The cor anglais or English horn in North America, is a double-reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family. It is one and a half times the length of an oboe; the cor anglais is a transposing instrument pitched in a perfect fifth lower than the oboe. This means that music for the cor anglais is written a perfect fifth higher than the instrument sounds; the fingering and playing technique used for the cor anglais are the same as those of the oboe and oboists double on the cor anglais when required. The cor anglais lacks the lowest B♭ key found on most oboes and so its sounding range stretches from E3 below middle C to C6 two octaves above middle C; the pear-shaped bell of the cor anglais gives it a more covered timbre than the oboe, closer in tonal quality to the oboe d'amore. Whereas the oboe is the soprano instrument of the oboe family, the cor anglais is regarded as the tenor member of the family, the oboe d'amore—pitched between the two in the key of A—as the alto member; the cor anglais is perceived to have a more plaintive tone than the oboe.
Its appearance differs from the oboe in that the reed is attached to a bent metal tube called the bocal, or crook, the bell has a bulbous shape. It is much longer; the cor anglais is notated in the treble clef, a perfect fifth higher than sounding. Some composers notated it in the bass clef, when the lower register was persistently used, several other options were employed. Alto clef written at sounding pitch is used by as late a composer as Sergei Prokofiev. In late-18th- and early-19th-century Italy, where the instrument was played by bassoonists instead of oboists, it was notated in the bass clef an octave below sounding pitch. French operatic composers up to Fromental Halévy notated the instrument at sounding pitch in the mezzo-soprano clef, which enabled the player to read the part as if it were in the treble clef. Although the instrument descends only to low B♮, continental instruments with an extension to low B♭ have existed since early in the 19th century. Examples of works requiring this note include Arnold Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder, Gustav Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde, Heitor Villa-Lobos's Chôros No.
6, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Zeitmaße. Antonín Dvořák, in his Scherzo Capriccioso writes for the cor anglais down to low A, though it seems unlikely that such an extension existed. Reeds used to play the cor anglais are similar to those used for an oboe, consisting of a piece of cane folded in two. While the cane on an oboe reed is mounted on a small metal tube covered in cork, there is no such cork on a cor anglais reed, which fits directly on the bocal; the cane part of the reed is longer than that of the oboe. Unlike American style oboe reeds, cor anglais reeds have wire at the base 5 mm from the top of the string used to attach the cane to the staple; this wire serves to stabilize tone and pitch. The best-known makers of modern cors anglais are the French firms of F. Lorée, Marigaux and Rigoutat, the British firm of T. W. Howarth, the American firm Fox Products. Instruments from smaller makers, such as A. Laubin, are sought after. Instruments are made from African blackwood, although some makers offer instruments in a choice of alternative woods as well, such as cocobolo or violet wood, which are said to alter the voice of the cor anglais reputedly making it more mellow and warmer.
Fox has made some instruments in plastic resin and in maple. The term cor anglais is French for English horn, but the instrument is neither from England nor related to the various conical-bore brass instruments called "horns", such as the French horn, the natural horn, the post horn, or the alto horn; the instrument originated in Silesia about 1720, when a bulb bell was fitted to a curved oboe da caccia-type body by the Weigel family of Breslau. The two-keyed, open-belled, straight tenor oboe, more the flare-belled oboe da caccia, resembled the horns played by angels in religious images of the Middle Ages; this gave rise in German-speaking central Europe to the Middle High German name engellisches Horn, meaning angelic horn. Because engellisch meant English in the vernacular of the time, the "angelic horn" became the "English horn". In the absence of any better alternative, the curved, bulb-belled tenor oboe retained the name after the oboe da caccia fell into disuse around 1760; the name first appeared on a regular basis in Italian and Austrian scores from 1741 on in the Italian form corno inglese.
