Doctor Vivien Theodore Thomas was an African-American surgeon who developed a procedure used to treat blue baby syndrome in the 1940s. He was the assistant to surgeon Alfred Blalock in Blalock's experimental animal laboratory at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, he served as supervisor of the surgical laboratories at Johns Hopkins for 35 years. In 1976 Hopkins awarded him an honorary doctorate and named him an instructor of surgery for the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Without any education past high school, Thomas rose above poverty and racism to become a cardiac surgery pioneer and a teacher of operative techniques to many of the country's most prominent surgeons. A PBS documentary Partners of the Heart, was broadcast in 2003 on PBS's American Experience. In the 2004 HBO movie, Something the Lord Made, Vivien Thomas was portrayed by Mos Def. Thomas was born in New Iberia and was the son of Mary and William Maceo Thomas; the grandson of a slave, he attended Pearl High School in Nashville in the 1920s.
Thomas had hoped to attend college and become a doctor. He worked at Vanderbilt University in the summer of 1929 doing carpentry but was laid off in the fall. In that same year, Thomas enrolled in the Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial College known as Tennessee State University, as a premedical student. In the wake of the stock market crash in October, Thomas put his educational plans on hold, through a friend, in February 1930 secured a job as surgical research technician with Dr. Alfred Blalock at Vanderbilt University. On his first day of work, Thomas assisted Blalock with a surgical experiment on a dog. At the end of Thomas's first day, Blalock told Thomas they would do another experiment the next morning. Blalock told Thomas to "come in and put the animal to sleep and get it set up". Within a few weeks, Thomas was starting surgery on his own. Thomas was classified and paid as a janitor, despite the fact that by the mid-1930s, he was doing the work of a Postdoctoral researcher in the lab.
When Nashville's banks failed nine months after starting his job with Blalock and Thomas' savings were wiped out, he abandoned his plans for college and medical school, relieved to have a low-paying job as the Great Depression deepened. Thomas and Blalock did groundbreaking research into the causes of traumatic shock; this work evolved into research on crush syndrome and saved the lives of thousands of soldiers on the battlefields of World War II. In hundreds of experiments, the two disproved traditional theories which held that shock was caused by toxins in the blood. Blalock, a original scientific thinker and something of an iconoclast, had theorized that shock resulted from fluid loss outside the vascular bed and that the condition could be treated by fluid replacement. Assisted by Thomas, he was able to provide incontrovertible proof of this theory, in so doing, he gained wide recognition in the medical community by the mid-1930s. At this same time and Thomas began experimental work in vascular and cardiac surgery, defying medical taboos against operating upon the heart.
It was this work that laid the foundation for the revolutionary lifesaving surgery they were to perform at Johns Hopkins a decade later. By 1940, the work Blalock had done with Thomas placed Blalock at the forefront of American surgery, when he was offered the position of Chief of Surgery at his alma mater Johns Hopkins in 1941, he requested that Thomas accompany him. Thomas arrived in Baltimore with his family in June of that year, confronting a severe housing shortage and a level of racism worse than they had endured in Nashville. Hopkins, like the rest of Baltimore, was rigidly segregated, the only black employees at the institution were janitors; when Thomas walked the halls in his white lab coat, many heads turned. He began changing into his city clothes when he walked from the laboratory to Blalock's office because he received so much attention. During this time, he lived in the 1200 block of Caroline Street in the community now known as Oliver, Baltimore. In 1943, while pursuing his shock research, Blalock was approached by pediatric cardiologist Helen Taussig, seeking a surgical solution to a complex and fatal four-part heart anomaly called tetralogy of Fallot.
In infants born with this defect, blood is shunted past the lungs, thus creating oxygen deprivation and a blue pallor. Having treated many such patients in her work in Hopkins's Harriet Lane Home, Taussig was desperate to find a surgical cure. According to the accounts in Thomas's 1985 autobiography and in a 1967 interview with medical historian Peter Olch, Taussig suggested only that it might be possible to "reconnect the pipes" in some way to increase the level of blood flow to the lungs but did not suggest how this could be accomplished. Blalock and Thomas realized that the answer lay in a procedure they had perfected for a different purpose in their Vanderbilt work, involving the anastomosis of the subclavian artery to the pulmonary artery, which had the effect of increasing blood flow to the lungs. Thomas was charged with the task of first creating a blue baby-like condition in a dog, correcting the condition by means of the pulmonary-to-subclavian anastomosis. Among the dogs on whom Thomas operated was one named Anna, who became the first long-term survivor of the operation and the only animal to have her portrait hung on the walls of Johns Hopkins.
