The Negev is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba, in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city of Eilat, it contains several development towns, including Dimona and Mitzpe Ramon, as well as a number of small Bedouin cities, including Rahat and Tel as-Sabi and Lakyah. There are several kibbutzim, including Revivim and Sde Boker; the desert is home to the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, whose faculties include the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research and the Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, both located on the Midreshet Ben-Gurion campus adjacent to Sde Boker. Although a separate region, the Negev was added to the proposed area of Mandatory Palestine to become Israel, on 10 July 1922, having been conceded by British representative St John Philby ”in Trans-Jordan’s name”. In October 2012, global travel guide publisher Lonely Planet rated the Negev second on a list of the world's top ten regional travel destinations for 2013, noting its current transformation through development.
The origin of the word'negev' is from the Hebrew root denoting'dry'. In the Bible, the word Negev is used for the direction'south'. In Arabic, the Negev is known as al-Naqab or an-Naqb, though it was not thought of as a distinct region until the demarcation of the Egypt-Ottoman frontier in the 1890s and has no traditional Arabic name. During the British Mandate, it was called Beersheba sub-district; the Negev covers more than half of Israel, over some 13,000 km² or at least 55% of the country's land area. It forms an inverted triangle shape whose western side is contiguous with the desert of the Sinai Peninsula, whose eastern border is the Arabah valley; the Negev has a number of interesting geological features. Among the latter are three enormous, craterlike makhteshim, which are unique to the region: Makhtesh Ramon, HaMakhtesh HaGadol, HaMakhtesh HaKatan; the Negev is a rocky desert. It is a melange of brown, dusty mountains interrupted by wadis and deep craters, it can be split into five different ecological regions: northern and central Negev, the high plateau and the Arabah Valley.
The northern Negev, or Mediterranean zone, receives 300 mm of rain annually and has fertile soils. The western Negev receives 250 mm of rain per year, with light and sandy soils. Sand dunes can reach heights of up to 30 metres here. Home to the city of Beersheba, the central Negev has an annual precipitation of 200 mm and is characterized by impervious soil, known as loess, allowing minimum penetration of water with greater soil erosion and water runoff; the high plateau area of Negev Mountains/Ramat HaNegev stands between 370 metres and 520 metres above sea level with extreme temperatures in summer and winter. The area gets 100 mm of rain per year, with inferior and salty soils; the Arabah Valley along the Jordanian border stretches 180 km from Eilat in the south to the tip of the Dead Sea in the north. The Arabah Valley is arid with 50 mm of rain annually, it has inferior soils. Vegetation in the Negev is sparse, but certain trees and plants thrive there, among them Acacia, Retama, Urginea maritima and Thymelaea.
A small population of Arabian leopards, an endangered animal in the Arabian peninsula, survives in the southern Negev. The Negev Tortoise is a critically endangered species that lives only in the sands of the western and central Negev Desert; the Negev shrew is a species of mammal of the family Soricidae found only in Israel. Hyphaene thebaica or doum palm can be found in the Southern Negev. Evrona is the most northerly point in the world; the Negev region is arid, receiving little rain due to its location to the east of the Sahara, extreme temperatures due to its location 31 degrees north. However the northernmost areas of the Negev, including Beersheba, are semi-arid; the usual rainfall total from June through October is zero. Snow and frost are rare in the northern Negev, snow and frost are unknown in the vicinity of Eilat in the southernmost Negev. Nomadic life in the Negev dates back at least 4,000 years and as much as 7,000 years; the first urbanized settlements were established by a combination of Canaanite, Amorite and Edomite groups circa 2000 BC.