The earliest known orchestral part for the instrument is in the Vienna version of Niccolò Jommelli's opera Ezio dating from 1749, where it was given the Italian name corno inglese. Gluck and Haydn followed suit in the 1750s, the first English horn concertos were written in the 1770s; the Schwarzenberg Wind Harmonie of 1771 employed 2 Cor Anglais as well as 2 Oboes, 2 Bassoons and 2 Horns. The Prince Fürst Joseph Adam Johann Nepomuk Franz de Paula Joachim Judas Thaddäus Abraham von Schwarzenberg was a keen boar hunter and so most employed Oboe de Caccia players, which explains the preference for the new Cor Anglais as opposed to the Clarinet. Johan Went was 1st; the first Oboe Trios were co
A tenor drum is a membranophone without a snare. There are several types of tenor drums. Early music tenor drums, or long drums, are cylindrical membranophone without snare used in Medieval and Baroque music, they consist in of a cylinder of wood, covered with skin heads on both ends, that are tensioned by ropes. Played with two sticks, this type of drum varies in pitch, according to its size. In a symphony orchestra's percussion section, a tenor drum is a low-pitched drum, similar in size to a field snare, but without snares and played with soft mallets or hard sticks, it is larger in diameter than depth, tonally is midway between the bass drum and unsnared side drum. Berlioz scored for 2 tenor drums in the "Grande messe des morts", his "Te Deum" requires 6 tenor drums. Wagner wrote for this drum in "Rienzi", "Lohengrin", "Die Walküre", "Parsifal". Strauss used it in "Ein Heldenleben", Elgar in his 3rd "Pomp and Circumstance" march, it is noticeable in scores by 20th-century composers such as Stravinsky, Milhaud, Benjamin Britten, William Walton, Aaron Copland and Samuel Barber.
Witold Lutoslawski calls for a tenor drum in his Concerto for Orchestra and Arnold Schoenberg writes for it in his Gurrelieder. Tenor drums are used as a marching percussion instrument as mounted sets of 4-6 drums allowing one person to carry and play multiple drums simultaneously. Other names for these drums include names specific to configurations by number of drums: "duos", "tris", "trios", "trips", or "triples", "quads", "quints", "squints," "hexes," "six-packs," "tenors" or "sextets"; the number-specific term "quads" is used as a generic term for configurations with more than four drums. There are four main drums either 8, 10, 12, 13 inches in diameter or 10, 12, 13, 14 inches in diameter, plus one or two accent drums ); the accent drums are known as shot, spock, or spike drums. Other percussion instruments, such as cowbells or cymbals mounted to the rim, are sometimes added; the purpose of the tenors in the marching band is to add more color to the music. In big lines, there can be as many as 6 tenor players.
Many high school marching bands will have one to three tenors, while it is typical for World Class drum corps to contain as many as four or five. Or in the case of the 2018 Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps, 14; this was for a feature that had members on marching synthesizer switch to tenor drums. They tend to supplement the snare part, the tenor parts are rudimentally identical to the snare parts. Movement around the drums allows tenors to function as melodic percussion, as each drum has a different pitch. A four drum configuration is arranged so that the lowest drum is to the player's far left, the second lowest is on the player's far right, the second highest is on the middle left, the highest is on the middle right; this makes it easier to play common patterns, is easier to balance than if the drums were in ascending size order. This arrangement is ideal for right-handed players and is always the arrangement in lines that consist of more than one tenor player for uniformity. If there is a fifth drum it is placed between the highest two drums.
If there are six drums, the fifth and sixth drum are centered closest to the player's body. Most of the time, tenor drums are tuned tightly, giving them a high-pitched sound that carries well outdoors. Within the set of drums, the main drums are tuned to relative intervals, while the accent drums are tuned as high as possible without breaking the head. Tenor drums are played with drumsticks. A wide variety of implements are available, encompassing a full spectrum of shaft materials, head materials, head shape/size. Tenor players use matched grip; this facilitates tenor techniques such as "sweeps" or "scrapes" and "crossovers". These techniques allow an incredible variety of rhythmic and melodic figures possible on the tenors, as well as adding a distinct visual element to tenor playing; the drums are played near the edge of the head, like timpani, these areas are called "zones". This allows for the optimum resonance and fundamental tone of the drum to project. Rim shots are not needed to be hit hard depending on the choice of sticks.
The player's sticks can move across the main four drums in a pattern that forms a straight line from drum-to-drum, or the closest part of the drum to the player's body. This reduces the amount of space the player must travel to execute some of the more complex movement patterns, it allows for less upper arm motion from side-to-side, which streamlines movement to play patterns, makes it easier to balance the weight of the drums while marching, or running, with the drums on. A rope-tensioned drum, giving way to modern rod tension, the tenor drum occupied a unique position in the drum corps of mil
The euphonium is a large, conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced". The euphonium is a valved instrument. Nearly all current models have piston valves; the euphonium may be played in bass clef as a non-transposing instrument or in treble clef as a transposing instrument. In British brass bands, it is treated as a treble-clef instrument, while in American band music, parts may be written in either treble clef or bass clef, or both; the euphonium is in the family of brass instruments, more low-brass instruments with many relatives. It is similar to a baritone horn; the difference is that the bore size of the baritone horn is smaller than that of the euphonium, the baritone is cylindrical bore, whereas the euphonium is predominantly conical bore. It is controversial. In the trombone family large and small bore trombones are both called trombones, while the cylindrical trumpet and the conical flugelhorn are given different names.