In nearly two years of laboratory work involving 200 dogs, Thomas was
Helen B. Taussig
Helen Brooke Taussig was an American cardiologist, working in Baltimore and Boston, who founded the field of pediatric cardiology. Notably, she is credited with developing the concept for a procedure that would extend the lives of children born with Tetralogy of Fallot; this concept was applied in practice as a procedure known as the Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt. The procedure was developed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas, who were Taussig's colleagues at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Taussig is known for her work in banning thalidomide and was recognized as a skilled physician. Helen Brooke Taussig was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 24, 1898 to Frank W. Taussig and Edith Thomas Guild, who had three other children, her father was an economist at Harvard University, her mother was one of the first students at Radcliffe College, a women's college. When Taussig was 11 years old, her mother succumbed to tuberculosis, she struggled with severe dyslexia through her early school years. She graduated from Cambridge School for Girls in 1917 studied for two years at Radcliffe before earning a bachelor's degree and Phi Beta Kappa membership from the University of California, Berkeley in 1921.
She spent summers as a child in Cotuit, in life had a home there. Taussig studied histology and anatomy at both Harvard Medical School and Boston University, though neither school allowed her to earn a degree, she was discriminated against in her histology class, where she was barred from speaking to her male classmates for fear of "contamination." As an anatomy student at Boston University in 1925, she published her first scientific paper on studies of ox heart muscles with Alexander Begg. She applied to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and was accepted as a full-degree candidate, she completed her MD degree in 1927 at Johns Hopkins, where she remained for one year as a cardiology fellow and for two years as a pediatrics intern. While at Hopkins, she received two Archibald Fellowships, spanning 1927-1930. Dr. Taussig became deaf in the part of her career, she learned to use lip-reading techniques and hearing aids to speak with her patients, her fingers rather than a stethoscope to feel the rhythm of their heartbeats and to lip read.
Taussig began her career after her fellowship in cardiology with a stint as head of a rheumatic fever department. She was hired by the pediatric department of Johns Hopkins, the Harriet Lane Home, as its chief, where she served from 1930 until 1963. While there, she did extensive work on anoxemia, called "blue baby syndrome", discovered its cause as a partial blockage of the pulmonary artery either alone or combined with a hole between the ventricles of the infant's heart, she worked with surgeon Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas to develop a surgery to correct the defect, resulting in what is now known as the Blalock-Taussig-Thomas shunt. They first performed the corrective surgery on dogs but by 1946 began to perform the operation on human babies; that year, she became an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. In 1947, Taussig published her magnum opus, Congenital Malformations of the Heart, considered to be the genesis of pediatric cardiology as an independent field. In 1954, she received the Albert Lasker award for outstanding contributions to medicine.
Taussig formally retired from Johns Hopkins in 1963, but continued to teach, give lectures, lobby for various causes. In addition, she kept writing scientific papers, she advocated the use of animals in medical research and legalized abortion, as well as the benefits of palliative care and hospice. In 1965, Dr. Helen Taussig was the first woman to become the president of the American Heart Association. Taussig learned of the damaging effects of the drug thalidomide on newborns and in 1967, testified before Congress on this matter after a trip to Germany where she worked with infants suffering from phocomelia; as a result of her efforts, thalidomide was banned in the United States and Europe. In 1977, Taussig moved to a retirement community in Pennsylvania. Active, she continued making periodic trips to the University of Delaware for research work. Taussig pioneered the use of x-rays and fluoroscopy to examine changes in a baby's heart and lungs in a less invasive manner. At the time of her death, she was working on research involving the genetic basis for certain congenital heart defects with avian hearts.
On May 20, 1986, four days short of her 88th birthday, Taussig was driving a group of friends to vote in a local election when her car collided with another vehicle at an intersection, killing her instantly. The Johns Hopkins Hospital named the Helen B. Taussig Congenital Heart Disease Center in her honor, in 2005 the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine named one of its four colleges in her honor; the University of Göttingen named its cardiac clinic in honor of Taussig in 1965. In 1947, Taussig was honored by France as Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur. In 1953, she received an honorary medal from the American College of Chest Physicians, she was honored by Italy with the Feltrinelli Award in 1954. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1957. In 1963, she was given the Gold Heart Award, she was honored with the American Heart Association's award of merit in 1967. An honorary fellow
Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a reactive nonmetal, an oxidizing agent that forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up half of the Earth's crust. Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells and bone. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, the major constituent of lifeforms. Oxygen is continuously replenished in Earth's atmosphere by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.