Pharaonic Egypt is credited with introducing copper mining and smelting in both the Negev and the Sinai between 1400 and 1300 BC. In the Bible, the term Negev only relates to the northern, semiarid part of what we call Negev today, located in the general area of the Arad-Beersheba Valley. According to the Book of Genesis chapter 13, Abraham lived for a while in the Negev after being banished from Egypt. During the Exodus journey to the promised land, Moses sent twelve scouts into the Negev to assess the land and population; the northern part of biblical Negev was inhabited by the Tribe of Judah and the southern part of biblical Negev by the Tribe of Simeon. The Negev was part of the Kingdom of Solomon, with varied extension to the s
Nahal refers to a paramilitary Israel Defense Forces program that combines military service and the establishment of agricultural settlements in peripheral areas. During the 1990s, the program changed its objectives and now combines military service with social welfare and informal education projects such as youth movement activities, its groups of soldiers formed the core of the Nahal Infantry Brigade. In 1948, a gar'in of Jewish pioneers wrote to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion requesting that members be allowed to do their military service as a group rather than being split up into different units at random. In response to this letter, Ben-Gurion created the Nahal program, which combined military service and farming; some 108 kibbutzim and agricultural settlements were established by the Nahal, many of them on Israel's borders. Nahal settlements in the Jordan Valley and the Arabah played an important role in Jordan's decision not to join the other Arab countries in attacking Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
Members of Nahal units, known as garinei Nahal have served together in various army units, most famously in the Nahal Mutznakh battalion of the Paratroopers Brigade, the reserve battalion of, instrumental in the Israeli victory in the Battle of Jerusalem during the 1967 Six-Day War. Many settlements founded by Nahal units in Galilee, the Negev, the West Bank are still thriving today, including settlements located in the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip. Today, a gar'in is a group formed by a youth movement, such as the Israeli Scouts, for the purpose of volunteer work. Today, there are two distinct units carrying on the historical name of the Nahal; the first is a large, non-combat command belonging to the IDF Education Corps, whose primary responsibility is to organize and coordinate the volunteer-type programs and activities that made the original Nahal unit famous in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s. This command has a full staff of educational officers and soldiers, sponsors other endeavours such as Gadna, a week-long'introduction' to the military for high-schoolers in which they become acquainted with the history and routines of the military that they are about to join.
Lahakat HaNahal is a military music troupe known for its Eretz Israel songs. Many Israeli singers and entertainers began their careers in Lahakat HaNahal, among them Tuvya Tzafir, Neomy Polani and Gidi Gov; the band was featured on the Israeli telenovela HaShir Shelanu. The Nahal Brigade was formed around core groups of Airborne Nahal soldiers in 1982 due to the growing need for infantry manpower in the wake of the 1982 Lebanon War; as a result, it maintains parts of the Nahal insignia and Nahal groups continue to serve there. In 1984, Nahal was awarded the prestigious Israel Prize, for its special contribution to society and the State of Israel. Nahal group Nahal settlement List of Israel Prize recipients Official IDF website section on Nahal Brigade Official Haredi Nahal Website Official Nahal Website
Moshav is a type of Israeli town or settlement, in particular a type of cooperative agricultural community of individual farms pioneered by the Labour Zionists during the second wave of aliyah. A resident or a member of a moshav can be called a "moshavnik"; the moshavim are similar to kibbutzim with an emphasis on community labour. They were designed as part of the Zionist state-building programme following the green revolution Yishuv in the British Mandate of Palestine during the early 20th century, but in contrast to the collective kibbutzim, farms in a moshav tended to be individually owned but of fixed and equal size. Workers produced crops and goods on their properties through individual and/or pooled labour and resources and used profit and foodstuffs to provide for themselves. Moshavim are governed by an elected council. Community projects and facilities were financed by a special tax; this tax was equal for all households of the community, thus creating a system where good farmers were better off than bad ones, unlike in the communal kibbutzim where all members enjoyed the same living standard.
There are several variants, of which the most common are: Moshav ovdim, a workers' cooperative settlement. This is the more numerous type and relies on cooperative purchasing of supplies and marketing of produce. Moshav shitufi, a collective smallholders' settlement that combines the economic features of a kibbutz with the social features of a moshav. Farming is done collectively and profits are shared equally; this form is closer to the collectivity of the kibbutz: although consumption is family- or household-based and marketing are collective. Unlike the moshav ovdim, land is not allotted to households or individuals, but is collectively worked; the first moshav, was established in the Jezreel Valley on September 11, 1921. By 1986 about 156,700 Israelis worked on 448 moshavim; because the moshav organisation retained the family as the centre of social life, it was much more attractive to traditional Mizrahi immigrants in the 1950s and early 1960s. These so-called "immigrants' moshav" were one of the most-used and successful forms of absorption and integration of Oriental immigrants.