As with the trumpet and flugelhorn, the two instruments are doubled by one player, with some modification of breath and embouchure, since the two have identical range and identical fingering. The cylindrical baritone offers a brighter sound and the conical euphonium offers a more mellow sound; the American baritone, featuring three valves on the front of the instrument and a curved, forward-pointing bell, was dominant in American school bands throughout most of the 20th century, its weight and configuration conforming to the needs of the marching band. While this instrument is a conical-cylindrical bore hybrid, somewhere between the classic baritone horn and euphonium, it was universally labelled a "baritone" by both band directors and composers, thus contributing to the confusion of terminology in the United States. Several late 19th century music catalogs sold a euphonium-like instrument called the "B♭ bass". In these catalog drawings, the B♭ Bass had thicker tubing than the baritone. Along the same lines and bugle corps introduced the "Bass-baritone", distinguished it from the baritone.
The thicker tubing of the three-valve B♭ bass allowed for production of strong false-tones, providing chromatic access to the pedal register. Ferdinand Sommer's original name for the instrument was the euphonion, it is sometimes called the tenor tuba in B♭, although this can refer to other varieties of tuba. Names in other languages, as included in scores, can be ambiguous as well, they include French basse, saxhorn basse, tuba basse. The most common German name, may have influenced Americans to adopt the name "baritone" for the instrument, due to the influx of German musicians to the United States in the nineteenth century; as a baritone-voiced brass instrument, the euphonium traces its ancestry to the ophicleide and back to the serpent. The search for a satisfactory foundational wind instrument that could support massed sound above its pitch took many years. While the serpent was used for over two centuries dating back to the late Renaissance, it was notoriously difficult to control its pitch and tone quality due to its disproportionately small open finger holes.
The ophicleide, used in bands and orchestras for a few decades in the early to mid-19th century, used a system of keys and was an improvement over the serpent but was still unreliable in the high register. With the invention of the piston valve system c. 1818, the construction of brass instruments with an sound and facility of playing in all registers became possible. The euphonium is said to have been invented, as a "wide-bore, valved bugle of baritone range", by Ferdinand Sommer of Weimar in 1843, though Carl Moritz in 1838 and Adolphe Sax in 1843 have been credited. While Sax's family of saxhorns were invented at about the same time and the bass saxhorn is similar to a euphonium, there are differences; the "British-style" compensating euphonium was developed by David Blaikley in 1874, has been in use in Britain with the basic construction little changed since then. Modern day euphonium makers have been working to further enhance the construction of the euphonium. Companies such as Adams and Besson have been leading the way in perfecting the instrument.
Adams euphoniums have developed an adjustable lead pipe receiver which allows players to change the timbre of the instrument to whatever they player finds preferable. Besson has been credited with the adjustable main tuning slide trigger, which allows players more flexibility with intonation; the euphonium, like the tenor trombone, is pitched in concert B♭. For a valved brass instrument like the euphonium, this means that when no valves are in use the instrument will produce partials of the B♭ harmonic series, it is orchestrated as a non-transposing instrument like the trombone, written at concert pitch in the bass clef with higher passages in the tenor clef. Treble clef euphonium parts transposing down a major ninth are included in much concert band music: in the British-style brass band tradition, euphonium music is always written this way. In continental European band music, parts for the euphonium may be written in the bass clef as a B♭ transposing instrument sounding a major second lower than written.
Professional models have three top-action valves, played with
Western concert flute
The Western concert flute is a transverse woodwind instrument made of metal or wood. It is the most common variant of the flute. A musician who plays the flute is called a flautist, flute player, or fluter; this type of flute is used in many ensembles, including concert bands, military bands, marching bands, flute ensembles, jazz bands and big bands. Other flutes in this family include the piccolo, alto flute, the bass flute. A large repertory of works has been composed for flute; the flute is one of the oldest and most used wind instruments. The precursors of the modern concert flute were keyless wooden transverse flutes similar to modern fifes; these were modified to include between one and eight keys for chromatic notes. "Six-finger" D is the most common pitch for keyless wooden transverse flutes, which continue to be used today in Irish traditional music and informed performances of early music, including Baroque. During the Baroque era the traditional transverse flute was redesigned and developed as the modern traverso.
