William Rockefeller Sr.
William Avery "Devil Bill" Rockefeller Sr. was an American businessman, lumberman and salesman who went by the alias of Dr. William Levingston, he worked as a lumberman and a traveling salesman who identified himself as a "botanic physician" and sold elixirs. He was known to buy and sell horses, was known at one point to have bought a barge-load of salt in Syracuse. Land speculation was another type of his business, the selling of elixirs served to keep him with cash and aided in his scouting of land deals, he loaned money to farmers at twelve percent, but tried to lend to farmers who could not pay so as to foreclose and take the farms. Two of his sons were Standard Oil co-founders John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and William Avery Rockefeller Jr. William Avery Rockefeller was born in Ancram, New York, he was the eldest son of businessman/farmer Godfrey Lewis Lucy Avery. Godfrey and Lucy had married on September 1806, in Amwell, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Bill had two elder sisters -- Olympia -- as well as seven younger siblings.
The Rockefellers trace their patrilineal line to Goddard Rockefeller of Fahr, today part of Neuwied, Germany. The first Rockefeller to emigrate to America was Johann Peter Rockenfeller, who changed his name to Rockefeller. Godfrey Lewis Rockefeller was a son of distant cousins William Rockefeller and Christina Rockefeller. Lucy Avery was born to Miles Avery and Melinda Pixley, New England Yankees of English descent, she was descended by her father from Edmund of Langley's first marriage and from Mary Boleyn's first marriage. Rockefeller married his first wife, Eliza Davison, a daughter of farmer John Davison and Cynthia Selover, on February 18, 1837 in Niles, Cayuga Co. New York. John opposed the union. Since Cynthia had died when Eliza was twelve, Eliza had been raised by her elder sister, Mary Ann Davison, father John. Rockefeller met Eliza on one of his business trips in Upstate New York, it is said that Rockefeller pulled out a slate and chalk to communicate when he arrived at the Davison residence, as he pretended to be deaf and dumb on his selling trips.
Eliza is to have remarked, "If that man were not deaf and dumb, I'd marry him."Bill and Eliza were the parents of three sons and three daughters: Lucy Rockefeller, married Pierson Briggs John Davison Rockefeller Sr. married Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman William Avery Rockefeller Jr. married Almira Geraldine Goodsell Mary Ann Rockefeller Franklin "Frank" Rockefeller Frances Rockefeller Bill once bragged, "I cheat my boys every chance I get. I want to make'em sharp." Although Bill abandoned the family while Lucy and William Jr. were teenagers, he remained married to Eliza until her death. In 1856, having assumed the name Dr. William Levingston, he married Margaret Allen in Norwich, Canada. Bill and Margaret had no children together. Before leaving his first wife, he had two daughters with his mistress and housekeeper Nancy Brown: Clorinda Rockefeller Cornelia Rockefeller Before marrying Eliza, Bill had been in love with Nancy. However, he ended up marrying Eliza since her father was to give her $500 when she married, Nancy was poor.
When John D. Rockefeller started his own produce commission business with Maurice B. Clark in 1859, Clark initiated the idea of the partnership and offered $2,000 towards the goal. John D. Rockefeller had only $800 saved up at the time and so borrowed $1,000 from his father, "Big Bill" Rockefeller, at 10 percent interest. Bill visited with his grandchildren at the Forest Hill estate in Cleveland and at Pocantico Hills in Tarrytown, he played fiddle in the evenings for them. Prior to Bill's visits, John D. would invite some of Bill's Upstate New York friends. On July 26, 1849, in the city of Auburn, New York, William was indicted for a rape which had occurred at gunpoint, his victim had worked in the Rockefeller household. In the 1905 book Memoirs of an American Citizen, Robert Herrick says an improper relationship had been rumoured to exist; the court document reads, "That William A. Rockefeller late of the Town of Moravia in the County of Cayuga, on the first day of May in the year of the Lord Thousand Eight hundred and forty eight, with force and arms at the Town of Moravia in said County, in and upon one Ann Vanderbeak in the Peace of God with the People of the State of New York and there being, violently did make and assault on her, the said Ann Venderbeak and there make violently and against her will feloniously did ravish and carnally know ".