Oxygen is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. Another form of oxygen, ozone absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation. However, ozone present at the surface is a byproduct of thus a pollutant. Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604, but it is believed that the element was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774. Priority is given for Priestley because his work was published first. Priestley, called oxygen "dephlogisticated air", did not recognize it as a chemical element; the name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, who first recognized oxygen as a chemical element and characterized the role it plays in combustion. Common uses of oxygen include production of steel and textiles, brazing and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, life support systems in aircraft, submarines and diving.
One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle and surrounding the vessel's neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck. Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries Leonardo da Vinci built on Philo's work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved. English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus. In one experiment, he found that placing either a mouse or a lit candle in a closed container over water caused the water to rise and replace one-fourteenth of the air's volume before extinguishing the subjects.
From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both combustion. Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it, he thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body. Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract "De respiratione". Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element; this may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, the favored explanation of those processes. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. J. Becher, modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731, phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts.
One part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx. Combustible materials that leave little residue, such as wood or coal, were thought to be made of phlogiston. Air did not play a role in phlogiston theory, nor were any initial quantitative experiments conducted to test the idea. Polish alchemist and physician Michael Sendivogius in his work De Lapide Philosophorum Tractatus duodecim e naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromti described a substance contained in air, referring to it as'cibus vitae', this substance is identical with oxygen. Sendivogius, during his experiments performed between 1598 and 1604, properly recognized that the substance is equivalent to the gaseous byproduct released by the thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate. In Bugaj’s view, the isolation of oxygen and the proper association of the substance to that part of air, required for life, lends sufficient weight to the discovery of oxygen by Sendivogius.
Something the Lord Made
Something the Lord Made is a 2004 American made-for-television biographical drama film about the black cardiac pioneer Vivien Thomas and his complex and volatile partnership with white surgeon Alfred Blalock, the "Blue Baby doctor" who pioneered modern heart surgery. Based on the National Magazine Award-winning Washingtonian magazine article "Like Something the Lord Made" by Katie McCabe, the film was directed by Joseph Sargent and written by Peter Silverman and Robert Caswell. Something the Lord Made tells the story of the 34-year partnership that begins in Depression Era Nashville in 1930 when Blalock hires Thomas as an assistant at his Vanderbilt University lab, expecting him to perform janitorial work, but Thomas' remarkable manual dexterity and intellectual acumen confound Blalock's expectations, Thomas becomes indispensable as a research partner to Blalock in his forays into heart surgery. The film traces the two men's work when they move in 1943 from Vanderbilt to Johns Hopkins, an institution where the only black employees are janitors and where Thomas must enter by the back door.
Together, they attack the congenital heart defect of Tetralogy of Fallot known as Blue Baby Syndrome, in so doing they open the field of heart surgery. Helen Taussig, the pediatrician/cardiologist at Johns Hopkins, challenges Blalock to come up with a surgical solution for her Blue Babies, she needs a new ductus for them to oxygenate their blood. The duo is seen experimenting on stray dogs they got from the local dog pound, deliberately giving the dogs the heart defect and trying to solve it; the outcome looks good and they are excited to operate on a baby with the defect, but in a dream, Thomas sees the baby grown up and crying because she's dying. Thomas asks why she's dying in the dream and she says it's because she has a baby heart. Blalock interprets it as the fact that their sewing technique didn't work because the sutures didn't grow with the heart, worked on a new version that would work; the film dramatizes Blalock's and Thomas' fight to save the dying Blue Babies. Blalock praises Thomas' surgical skill as being "like something the Lord made", insists that Thomas coach him through the first Blue Baby surgery over the protests of Hopkins administrators.
Yet outside the lab, they are separated by the prevailing racism of the time. Blalock makes a mistake once by accidentally cutting an artery at the wrong place, but alongside with Thomas, succeeds. Thomas attends Blalock's parties as a bartender, moonlighting for extra income, when Blalock is honored for the Blue Baby work at the segregated Belvedere Hotel, Thomas is not among the invited guests. Instead, he watches from behind a potted palm at the rear of the ballroom. From there, he listens to Blalock give credit to the other doctors who assisted in the work but make no mention of Thomas or his contributions; the next day, Thomas reveals that he saw the ceremony, quits from his lab. However his heart is so with the work he left behind that he finds himself unhappy in other endeavors and decides to swallow his pride and return to Blalock. One day before Blalock dies, he sees Thomas, now a professional surgeon and trainer in the open heart surgery wing. After Blalock's death, Thomas continued his work at Johns Hopkins training surgeons.