Throughout the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries, transverse flutes were uncommon in Europe, with the recorder being more prominent. The transverse flute arrived in Europe from Asia via the Byzantine Empire, where it migrated to Germany and France; these flutes became known as "German flutes" to distinguish them from others, such as the recorder. The flute became used in court music, along with the viol, was used in secular music, although only in France and Germany, it would not spread to the rest of Europe for nearly a century. The first literary appearance of the transverse flute was made in 1285 by Adenet le Roi in a list of instruments he played. After this, a period of 70 years ensues. Beginning in the 1470s, a military revival in Europe led to a revival in the flute; the Swiss army used flutes for signalling, this helped the flute spread to all of Europe. In the late 16th century, flutes began to appear in court and theatre music, the first flute solos. Following the 16th-century court music, flutes began appearing in chamber ensembles.
These flutes were used as the tenor voice. However, flutes varied in size and range; this made transposition necessary, which led flautists to use Guidonian hexachords to transpose music more easily. During the 16th and early 17th centuries in Europe, the transverse flute was available in several sizes, in effect forming a consort in much the same way recorders and other instruments were used in consorts. At this stage, the transverse flute was made in one section and had a cylindrical bore; as a result, this flute had a rather soft sound and limited range and was used in compositions for the "soft consort". During the Baroque period, the transverse flute was redesigned. Now called the traverso, it was made in three or four sections or joints with a conical bore from the head joint down; the conical bore design gave the flute a wider range and more penetrating sound without sacrificing the softer, expressive qualities. In addition to chamber music, the traverso began to be used in orchestral music.
In the Baroque era, flutes become used in the scores of opera and chamber music. With this, composers wrote music for the flute; these included Praetorius, Schütz, Rebillé and Descoteaux, Bach, Blavet, Vivaldi and Frederick The Great. In 1707, Jacques Martin Hotteterre wrote the first method book on playing the flute: Principes de la flûte traversière; the 1730s brought an increase in chamber music feature of flutes. The end of this era found the publication of Essay of a Method of Playing the Transverse Flute by Quantz; the orchestras formed in the last half of the 18th century included flutes which were featured in symphonies and concertos. Throughout the rest of the century, the interest in flutes increased and peaked in the early half of the 19th century. Around this time Friedrich Dülon was one of the best-known flutists; the early 19th century saw a great variety of flute designs. Conical bores giving a penetrating sound were used in Vienna, English flutes had a range to low C and played best in flat keys, French flutes gave a softer tone, German flutes blended best with orchestras.
With the romantic era, flutes began to lose favor: Symphony orchestras rather featured brass and strings. In the nineteenth century Theobald Boehm began to make flutes. Keys were added to the flute, the taper was changed to strengthen its lower register. With the ability to record sound, flutes began to regain a popularity not seen since the classical era. Recordings of flute music became common, with professional flautists spending a great deal of time recording music; the 20th century brought the first recordings of Baroque music on modern flutes. The dimensions and key system of the modern western concert flute and its close relatives are completely the work of the great flautist, composer and silversmith Theobald Boehm, who patented his system in 1847. Minor additions to and variations on his key system are common, but the acoustical structure of the tube remains exactly as he designed it. Major innovations were the change to metal instead of wood, large straight tube bore, "parabolic" tapered headjoint bore large tone holes covered by keys, the linked key system, which simplified fingering somewhat.
The most substantial departures from Boehm's original description are the universal elimination of the "crutch" for the left hand and universal a
A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in a single continuous movement, which illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, painting, landscape, or other source. The German term Tondichtung appears to have been first used by the composer Carl Loewe in 1828; the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt first applied the term Symphonische Dichtung to his 13 works in this vein. While many symphonic poems may compare in size and scale to symphonic movements, they are unlike traditional classical symphonic movements, in that their music is intended to inspire listeners to imagine or consider scenes, specific ideas or moods, not to focus on following traditional patterns of musical form such as sonata form; this intention to inspire listeners was a direct consequence of Romanticism, which encouraged literary and dramatic associations in music. According to Hugh Macdonald, the symphonic poem met three 19th-century aesthetic goals: it related music to outside sources; the symphonic poem remained a popular composition form from the 1840s until the 1920s, when composers began to abandon the genre.
