The term of a patent is the maximum time during which it can be maintained in force. It is expressed in a number of years either starting from the filing date of the patent application or from the date of grant of the patent. In most patent laws, renewal annuities or maintenance fees have to be paid in order to keep the patent in force. Otherwise the patent lapses be by judgment of a court, as where a claim or patent is held "invalid" under the relevant law, thus no longer enforceable. Significant international harmonization of patent term across national laws was provided in the 1990s by the implementation of the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. Article 33 of the TRIPs Agreement provides that "The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing date."Consequently, in most patent laws nowadays, the term of patent is 20 years from the filing date of the application. This however does not forbid the states party to the WTO from providing, in their national law, other type of patent-like rights with shorter terms.
Utility models are an example of such rights. Their term is 6 or 10 years; the European Patent Convention requires all jurisdictions to give a European patent a term of 20 years from the actual date of filing an application for a European patent or the actual date of filing an international application under the PCT designating the EPO. The actual date of filing can be up to a year after the earliest priority date; the term of a granted European patent may be extended under national law if national law provides term extension to compensate for pre-marketing regulatory approval. For EEA member states this is by means of a supplementary protection certificate. In the United States, for utility patents filed on or after June 8, 1995, the term of the patent is 20 years from the earliest filing date of the application on which the patent was granted and any prior U. S. or Patent Cooperation Treaty applications from which the patent claims priority. For patents filed prior to June 8, 1995, the term of patent is either 20 years from the earliest filing date as above or 17 years from the issue date, whichever is longer.
Extensions may be had for certain administrative delays. The patent term will additionally be adjusted to compensate for delays in the issuance of a patent; the reasons for extensions include: Delayed response to an application request for patent. Exceeding 3 years to consider a patent application. Delays due to a secrecy order or appeal; because of significant backlog of pending applications at the USPTO, the majority of newly issued patents receive some adjustment that extends the term for a period longer than 20 years. For design patents, for design applications filed on or after May 13, 2015 the term is 15 years from the issue date. For design applications filed before May 13, 2015, the term is 14 years from the issue date. Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, provides what is called the "priority year" Patent cliff, when the patent expiration leads to an abrupt drop in sales Provisional patent application Submarine patent Supplementary protection certificate, provides a limited time extension to the protection conferred by certain patents in the European Union United States 35 U.
S. C. § 154 - Contents and term of patent.
The Transport Act 1981 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. Amongst other items it introduced the compulsory wearing of seat belts for front seat passengers for a trial period of three year; the major part of the act was for re-organising the British Transport Docks Board which led to its eventual privatisation. The Act received Royal Assent 31 July 1981. Part II of the act renamed the British Transport Docks Board as Associated British Ports and made it a subsidiary a holding company limited by shares to be issued by the Secretary of State or their agents, thus making its privatisation possible, it had been compulsory to fit front seat belts to cars built in Europe since 1965 and to all new cars sold in the UK since 1967. The Clunk Click" TV commercials, starring Jimmy Savile showing the dangers of being thrown through the windscreen in a collision was shown during the 1970s. Attempts were made to making the wearing of front seat belts compulsory into a Road Traffic Bill in 1973-4 but was unsuccessful.
John Gilbert, the Minister of Transport proposed a'Road Traffic Bill' in 1976 but it was unsuccessful. Four further attempts at legislation were made by a number of MPs including William Rodgers and Neil Carmichael before Lord Nugent was successful by proposing a private member's bill, by adding it as an amendment to the Transport Bill in the House of Lords; the House of Commons voted to accept the amendment on 28 July 1981. ClausesThe act included clauses for: The compulsory wearing of seat-belts for front seat passengers for three years other clauses... LegacyFollowing the three-year trial the compulsory wearing of seat belts was made permanent when both Houses of Parliament voted'overwhelmingly' to retain the requirement. Legislation was subsequently introduced for the compulsory fitting of seat belts to the rear of cars, for children to wear seat belts in the back, adults. Seat belts were required for all coaches. Transport Act 1981 - Hansard Text of the Transport Act 1981 as in force today within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
Gennadi Sardanashvily was a theoretical physicist, a principal research scientist of Moscow State University. Gennadi Sardanashvily graduated from Moscow State University in 1973, he was a Ph. D. student of the Department of Theoretical Physics in 1973–76, where he held a position in 1976. He attained his Ph. D. degree in physics and mathematics from MSU, in 1980, with Dmitri Ivanenko as his supervisor, his D. Sc. degree in physics and mathematics from MSU, in 1998. Gennadi Sardanashvily was the founder and Managing Editor of the International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics, he was a member of Lepage Research Institute. Gennadi Sardanashvily research area is geometric method in classical and quantum mechanics and field theory, gravitation theory, his main achievement is geometric formulation of classical field theory and non-autonomous mechanics including: gauge gravitation theory, where gravity is treated as a classical Higgs field associated to a reduced Lorentz structure on a world manifold geometric formulation of classical field theory and Lagrangian BRST theory where classical fields are represented by sections of fiber bundles and their dynamics is described in terms of jet manifolds and the variational bicomplex covariant Hamiltonian field theory, where momenta correspond to derivatives of fields with respect to all world coordinates the second Noether theorem in a general setting of reducible degenerate Grassmann-graded Lagrangian systems on an arbitrary manifold geometric formulation of classical and quantum non-autonomous mechanics on fiber bundles over R generalization of the Liouville–Arnold and Mishchenko–Fomenko theorems on and integrable and superintegrable Hamiltonian systems to the case of non-compact invariant submanifolds cohomology of the variational bicomplex of graded differential forms of finite jet order on an infinite order jet manifold.