William Cooper, the Rockefeller family Doctor indicated with the assault and battery with the intention of raping Ann Vanderbeak. Because of the allegations, William sold the Moravia home and moved to Owego, New York to avoid trial, under the pretence of providing better opportunities for the boys. Four days Eliza's father sued Bill in the Supreme Court of Cayuga for failure to pay a $1,175 debt, his plea states that Bill had asked him for help with his bail for the rape charges, but that Eliza's father had not seen Bill since. Eliza informed authorit
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use zone designation used in land use planning to retain areas of undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a linear character and may run through an urban area instead of around it. In essence, a green belt is an invisible line designating a border around a certain area, preventing development of the area and allowing wildlife to return and be established. In those countries which have them, the stated objectives of green belt policy are to: Protect natural or semi-natural environments; the green belt has many benefits for people: Walking and biking areas close to the cities and towns. Contiguous habitat network for wild plants and wildlife. Cleaner air and water Better land use of areas within the bordering cities; the effectiveness of green belts differs depending on country. They can be eroded by urban rural fringe uses and sometimes, development'jumps' over the green belt area, resulting in the creation of "satellite towns" which, although separated from the city by green belt, function more like suburbs than independent communities.
The Old Testament outlines a proposal for a green belt around the Levite towns in the Land of Israel. Moses Maimonides expounded that the greenbelt plan from the Old Testament referred to all towns in ancient Israel. In the 7th century, Muhammad established a green belt around Medina, he did this by prohibiting any further removal of trees in a 12-mile long strip around the city. In 1580 Elizabeth I of England banned new building in a 3-mile wide belt around the City of London in an attempt to stop the spread of plague. However, this was not enforced and it was possible to buy dispensations which reduced the effectiveness of the proclamation. In modern times, the term emerged from continental Europe where broad boulevards were used to separate new development from the centre of historic towns. Green belt policy was pioneered in the United Kingdom confronted with ongoing rural flight. Various proposals were put forward from 1890 onwards but the first to garner widespread support was put forward by the London Society in its "Development Plan of Greater London" 1919.
Alongside the CPRE they lobbied for a continuous belt to prevent urban sprawl, beyond which new development could occur. There are fourteen green belt areas in the UK covering 16,716 km² or 13% of England, 164 km² of Scotland. Other notable examples are the Ottawa Golden Horseshoe Greenbelt in Ontario, Canada. Ottawa's 20,350-hectare instance is managed by the National Capital Commission; the more general term in the United States is green space or greenspace, which may be a small area such as a park. The dynamic Adelaide Park Lands, measuring 7.6 km² surround, the city centre of Adelaide. On the fringe of the eastern suburbs, an expansive natural greenbelt in the Adelaide Hills acts as a growth boundary for Adelaide and cools the city in the hottest months; the concept of "green belt" has evolved in recent years to encompass not only "Greenspace" but "Greenstructure" which comprises all urban and peri-urban greenspaces, an important aspect of sustainable development in the 21st century. The European Commission's COST Action C11 is undertaking "Case studies in Greenstructure Planning" involving 15 European countries.
An act of the Swedish parliament from 1994 has declared a series of parks in Stockholm and the adjacent municipality of Solna to its north a "national city park" called Royal National City Park. When paired with a city, economically prospering, homes in a Green belt may have been motivated by or result in considerable premiums, they may be more economically resilient as popular among the retired and less attractive for short-term renting of modest homes. Where in the city itself demand exceeds supply in housing, green belt homes compete directly with much city housing wherever such green belt homes are well-connected to the city. Further, they in all cases attract a future-guaranteed premium for protection of their views, recreational space and for the preservation/conservation value itself. Most benefit from higher rates of urban gardening and farming when done in a community setting, which have positive effects on nutrition, self-esteem, happiness, providing a benefit for both physical and mental health, in all cases provided or accessed in a green belt.