At the end of the film, in a formal ceremony, Hopkins recognized Thomas' work and awarded him an honorary doctorate. A portrait of Thomas was placed on the walls of Johns Hopkins next to Blalock's portrait, hung there years earlier. Alan Rickman as Dr. Alfred Blalock Mos Def as Vivien Thomas Kyra Sedgwick as Mary Blalock Gabrielle Union as Clara Thomas Merritt Wever as Mrs. Saxon Clayton LeBouef as Harold Thomas Charles S. Dutton as William Thomas Mary Stuart Masterson as Dr. Helen B. Taussig A man who in life avoided the limelight, Thomas remained unknown outside the circle of Hopkins surgeons he trained. Thomas' story was first brought to public attention by Washington writer Katie McCabe, who learned of his work with Blalock on the day of his death in a 1985 interview with a prominent Washington, D. C. surgeon who described Thomas as "an absolute legend." McCabe's 1989 Washingtonian magazine article on Thomas, "Like Something the Lord Made", generated widespread interest in the story and inspired the making of a 2003 public television documentary on Thomas and Blalock, "Partners of the Heart."
A Washington, D. C. dentist, Dr. Irving Sorkin, discovered McCabe's article and brought it to Hollywood, where it was developed into the film; the film was nominated for nine Emmy Awards and won three, for Outstanding Made for Television Movie, Outstanding Cinematography for a Miniseries or Movie and Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special. It received two Golden Globe nominations, Black Reel Awards for Best Film and Best Supporting Actor, an NAACP Image Award, a Peabody Award, a Directors Guild of America Award for Sargent, a Writers Guild of America Award for Silverman and Caswell; the American Film Institute, which named Something the Lord Made the Best Television Movie of the Year for 2004, called it "a revelation...a bittersweet story is an important tool for America as it continues to search for a public vocabulary to discuss issues of race." Eileen Saxon Something the Lord Made on IMDb Washingtonian article
HBO is an American premium cable and satellite television network owned by the namesake unit Home Box Office, Inc. a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. The program which featured on the network consists of theatrically released motion pictures and original television shows, along with made-for-cable movies and occasional comedy and concert specials. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, having been in operation since November 8, 1972. In 2016, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.93 billion, compared to the US$1.88 billion it accrued in 2015. HBO has 130 million subscribers worldwide as of 2016; the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature, HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015 and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017; as of July 2015, HBO's programming is available to 36,493,000 households with at least one television set in the United States, making it the second largest premium channel in the United States.
In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, with 130 million subscribers worldwide. HBO subscribers pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels before paying for the channel itself. However, a regulation imposed by the Federal Communications Commission requires that cable providers allow subscribers to get just "limited" basic cable and premium services such as HBO, without subscribing to expanded service. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box—usually digital—in order to receive HBO. HBO provides its content through digital media. HBO maintains near-ubiquitous distribution in hotels across the United States through agreements with DirecTV, Echostar, SONIFI Solutions, Satellite Management Services, Inc. Telerent Leasing Corporation, Total Media Concepts and World Cinema as well as cable providers that maintain hospitality service arrangements with individual hotels and local franchises of national hotel/motel chains.
Since June 2018, through a content partnership with Enseo, HBO Go is distributed to some Marriott International hotels around the U. S.. Many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD. Since HBO's more successful series air on over-the-air broadcasters in other countries, HBO's programming has the potential of being exposed to a higher percentage of the population of those countries compared to the United States; because of the cost of HBO, many Americans only view HBO programs through DVDs or in basic cable or broadcast syndication—months or years after these programs have first aired on the network—and with editing for both content and to allow advertising, although several series have filmed alternate "clean" scenes intended for syndication runs. In 1965, Charles Dolan—who had done pioneering work in the commercial use of cables and had developed Teleguide, a closed-circuit tourist information television system distributed to hotels in the New York metropolitan area—won a franchise to build a cable television system in the Lower Manhattan section of New York City.