For this reason, the moshav became a Mizrahi institution, whereas the kibbutz movement remained an Ashkenazi institution. Since the Six-Day War in 1967, both moshavim and kibbutzim have relied on outside—including Palestinian—labour. Financial instabilities in the early 1980s hit many moshavim hard, as did their high birth rate and the problem of absorbing all the children who might wish to remain in the community. By the late 1980s, moshav members came to be employed in non-agricultural sectors outside the community, so that some moshavim began to resemble suburbs or commuter towns whose residents commute to work. In general, moshavim never enjoyed the "political elite" status afforded to kibbutzim during the period of Israeli Labor Party dominance. "Kibbutz and Moshav". Chapter 2. Israel: A Country Study. Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1990
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing of animal milk – from cows or goats, but from buffaloes, horses, or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm, concerned with the harvesting of milk. Terminology differs between countries. For example, in the United States, an entire dairy farm is called a "dairy"; the building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is called a "milking parlor" or "parlor". Except in the case of smaller dairies, where cows are put on pasture, milked in "stanchion barns"; the farm area where milk is stored in bulk tanks is known as the farm's "milk house". Milk is hauled to a "dairy plant" = referred to as a "dairy" - where raw milk is further processed and prepared for commercial sale of dairy products. In New Zealand, farm areas for milk harvesting are called "milking parlours", are known as "milking sheds"; as in the United States, sometimes milking sheds are referred to by their type, such as "herring bone shed" or "pit parlour".
Parlour design has evolved from simple barns or sheds to large rotary structures in which the workflow is efficiently handled. In some countries those with small numbers of animals being milked, the farm may perform the functions of a dairy plant, processing their own milk into salable dairy products, such as butter, cheese, or yogurt; this on-site processing is a traditional method of producing specialist milk products, common in Europe. In the United States a dairy can be a place that processes and sells dairy products, or a room, building or establishment where milk is stored and processed into milk products, such as butter or cheese. In New Zealand English the singular use of the word dairy exclusively refers to a corner shop, or superette; this usage is historical. As an attributive, the word dairy refers to milk-based products and processes, the animals and workers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat. A dairy farm produces a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products.
These establishments constitute a component of the food industry. Milk producing animals have been domesticated for thousands of years, they were part of the subsistence farming that nomads engaged in. As the community moved about the country, their animals accompanied them. Protecting and feeding the animals were a big part of the symbiotic relationship between the animals and the herders. In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local consumption, a typical example of a cottage industry; the animals might serve multiple purposes. In this case the animals were milked by hand and the herd size was quite small, so that all of the animals could be milked in less than an hour—about 10 per milker; these tasks were performed by a dairyman. The word dairy harkens back to Middle English dayerie, from deye and further back to Old English dæge. With industrialisation and urbanisation, the supply of milk became a commercial industry, with specialised breeds of cattle being developed for dairy, as distinct from beef or draught animals.
More people were employed as milkers, but it soon turned to mechanisation with machines designed to do the milking. The milking and the processing took place close together in space and time: on a dairy farm. People milked the animals by hand. Hand-milking is accomplished by grasping the teats in the hand and expressing milk either by squeezing the fingers progressively, from the udder end to the tip, or by squeezing the teat between thumb and index finger moving the hand downward from udder towards the end of the teat; the action of the hand or fingers is designed to close off the milk duct at the udder end and, by the movement of the fingers, close the duct progressively to the tip to express the trapped milk. Each half or quarter of the udder is emptied one milk-duct capacity at a time; the stripping action is repeated. Both methods result in the milk, trapped in the milk duct being squirted out the end into a bucket, supported between the knees of the milker, who sits on a low stool. Traditionally the cow, or cows, would stand in the paddock while being milked.