Government planners seek to protect the green belt as its local farmers are engaged in peri-urban agriculture which augments carbon sequestration, reduces the urban heat island effect, provides a habitat for organisms. Peri-urban agriculture may help recycle urban greywater and other products of wastewater, helping to conserve water and reduce waste; the housing market contrasts with more uncertainty and economic liberalism inside and outside of the belt: Green Belt homes have by definition nearby protected landscapes. Local residents in affluent parts of a Green Belt, as in parts of the city, can be assured of preserving any localised bourgeois status quo present and so assuming the Green Belt is not from the outset an area of more social housing proportionately than the city, it tends toward greater economic wealth. In a protr
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller
Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich Rockefeller was an American socialite and philanthropist. Through her marriage to financier and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. she was a prominent member of the Rockefeller family. Referred to as the "woman in the family", she was known for being the driving force behind the establishment of the Museum of Modern Art, on 53rd Street in New York, in November 1929. Abby was born in Providence, Rhode Island, to Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich and Abigail Pearce Truman Chapman, a distant descendant of the fourth signer of the Mayflower Compact, she was a sister of Congressman Richard Steere Aldrich and banker/financier Winthrop Williams Aldrich. Her early education came at the hands of Quaker governesses. In 1891, she enrolled at the Miss Abbott's School for Young Ladies in Rhode Island. While there she studied English composition and literature, German, art history and ancient history and dancing, she graduated in 1893 and made her debut in November 1893. On June 30, 1894, she sailed for Liverpool, beginning a lifetime of extensive European and Asian travel.
The aesthetic education she gained abroad fostered by her father, helped to inform her future discernment as an art collector. This initial four-month sojourn included the countries of England, the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland and France. In the fall of 1894 she met her future husband, John Davison Rockefeller Jr. the only son of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman, at a friend's house in Providence. They went through a protracted engagement, during which they were invited for a trip to Cuba in 1900, on President William McKinley Jr.'s yacht. They married on October 9, 1901, in the major society wedding of the Gilded Age, in front of around a thousand of the elite personages of the time, at her father's summer home, "Indian Oaks" https://www.aldrichmansion.com/, in Warwick Neck, Kent County, Rhode Island. They settled in 13 West 54th Street from 1901 until 1913, when the construction of the nine-story mansion at 10 West 54th Street, the largest in New York city at the time, was completed by her husband.
They resided at Number 10 until 1938, when they moved to a 40-room triplex apartment at 740 Park Avenue. They became the parents of six children, including the famed five "Rockefeller Brothers" - and established the renowned six-generation-strong business/philanthropic/banking/real estate dynasty: Abigail Aldrich "Abby" Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller III Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller Laurance Spelman Rockefeller Winthrop Aldrich Rockefeller David Rockefeller Abby Rockefeller suffered a heart attack and died on April 5, 1948, at the family home at 740 Park Avenue in New York City, at the age of 73, she was buried in New York. Abby Rockefeller began collecting paintings and drawings by a number of contemporary American artists in 1925, as well as a number of European modernists: Vincent van Gogh, Edgar Degas, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, she became a prominent patron of modern art. In 1928, she employed a designer to create a suite of art deco rooms and furnishings for herself on the 7th floor of their nine-story house at 10 West Fifty-fourth Street.
Called the Topside Gallery, it allowed her to display and organize changing exhibitions of her growing collection, integrating modern and folk art. Visitors took the elevator directly to the 7th floor, bypassing the private domain of the rest of her family; the news of her interests and activities spread from this period, many subsequent collectors began to follow her lead. Lillie P. Bliss, Mary Quinn Sullivan, Abby banded together to conceptualize and found the Museum of Modern Art. Most notable was her avid interest in becoming the driving force in the establishment and ongoing operations of the institution on November 7, 1929. Since JDR Jr. only gave Abby a small allowance she could not rely on her husband to finance this undertaking. His financial support was limited due to his dislike for modern art. Financing for the museum and acquisition of paintings came from her solicitation of the public and prominent New York individuals. Alfred Barr, the museum's first director, claimed that Abby " was crucial to the institution's success."She was elected to MoMA's Board of Trustees in October 1929 and served as inaugural treasurer from 1929 until 1934.