Some piano and chamber works, such as Arnold Schoenberg's string sextet Verklärte Nacht, have similarities with symphonic poems in their overall intent and effect. However, the term symphonic poem is accepted to refer to orchestral works. A symphonic poem may stand on its own, or it can be part of a series combined into a symphonic suite or cycle. For example, The Swan of Tuonela is a tone poem from Jean Sibelius's Lemminkäinen Suite, Vltava by Bedřich Smetana is part of the six-work cycle Má vlast. While the terms symphonic poem and tone poem have been used interchangeably, some composers such as Richard Strauss and Jean Sibelius have preferred the latter term for their works; the first use of the German term Tondichtung appears to have been by Carl Loewe, applied not to an orchestral work but to his piece for piano solo, Mazeppa, Op. 27, based on the poem of that name by Lord Byron, written twelve years before Liszt treated the same subject orchestrally. The musicologist Mark Bonds suggests that in the second quarter of the 19th century, the future of the symphonic genre seemed uncertain.
While many composers continued to write symphonies during the 1820s and 30s, "there was a growing sense that these works were aesthetically far inferior to Beethoven's.... The real question was not so much whether symphonies could still be written, but whether the genre could continue to flourish and grow". Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Niels Gade achieved successes with their symphonies, putting at least a temporary stop to the debate as to whether the genre was dead. Composers began to explore the "more compact form" of the concert overture "...as a vehicle within which to blend musical and pictoral ideas." Examples included Mendelssohn's overtures The Hebrides. Between 1845 and 1847, the Belgian composer César Franck wrote an orchestral piece based on Victor Hugo's poem Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne; the work exhibits characteristics of a symphonic poem, some musicologists, such as Norman Demuth and Julien Tiersot, consider it the first of its genre, preceding Liszt's compositions.
However, Franck did not perform his piece. Liszt's determination to explore and promote the symphonic poem gained him recognition as the genre's inventor; the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt desired to expand single-movement works beyond the concert overture form. The music of overtures is to inspire listeners to imagine images, or moods; the opening movement, with its interplay of contrasting themes under sonata form, was considered the most important part of the symphony. To achieve his objectives, Liszt needed a more flexible method of developing musical themes than sonata form would allow, but one that would preserve the overall unity of a musical composition. Liszt found his method through two compositional practices; the first practice was cyclic form, a procedure established by Beethoven in which certain movements are not only linked but reflect one another's content. Liszt took Beethoven's practice one step further, combining separate movements into a single-movement cyclic structure. Many of Liszt's mature works follow this pattern, of which Les Préludes is one of the best-known examples.
The second practice was thematic transformation, a type of variation in which one theme is changed, not into a related or subsidiary theme but into something new and independent. As musicologist Hugh Macdonald wrote of Liszt's works in this genre, the intent was "to display the traditional logic of symphonic thought. Thematic transformation, like cyclic form, was nothing new in itself, it had been used by Mozart and Haydn. In the final movement of his Ninth Symphony, Beethoven had transformed the theme of the "Ode to Joy" into a Turkish march. Weber and Berlioz had transformed themes, Schubert used thematic transformation to bind together the movements of his Wanderer Fantasy
The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B♭ clarinet, it is pitched in B♭, but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B♭ clarinet. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A exist, but are rare. Bass clarinets perform in orchestras, wind ensembles/concert bands in marching bands, play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular. Someone who plays a bass clarinet is called a bass clarinetist. Most modern bass clarinets are straight-bodied, with a small upturned silver-colored metal bell and curved metal neck. Early examples varied in some having a doubled body making them look similar to bassoons; the bass clarinet is heavy and is supported either with a neck strap or an adjustable peg attached to its body. While Adolphe Sax imitated its upturned metal bell in his design of the larger saxophones, the two instruments are fundamentally different. Bass clarinet bodies are most made of grenadilla or plastic resin, while saxophones are made of metal.
More all clarinets have a bore, the same diameter along the body. This cylindrical bore differs from the saxophone's conical one and gives the clarinet its characteristic tone, causing it to overblow at the twelfth compared with the saxophone's octave. A majority of modern bass clarinets, like other clarinets in the family, have the Boehm system of keys and fingering. However, bass clarinets are manufactured in Germany with the Oehler system of keywork, most known as the'German" system in the US, because it is used in Germany and Austria, as well as Eastern Europe and Turkey. Most modern Boehm system bass clarinets have an "extension" key allowing them to play to the E♭; this key was added to allow easy transposition of parts for the rare bass clarinet pitched in A, but it now finds significant use in concert band and other literature. A significant difference between soprano and bass clarinet key work is a key pad played by the left-hand index finger with a vent that may be uncovered for certain high notes.
