U1 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U1 is a line on the Berlin U-Bahn, 8.8 kilometres long and has 13 stations. Its traditional line designation was BII, it runs east-west and its eastern end is south of the route of the historical Schlesischen Bahn at the Warschauer Straße S-Bahn station and runs through Kreuzberg, Wittenbergplatz on to the Kurfürstendamm. The eastern section of the line is the oldest part of the Berlin U-Bahn, although it is above ground; the U1 route was part of BII until 1957, where it was renamed to BIV until 1 March 1966. While the main section between Wittenbergplatz and Schlesisches Tor has been designated as line 1 since 1966, the western end of the line has changed twice, it was renumbered to Line "3" and "U3" in 1993, before being renamed U15 until 2004. The increasing traffic problems in Berlin at the end of the 19th century led to a search for new efficient means of transport. Inspired by Werner von Siemens, numerous suggestions were made for overhead conveyors, such as a suspension railway, as was built in Wuppertal, or a tube railway as was built in London.
Siemens and some prominent Berliners submitted a plan for an elevated railway on the model of New York. These people opposed Siemens' suggestion of building an overhead railway in the major street of Friedrichstrasse, but the city of Berlin opposed underground railways, since it feared damage to one of its new sewers. After many years and negotiations, Siemens proposal for an elevated railway line from Warschauer Brücke via Hallesches Tor to Bülowstraße was approved; this was only possible, because it passed through poor areas. The richer residents of Leipziger Straße pressed the city administration to prevent the line using their street. Siemens & Halske carried out all construction work and owned the line; the first sod was turned on 10 September 1896 in Gitschiner Straße. The construction work had to be carried out because the contract with the city of Berlin, signed with the granting of the concession, specified that the line had to be finished within two years, or a penalty of 50,000 marks would be payable.
The railway engineers developed a design for the supporting columns for the elevated railway, but it was unpopular and the architect Alfred Grenander was asked to submit an artistic solution for this problem. For the next 30 years Grenander was the house architect for the underground railway. After tough negotiations with the city of Charlottenburg it was decided to extend the line to Knie along the Tauentzienstrasse, but instead of being elevated it would be a subsurface railway; the management of the city of Berlin board of works regarded the idea of an underground railway sympathetically. Since the underground caused no apparent damage to the new sewer, an underground branch could be built from a junction at Gleisdreieck to Potsdamer Platz, Berlin’s city centre; the national government granted permission for the planning changes on 1 November 1900. The total length of the elevated and underground railway was now 10.1 kilometres. The largest part of the route 8 kilometres, would be established on viaducts and connect eleven elevated stations.
In addition there would be 2 kilometres of underground line with three underground stations. The planners believed that 8-carriage trains would not be needed and therefore designed it with 80 m-long platforms, sufficient only for 6-carriage trains; the first 6 kilometres of the line was finished in 1901 and on 15 February 1902 the first train ran on the line from Potsdamer Platz to Zoologischer Garten to Stralauer Tor and back to Potsdamer Platz. This allowed many prominent Berliners to participate in the opening trip, including the Prussian minister for public works, Karl von Thielen. On 18 February 1902 the first stage of the Berlin U-Bahn was opened. In March the line was extended to Zoologischer Garten and on 17 August it was extended by 380 m from Stralauer Tor to Warschauer Brücke. There were at that time only two lines: From Warschauer Brücke to Zoologischer Garten via Potsdamer Platz. From Warschauer Brücke directly to Zoologischer Garten. On 14 December the line was extended to Knie; the section between Gleisdreieck and Knie is now part of U2.
In the summer of 1907, the elevated railway company of the new city of Wilmersdorf suggested the building of an underground line to the Wilmersdorf area. It suggested a line to Nürnberger Platz and, if Wilmersdorf would pay to Breitenbachplatz. Since Wilmersdorf municipality had poor transport connections, the Wilmersdorf city fathers were pleased to take up this suggestion; the royal domain of Dahlem, south of Wilmersdorf and was still undeveloped supported a U-bahn connection and wanted it extended from Breitenbachplatz to Thielplatz. However, the future line would run through the city of Charlottenburg, which saw the city of Wilmersdorf as a major competitor for the settlement of wealthy ratepayers. Long negotiations ensued, until in the summer 1910 a solution was found: an additional line would be built under the Kurfürstendamm to Uhlandstraße. Work began on these lines in the same summer; the double-track Wittenbergplatz station, which only had two side platforms, had to be rebuilt. The new station required five platforms with a sixth prepared for an entrance hall.