Other roles included terms as First Vice-Chairman. Her son Nelson subsequently became its president and involved himself in its financing and the establishment of its new permanent headquarters on 53rd Street, in 1939, her son Nelson named the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden in her honor. It was designed by architect Philip Johnson and opened in 1953. Johnson designed The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Gallery at the Rhode Island School of Design Museum which showcases Japanese woodblock prints that she donated to the permanent collection. In 1949, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Print Room opened at MoMA, housing Abby's gift of 1600 prints, given nine years earlier. In addition to her gifts to MoMA, Mrs Rockefeller gave to other museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Cloisters, which received much of her collection of sculpture and decorative arts, she has a residential hall named after her at Spelman College in Atlan
Abby Rockefeller Mauzé
Abigail Aldrich "Abby" Rockefeller was an American philanthropist. She was the first child and only daughter of philanthropists John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. She was referred to as "Babs" to avoid confusion with her mother, she attended both the Brearley School in New York City. She and her five brothers carried on the Rockefeller family tradition of philanthropy stemming back to their paternal grandparents, Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman. Unlike her famous brothers, she always remained out of the public eye. Among the many positions she held were: membership of the Board of Trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, set up by her and her brothers in 1940, she was a benefactor of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the YWCA, New York Hospital, the Museum of Modern Art. In 1968 she created the Greenacre Foundation, of which she was president, in order to maintain and operate parks in New York State for the benefit of the public.
She made cash and stock contributions to East Woods School, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, New York Hospital, the Population Council, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, the American Red Cross. She had two children, her first marriage took place on May 1925, to David M. Milton, a lawyer and banker. Before their divorce in 1943, they had two daughters: Abigail Rockefeller Milton, who married George Dorr O'Neill Marilyn Ellen Milton, who married William Kelly Simpson, son of Kenneth F. Simpson, a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. Laura Knickerbacker Simpson, who married Grover O'Neill III in 1974. Abigail Rockefeller Simpson, who married Todd Mydland. In 1946, she began her second marriage, to a neurologist. After his death in 1949, she married Jean Mauzé, a banker, on April 23, 1953, they remained married until his death in January 1974. She died on May 1976, at her apartment in One Beekman Place in New York City.
She owned property in Bermuda, the Roman Corporation at One Beekman Place, property at the Pocantico family estate. Rockefeller family Rockefeller Archive Center: Brief biography Memoirs, David Rockefeller, New York: Random House, 2002
Laurance Spelman Rockefeller was an American businessman, financier and major conservationist. He was a prominent third-generation member of the Rockefeller family, being the fourth child of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. His siblings were Abby, John III, Nelson and David. Rockefeller was born in New York City, he graduated from Princeton University and attended Harvard Law School for two years, until he decided he did not want to be a lawyer. On August 22, 1934, in Woodstock, Laurance married childhood friend Mary French, whose mother, Mary Montague Billings French, was a friend of Laurance's mother; when brother Nelson attended Dartmouth College, he shared a room with Mary's brother. Mary was granddaughter of a president of Northern Pacific Railway. Laurance and Mary had a son, they are Laura Rockefeller Chasin, Marion Rockefeller Weber, Dr. Lucy R. Waletzky, Larry Rockefeller, he had 12 great-grandchildren. In 1937, he inherited his grandfather's seat on the New York Stock Exchange.
He served as founding trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund for forty-two years, from its inception in 1940 to 1982. He was a founding trustee of the Rockefeller Family Fund from 1967 to 1977, he was a leading figure in the pioneering field of venture capital, which began as a joint partnership with all five brothers and their only sister, Babs, in 1946. In 1969 this became the successful Venrock Associates, which provided important early funding for Intel and Apple Computer, amongst many other start-up technology companies, including many other firms involved in healthcare. Over the years his investment interests ranged into the fields of aerospace, high temperature physics, composite materials, lasers, data processing, thermionics and nuclear power. Venrock was a limited partnership investment company financed by members of the Rockefeller family and a number of the institutions with which the family had longstanding philanthropic ties, among them the Museum of Modern Art, Rockefeller University, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Rockefeller's major interest was in aviation. Rockefeller had learned to fly, found Rickenbacker's vivid accounts of an approaching boom in commercial air travel to be persuasive. Within a decade after Rockefeller's considerable investment, Eastern Airlines had become the most profitable airline to emerge after World War II, he became its largest shareholder. He funded the pivotal post-WWII military contractor McDonnell Aircraft Corp. Rockefeller was a longtime friend and associate of DeWitt Wallace, who with his wife in 1922 co-founded Reader's Digest. Wallace, a major funder of the family's Colonial Williamsburg, appointed Laurance as an outside director in the company, he wanted to ensure that it preserved its patriotic mission of informing and educating the public, along with support for national parks, one of Rockefeller's primary interests. Through his resort management company, Inc. Rockefeller opened environmentally focused hotels at Caneel Bay on Saint John, United States Virgin Islands, some property of, turned over to the Virgin Islands National Park.