This allows a form of "half-hole" fingering that allows notes in higher registers to be played on the instrument. In addition, older bass clarinets have two register keys, one for middle D♯ and below, the other for middle E and higher. Newer models only have one, mechanically performing the role of two separate register keys. Many professional and advanced bass clarinetists own instruments with extensions down to a C (sounding B♭ identical to the bassoon's lowest B♭, two octaves below written middle C. At concert pitch this note is the B♭ below the second ledger line below the bass staff or B♭1 in scientific pitch notation. Overall, the instrument sounds an octave lower than the B♭ soprano clarinet; as with all wind instruments, the upper limit of the range depends on the quality of the instrument and skill of the clarinetist. According to Aber and Lerstad, who give fingerings up to written C7, the highest note encountered in modern solo literature is the E below that; this gives the bass clarinet a usable range of up to four octaves, quite close to the range of the bassoon.
The bass clarinet has been used in scoring for orchestra and concert band since the mid-19th century, becoming more common during the middle and latter part of the 20th century. A bass clarinet is not always called for in orchestra music, but is always called for in concert band music. In recent years, the bass clarinet has seen a growing repertoire of solo literature including compositions for the instrument alone, or accompanied by piano, orchestra, or other ensemble, it is used in clarinet choirs, marching bands, in film scoring, has played a minor, but persistent, role in jazz. The bass clarinet has an appealing, earthy tone quite distinct from other instruments in its range, drawing on and enhancing the qualities of the lower range of the soprano and alto instrument; the earliest solo passages for bass clarinet—indeed, among the earliest parts for the instrument—occur in Mercadante's 1834 opera Emma d'Antiochia, in which a lengthy solo introduces Emma's scene in Act 2. Two years Giacomo Meyerbeer wrote an important solo for bass clarinet in Act 4 of his opera Les Huguenots.
French composer Hector Berlioz was one of the first of the Romantics to use the bass clarinet in his large-scale works such as the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15, the Te Deum, Op. 22, the opera Les Troyens, Op. 29. French composers to use the instrument included Maurice Ravel, who wrote virtuosic parts for the bass clarinet in his ballet Daphnis et Chloé, La valse, his orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition; the operas of Richard Wagner make extensive use of the bass clarinet, beginning with Tannhäuser. He incorporated the instrument into the wind section as both a solo and supporting instrument. Wagner pioneered in exploiting the instrument's dark, somber tone to
For the politician, see Fritz Erler. Fritz Erler was graphic designer and scenic designer. Although most talented as an interior designer, he is best remembered for several propaganda posters he produced during World War I, he was born in Frankenstein. Beginning in 1886 he studied under Albrecht Bräuer at the school of art in Breslau, he attended the Académie Julian in Paris. In 1895 he lived from 1918 in Holzhausen am Ammersee, his first designs date from 1893: vases, glass windows, book covers furniture, theatrical sets, interior decorations. In 1896 he was a founding member of the magazine Jugend, he painted several portraits around the start of the 20th century, most notably of Richard Strauss and Gerhart Hauptmann. Along with Arthur Kampf Erler was one of the official military painters for the Oberste Heeresleitung, his paintings were commissioned as war propaganda. The promotional poster for the sixth war bond was adorned with his painting Helft uns siegen! Erler's best-known work, it brought in at least 13.1 million marks more than any other campaign.
Its power of moral exhortation has been compared to James Montgomery Flagg's iconic poster of Uncle Sam, while the idea derives from the influential Lord Kitchener Wants You poster of 1914. A soldier, his face darkened from the muck of the trenches, gazes beyond the viewer into No Man's Land with eyes that shine as if from an inward light; this heroic image depicts the widespread contemporary belief that trench warfare would somehow be a morally cleansing experience. During the National Socialist period Erler's portraits of Adolf Hitler, Franz von Epp, Wilhelm Frick were remunerative. Erler died in Munich in 1940. List of German painters Media related to Fritz Erler at Wikimedia Commons Entry in the Getty List of Artist's Names Posters by Erler in the collection of the Imperial War Museum