Gennadi Sardanashvily has published more than 400 scientific works, including 28 books. Sardanashvily, G.. Gauge Gravitation Theory, World Scientific, ISBN 981-02-0799-9. Sardanashvily, G. Gauge Theory on Jet Manifolds, Hadronic Press, ISBN 0-911767-60-6. Sardanashvily, G. Generalized Hamiltonian Formalism for Field Theory, World Scientific, ISBN 981-02-2045-6. Giachetta, G.. New Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Methods in Field Theory, World Scientific, ISBN 981-02-1587-8. Mangiarotti, L.. Mangiarotti, L.. Giachetta, G.. Geometric and Algebraic Topological Methods in Quantum Mechanics, World Scientific, ISBN 981-256-129-3. Giachetta, G.. Advanced Classical Field Theory, World Scientific, ISBN 978-981-283-895-7. Giachetta, G.. Geometric formulation of classical and quantum mechanics, World Scientific, ISBN 978-981-4313-72-8. Sardanashvily, G. Lectures on Differential Geometry of Rings. Application to Quantum Theory, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN 978-3-659-23806-2. Sardanashvily, G. Advanced Differential Geometry for Theoreticians.
Fiber bundles, jet manifolds and Lagrangian theory, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN 978-3-659-37815-7. Sardanashvily, G. Handbook of Integrable Hamiltonian Systems, URSS, ISBN 978-5-396-00687-4. Sardanashvily, G. Noether's Theorems. Applications in Mechanics and Field Theory, Springer, ISBN 978-94-6239-171-0. Personal page at Moscow State University Gennadi Sardanashvily's personal site Gennadi Sardanashvily's site at Google Scientific Biography List of publications at ResearchGate
"She Came In Through the Bathroom Window" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1969 album Abbey Road. Written by Paul McCartney and credited to Lennon–McCartney, it is the fifth song of the album's climactic B-side medley following "Polythene Pam". McCartney said the song was inspired by Apple scruffs, who broke into McCartney's St John's Wood home. Diane Ashley says: She opened the front door to let the others in; the scruffs stole a number of photographs in addition to clothes. Another Apple scruff, Margo Bird, remembers being good friends with McCartney – she would take his dog for walks – and got a job at Apple Corps, she says. The rhythm track was recorded by the Beatles for this and "Polythene Pam" as one piece on 25 July 1969. After take 39, they added lead vocals, re-recorded the drums and bass parts. On 28 July they added more vocals, guitar and piano; the song was completed two days with additional guitar and percussion. "She Came In Through the Bathroom Window" segues abruptly after "Polythene Pam", the song on the preceding track, without pause.
At the beginning of the song, in anticipation of the change of tempo, John Lennon gives out a laugh and shouts "Oh, look out!"A slower, ethereal version of this song, recorded in late January 1969 during the Let It Be sessions, appears on the 1996 compilation Anthology 3. According to Walter Everett, except where noted: Paul McCartney – lead and harmony vocals, bass guitar John Lennon – 12-string acoustic guitar, backing vocals George Harrison – lead guitar, backing vocals Ringo Starr – drums uncredited – tambourine, maracas, "whipcrack" percussion Joe Cocker's cover of this song reached number 30 on the Billboard top 40 in 1970. Alan W. Pollack's Notes on "She Came In Through The Bathroom Window" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The Miss Arizona USA competition is the pageant that selects the representative for the state Arizona in the Miss USA pageant. In 2005 the rights to produce the Miss Arizona USA pageant were given to Casting Crown Productions; this company is directed by Britt Boyse, Miss Missouri USA 1995. Arizona has had a fair success in Miss USA as it has yet to win the Miss USA title, however Miss USA 1980 first runner-up Jineane Ford was awarded the Miss USA title after Shawn Weatherly won Miss Universe 1980. Four Miss Arizona USAs were former Miss Arizona Teen USAs and two were former Miss America contestants. Yesenia Vidales of Phoenix was crowned Miss Arizona USA 2020 on January 5, 2020 at Mesa Arts Center in Mesa, she will represent Arizona for the title of Miss USA 2020. 1st runners-up: Jane Nelson, Jineane Ford 2nd runners-up: Susanne Pottenger, Diane Martin, Alicia-Monique Blanco 3rd runners-up: Ruth Hayes, Sherry Nix Top 10/11/12: Carlys Peterson, Toni Abranovic, Ana Rupert, Michelle Ducote, Lee Anne Locken, Maricarroll Verlinde, Dannis Shephard, Stacey Kole Top 15/16/20: Jerri Michaelson, Diane McGarry, Roxanne Neeley, Judianne Magnusson, Danielle Demski, Brenna Sakas, Brittany Brannon, Jordan Wessel, Maureen Montagne, Chelsea Myers Arizona holds a record of 25 placements at Miss USA.
Miss Congeniality: Cara Jackson Miss Photogenic: Jineane Ford, Brittany Brannon Best State Costume: Daria Sparling, Michelle Ducote, Maricarroll Verlinde Color key Official website