The last of these, the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, was established in 1965 on the Kohala Coast of the island of Hawaii. Its most noted general manager was Adi Kohler, who wrote the story of the construction of the famous hotel in his book "Mr. Mauna Kea" published by McKenna Publishing Group. While sailing past Virgin Gorda, Rockefeller spotted an idyllic half-mile crescent bay with what he dubbed "wilderness beach". In 1958 planning and land acquisition began for; the resort opened in 1964 and on January 18, 2014 Little Dix Bay celebrated its 50th anniversary. In 1993, the resort became part of Rosewood Hotels & Resorts but remains true to Rockefeller's vision of natural harmony and balance while offering an escape from the ordinary. Rockefeller funded the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center at a critical juncture of its early development, he funded William Irwin Thompson's Lindisfarne Association, a think tank and retreat. He had a major involvement in the New York Zoological Society, along with support from other family members and philanthropies.
In 1983, Laurance Rockefeller donated the primary funds to create The Mirror Theater Ltd, a New York-based theater company founded by Sabra Jones. The Mirror Theater Ltd is known for producing the 1983 Broadway play Alice in Wonderland at the Virginia Theatre and for the many plays performed by its Mirror Repertory Company. Rockefeller funded controversial research of the PEAR lab, dealing with consciousness-based physical phenomena. In life, Rockefeller became interested in UFOs. In 1993, along with his niece, Anne Bartley, the stepdaughter of Winthrop Rockefeller and the then-president of the Rockefeller Family Fund, he established the UFO Disclosure Initiative to the Clinton White House, they asked for all UFO information held by the government, including from the CIA and the US Air Force, to be declassified and released to the public. The first and most important test case where declassification had to ap
Franklin "Frank" Rockefeller was an American businessman and member of the prominent Rockefeller family. He and his younger twin sister Frances, who died young, were born on August 8, 1845 in Moravia, New York, they were the youngest children of Eliza Davison. His two older brothers were Standard Oil co-founders John Davison Rockefeller and William Avery Rockefeller Jr.. Rockefeller's early years were spent in New York. With his father, he removed to Cleveland, which would be the home base of his business endeavors. In September 1861, while still underage, he joined the 7th Ohio Infantry and participated as an infantryman in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, other battles including Sherman's march to Atlanta, he was wounded in the head by grape shot at Chancellorsville. He held various jobs in Cleveland becoming involved in his brothers' Standard Oil Co. Frank became one of the principal promoters of the company, served as its Vice President.
However, Rockefeller fell out with his brothers and left Standard Oil in 1898. The rift was caused by John D. not taking consideration of Frank's other interests in the Pioneer Oil Company, quarrels with Frank's partner, James Corrigan, with whom he owned the Franklin Mine near Lake Superior. He moved with his family to a large ranch in Kansas, but he returned to Ohio; the 8,000-acre ranch stood on a large tract of cheap land in Belvidere, west of Wichita. The property was remote from railroads, his cattle could graze on vast, unfenced plains; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad brought in fresh settlers shrinking the free range for cattlemen. This ruined the ranch for breeding beef, Frank tried futilely to sell the depreciated property. Frank formed a business relationship with Feargus B. Squire and Herman Frasch, acquiring a three-tenths interest in the Frasch Process. All three entered into a 50-50 agreement with the American Sulphur Company to form the Union Sulphur Company. Frank was not as suited to business as his brothers.
He invested around $500,000 in mining ventures, which proved unsound, invested $250,000 in unfruitful commercial paper. Frank found stability when he invested in the Buckeye Steel Castings Company of Columbus in 1892, he became President of the company in 1905, served in that capacity until 1908, when the Presidency was assumed by Samuel Prescott Bush. Frank Rockefeller continued as Vice President of the company. Frank Rockefeller refused to speak to his brothers John and William Jr. until his death, despite William attempting reconciliation in the summer of 1916. Frank said that year "There's not the slightest possibility of a reconciliation." Frank died the following year. His funeral was held on April 1917 at the home of Mrs. Walter S. Bowler; the funeral was attended by his brothers and William, the former being described in the press as "looking tired and careworn." Chernow, Ron. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller Sr. London: Warner Books, 1998