The new system, which Dolan named "Sterling Information Services", became the first urban underground cable televisi
Alfred Blalock was a 20th-century American surgeon most noted for his research on the medical condition of shock as well as Tetralogy of Fallot— known as Blue baby syndrome. He developed the Blalock-Thomas-Taussig Shunt, a surgical procedure he developed together with surgical technician Vivien Thomas and pediatric cardiologist Helen Taussig to relieve the cyanosis from Tetralogy of Fallot; this operation ushered in the modern era of cardiac surgery. Blalock worked at both Vanderbilt University and the Johns Hopkins University, where he studied both as an undergraduate and worked as chief of surgery, he is known as a medical pioneer who won various awards, including Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award. Blalock was nominated several times for the prestigious Nobel Prize in Medicine. Blalock was born in Culloden, the son of Martha "Mattie" and George Zadock Blalock, a merchant. At the age of 14, he entered as a senior at Georgia Military College, a preparatory school for the University of Georgia.
Shortly after, Blalock attended the University of Georgia as a sophomore undergraduate, skipping his freshman year. While in college, Blalock was involved in the university social life and athletics, he played tennis and golf, was a member of the Delta Chapter of the Sigma Chi fraternity, was secretary and treasurer of his senior class. After graduating with an A. B. in 1918 at the age of 19, Blalock entered the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, where he roomed with and began a lifelong friendship with Tinsley Harrison, a student who would go on to specialize in cardiovascular medicine. At Johns Hopkins, his record was not considered "outstanding", given that he graduated near the middle of his class, although he was a member of Alpha Omega Alpha. Blalock excelled in surgical courses while he was a student at Hopkins, this made him come to the realization that he wanted to be a surgeon. In medical school, Blalock was known by his friends and classmates as a "ladies man" due to his frequent trips to Goucher College, a women's school located nearby.
Blalock earned his medical degree at Johns Hopkins in 1922, hoping to gain appointment to a surgical residency at Johns Hopkins due to his admiration of William S. Halsted; because of this, Blalock decided to remain in Baltimore for the next three years. However, he was denied a surgical residency with Halsted because of his average academic record. Instead, Blalock decided to complete an internship in urology, in which he performed exceptionally well, he completed one year of an assistant residency on the general surgical service, an externship in ENT. In September 1925, Blalock joined Tinsley Harrison at Vanderbilt University in Nashville to complete his residency under Barney Brooks, Vanderbilt University Hospital's first Professor of Surgery and Chief of the Surgical Service. During his Vanderbilt years, Blalock spent much of his time in the surgical research laboratory, which he found both challenging and exciting. While at Vanderbilt, Blalock became interested and began studying the nature and treatment of hemorrhagic and traumatic shock.
At Vanderbilt, in the year 1938, Blalock conducted an experiment where the left subclavian artery was connected to the left pulmonary artery. The experiment was meant to induce pulmonary hypertension. By conducting his research and experimenting on dogs, Blalock discovered that surgical shock resulted from the loss of blood, which led him to encourage the use of blood plasma or whole blood products to prevent. Blalock's innovative research resulted in the saving of many lives on the battlefield during World War II. Blalock had frequent bouts of tuberculosis, which developed during his years at Vanderbilt. While working in Vanderbilt in 1930, Blalock became busy and had several obligations that kept him from spending much time in the laboratory; because of this, Blalock began searching for a new lab assistant that he would be able to count on to carry out all of his experiments. He ended up hiring a young African-American carpenter, as his lab technician. Although Blalock hired Thomas as a lab technician, he was titled a janitor.
From Blalock’s perspective, Thomas learned how to perform surgical procedures, carry out experiments, record data for Blalock's research. As they got to know each other, Blalock granted Thomas increased independence in the laboratory, something, uncommon for an African American, at that time. Blalock and Thomas carried out various experiments relating to shock and cardiac output, as well as developed a technique for adrenal transplantation. Together, they developed innovative, unheard of techniques such as the transplantation of the kidney to the neck in order to remove the kidney’s nerve supply and study the effect on “Goldblatt hypertension”. Blalock and Thomas built a strong, though unequal, relationship over the years, somewhat marred toward the end by Blalock's unwillingness to give Thomas full credit for his contribution to their collaboration. In 1941 Alfred Blalock was asked to return to the Johns Hopkins hospital to work as chief of surgery and director of the department of surgery of the medical school.
When Blalock was offered this position, he requested that his assistant Vivien Thomas come with him. While working together at Hopkins and Thomas developed a shunt technique to bypass coarctation of the aorta. Helen Taussig, a cardiologist, presented to Blalock the problem of the blue baby syndrome - a congenital heart defect known as Tetralogy of Fallot which results in inadequate oxygenation of the blood. In 1944 Blalock, with Thomas by his