In the south, its entrance is marked by lighthouses at Barra Head and Hyskeir. On Skye, there are lights at Vaternish and An t-Iasgair; the Outer Hebrides are marked by Eilean Glas, Tiumpan Head and Butt of Lewis. To the east are Rubh Re, Stoer Head and Cape Wrath lighthouses. A buoy marks the nearby Sgeir Graidach; these hazards were marked by a red-painted beacon on Sgeir Graidach, the foundations of which can still be seen at low tide. The mythological Blue men of the Minch live in the area; the Minch Project is a collaboration of Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, the Highland Council and Scottish Natural Heritage that aims to reduce pollution, minimise erosion, minimise litter and promote tourism in the Minch wildlife tourism such as dolphin watching. Pollution is a particular concern. Mid-Minch Gaelic Western Isles local government Minch project Gazetteer for Scotland
Isle of Lewis
Lewis is the northern part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island of the Western Isles or Outer Hebrides archipelago in Scotland. It is known as the Isle of Lewis, as the two parts are referred to as if they were separate islands; the total area of Lewis is 683 square miles. Lewis is, in general, the lower-lying part of the island: the other part, Harris, is more mountainous. Due to its flatter, more fertile land, Lewis contains three-quarters of the population of the Western Isles, the largest settlement, Stornoway; the island's diverse habitats are home to an assortment of flora and fauna, such as the golden eagle, red deer and seal, are recognised in a number of conservation areas. Lewis has a rich history, it was once part of the Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Today, life is different from elsewhere in Scotland, with Sabbath observance, the Scottish Gaelic language and peat cutting retaining more importance than elsewhere. Lewis has a rich cultural heritage as can be seen from its myths and legends as well as the local literary and musical traditions.
The Scottish Gaelic name Leòdhas may be derived from Norse Ljoðahús, although other origins have been suggested – most notably the Scottish Gaelic leogach. It is the place referred to as Limnu by Ptolemy, which means "marshy", it is known as the "Isle of Lewis". Another name used in a cultural or poetic context is Eilean an Fhraoich. Although this refers to the whole of the island of Lewis and Harris; the earliest evidence of human habitation on Lewis is found in peat samples which indicate that about 8,000 years ago much of the native woodland was torched to make way for grassland to allow deer to graze. The earliest archaeological remains date from about 5,000 years ago. At that time, people began to settle in permanent farms rather than following their herds; the small houses of these people have been found throughout the Western Isles. The more striking great monuments of this period are the temples and communal burial cairns at places like Calanais. About 500 BC, island society moved into the Iron Age.
The buildings became larger and more prominent, culminating in the brochs – circular, dry-stone towers belonging to the local chieftains – testifying to the uncertain nature of life then. The best remaining example of a broch in Lewis is at Dùn Chàrlabhaigh; the Scots arrived during the first centuries AD. As Christianity began to spread through the islands in the 6th and centuries, following Columban missionaries, Lewis was inhabited by the Picts. In the 9th century AD, the Vikings began to settle on Lewis, after years of raiding from the sea; the Norse invaders abandoned their pagan beliefs. At that time, rectangular buildings began to supersede round ones, following the Scandinavian style. Lewis became part of an offshoot of Norway; the Lewis chessmen, found on the island in 1831, date from the time of Viking rule. The people were called the Norse Gaels or Gall-Ghàidheil, reflecting their mixed Scandinavian/Gaelic background, their bilingual speech; the Norse language persists in many island placenames and some personal names to this day, although the latter are evenly spread across the Gàidhealtachd.
Lewis became part of Scotland once more in 1266: under the Treaty of Perth it was ceded by the Kingdom of Norway. Under Scottish rule, the Lordship of the Isles emerged as the most important power in north-western Scotland by the 14th century; the Lords of the Isles controlled all of the Hebrides. They were descended from Somerled Mac Gillibride, a Gall-Ghàidheil lord who had held the Hebrides and West Coast two hundred years earlier. Control of Lewis itself was exercised by the Macleod clan, but after years of feuding and open warfare between and within local clans, the lands of Clan MacLeod were forfeited to the Scottish Crown in 1597 and were awarded by King James VI to a group of Lowland colonists known as the Fife adventurers in an attempt to anglicise the islands; however the adventurers were unsuccessful, possession passed to the Mackenzies of Kintail in 1609, when Coinneach, Lord MacKenzie, bought out the lowlanders. Following the 1745 rebellion, Prince Charles Edward Stewart's flight to France, the use of Scottish Gaelic was discouraged, rents were demanded in cash rather than kind, the wearing of folk dress was made illegal.
Emigration to the New World became an escape for those who could afford it during the latter half of the century. In 1844 Lewis was bought by Sir James Matheson, co-founder of Jardine Matheson, but subsequent famine and changing land use forced vast numbers off their lands, increased again the flood of emigrants. Paradoxically, those who remained became more congested and impoverished, as large tracts of arable land were set aside for sheep, deer-stalking or grouse shooting. Agitation for land resettlement became acute on Lewis during the economic slump of the 1880s, with several land raids. During the First World War, thousands of islanders served in the forces, many losing their lives, including 208 naval reservists from the island who were returning home after the war when the Admiralty yacht HMY Iolaire sank within sight of Stornoway harbour. Many servicemen from Lewis served in the Royal Navy and the Merchant Navy during the Second World War, again ma
Pabbay is an uninhabited island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland which lies in the Sound of Harris between Harris and North Uist. The name comes from Papey, Norse for "Island of the papar"; the island was once fertile, supporting a three-figure population and exporting corn and illicit whisky. Most of the stewards of St. Kilda were Pabbay men; the island was cleared for sheep in 1846. Pabbay lies within the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development