Young stock, would have to be trained to remain still to be milked. In many countries, the cows milked. While most countries produce their own milk products, the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world. In major milk-producing countries most milk is distributed through whole sale markets. In Ireland and Australia, for example, farmers' co-operatives own many of the large-scale processors, while in the United States many farmers and processors do business through individual contracts. In the United States, the country's 196 farmers' cooperatives sold 86% of milk in the U. S. in 2002, with five cooperatives accounting for half that. This was down from 2,300 cooperatives in the 1940s. In developing countries, the past practice of farmers marketing milk in their own neighborhoods is changing rapidly. Notable
Gvulot is a kibbutz in southern Israel. Located in the north-western Negev desert, it falls under the jurisdiction of Eshkol Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 345. Gvulot is located about 120 m above sea level; the village was established on land owned by the Jewish National Fund on 12 May 1943 by immigrants from Romania and Turkey, who were members of the "Kibbutz Eretz Israel Gimel" group of Hashomer Hatzair, with financial assistance from Keren Hayesod. Named Mitzpe Gvulot, it was the first of the three lookouts, the others being Beit Eshel and Revivim, it was the first in the Gaza area. Its purpose was to guard JNF land, as well as to research the soil and climate of the region and assess their suitability for agriculture, it was recognised as a kibbutz in 1946. Before the 1948 Arab–Israeli War it was divided into two—a small cluster of families in its post-war location, the rest in the nearby military base. During the war, the base served the 8th Brigade. After the war, in 1949, all the residents moved to Gvulot's present location, about 1.5 km south of the base.
Official website Gvulot Negev Information Centre
Ecuador the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland; the capital city is Quito, the largest city. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century; the territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar; the sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic with a developing economy, dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 18 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights, it has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas; the archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. Much migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes.
They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments; the people of the coast developed a fishing and gathering culture. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, the Cañari; each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. In the highland Andes mountains, where life was more sedentary, groups of tribes cooperated and formed villages. Through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.
Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire; the native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru and north Argentina. A number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics; as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon Basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered.
The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war; the untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claims that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided, he gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, to rule from Quito. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his fa
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 known as A or H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A for pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 flu known as avian influenza, it is enzootic in many bird populations in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia, it is epizootic and panzootic, killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread. Many references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain. According to the World Health Organization and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, so far there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus.
Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006, 55 in June 2007. The global HPAI situation improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. In July 2013, the WHO announced a total of 630 confirmed human cases which resulted in the deaths of 375 people since 2003. Several H5N1 vaccines have been developed and approved, stockpiled by a number of countries, including the United States, France and Australia, for use in an emergency. Research has shown that a contagious strain of H5N1, one that might allow airborne transmission between mammals, can be reached in only a few mutations, raising concerns about a pandemic and bioterrorism. HPAI A is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient.
Still, around 60% of humans known to have been infected with the current Asian strain of HPAI A have died from it, H5N1 may mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. In 2003, world-renowned virologist Robert G. Webster published an article titled "The world is teetering on the edge of a pandemic that could kill a large fraction of the human population" in American Scientist, he called for adequate resources to fight what he sees as a major world threat to billions of lives. On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. Experts have identified key events marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, many of those key events have occurred more than expected. Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A, its endemic presence, its large host reservoir, its significant ongoing mutations, in 2006, the H5N1 virus has been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic.
At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus. H5N1 may cause more than one influenza pandemic, as it is expected to continue mutating in birds regardless of whether humans develop herd immunity to a future pandemic strain. Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. While genetic analysis of the H5N1 virus shows that influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring can be far more lethal than the Spanish flu pandemic, planning for a future influenza pandemic is based on what can be done and there is no higher Pandemic Severity Index level than a Category 5 pandemic which speaking, is any pandemic as bad as the Spanish flu or worse.
In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus have symptoms that include fever, sore throat, muscle aches, and, in severe cases, breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal. The severity of the infection depends in large part on the state of the infected persons' immune systems and whether they had been exposed to the strain before. No one knows; the avian influenza hemagglutinin binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza hemagglutinins bind alpha 2-6 sialic acid receptors. This means when the H5N1 strain infects humans, it will replicate in the lower respiratory tract, will cause viral pneumonia. There is as yet no human f