The cities of Wilmersdorf and Charlottenburg submitted many suggestions for its design. The house architect of the elevated railway company, Alfred Grenander, was appointed to design the station on the recommendation of the royal police chief; the add
Berlin Potsdamer Platz station
Berlin Potsdamer Platz is a railway station in Berlin. It is underground and situated under Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin. Regional and S-Bahn services call at the station; the first station at Potsdamer Platz was the Potsdamer Bahnhof terminus, closed on 27 September 1945 due to war damage. In 1939 the S-Bahn, or Stadtbahn, arrived; the idea for a North-South Link rapid transit rail line from Unter den Linden to Yorckstrasse, via Potsdamer Platz and Anhalter Bahnhof, had first been mooted in 1914, but it was not planned in detail until 1928, approval had to wait until 1933. Begun in 1934, it was plagued with disasters. Determination to have it finished in time for the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936 meant vital safety measures were ignored: on 20 August 1935, a tunnel collapse just south of the Brandenburg Gate buried 23 workmen of whom only four survived. Needless to say, the line was not ready for the Berlin Olympics. In spite of all the setbacks, it was opened from Unter den Linden to Potsdamer Platz on 15 April 1939, extended to Anhalter Bahnhof on 9 October, to Yorckstrasse, to complete the link, on 6 November.
The Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station contained an underground shopping arcade, the largest in Europe. Four platforms were provided at the station and all were used although just two were planned to suffice: the other two were intended to be utilised by another new line, to branch off eastwards and run under the city to Görlitzer Bahnhof. A connection from Anhalter Bahnhof was to be made. Although construction of some tunnel sections went ahead, the line was never opened. During the war, many of the sections in the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn were all closed due to enemy action, the sections through Potsdamer Platz were of no exception; the S-Bahn North-South Link, less than six years old, became the setting for one of the most contentious episodes of the final Battle for Berlin, in late April and early May 1945. On 2 May, the Tunnel was flooded as a consequence of the decision of the remaining Nazi leaders to blow up the section of the North-South Tunnel beneath the nearby Landwehrkanal as a desperate measure to slow the Soviet advance.
Because of this incident, the North-South Link was unable to be used until 1947. Shortly after war's end the Ringbahnhof got a reprieve of sorts, temporarily reopening on 6 August 1945 as terminus of the Wannseebahn trains, while the Nord-Süd-Tunnel received massive repairs; the Ringbahnhof closed for good on 27 July 1946 after some fragmentary train workings had resumed along the North-South Link on 2 June. Full services recommenced on 16 November 1947, although repairs were not complete until May 1948; the S-Bahn North-South Link saw a more bizarre - - state of affairs. This line, plus two U-Bahn lines elsewhere in the city, suffered from a quirk of geography in that they passed through East German territory en route from one part of West Berlin to another; this gave rise to the infamous "Geisterbahnhofe", Potsdamer Platz being the most notorious, those unfortunate ones on the eastern side that were sealed off from the outside world and which trains ran straight through without stopping, being there from 1961 to 1989.
They would slow down however, affording passengers the strange sight of dusty, dimly lit platforms patrolled by armed guards, there to prevent any East Berliners from trying to escape to the West by train. At the points where the lines passed directly beneath the actual border, concrete "collars" were constructed within the tunnels with just the minimum clearance for trains, to prevent people clinging to the sides or roof of the coaches; the station was the last to be reopened, with major refurbishment work included to the entire North South line and the station, with re-coating/repainting of the station and huge removal of wartime flood damage, on the 3 March 1992. Major refurbishment began to be carried out on January 1991; the U-Bahn, or Untergrundbahn, was a major revolution in Berlin's public transport, the forerunner of similar systems now seen in several German cities. The underground sections alternated with sections elevated above ground on viaducts – hence the alternative name Hochbahn.
The first line ran from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz. Begun on 10 September 1896 and opened on 18 February 1902, the actual Potsdamer Platz station was rather poorly sited. Though it was reached via an entrance right outside the main-line terminus, people had to walk about 200 metres along an underground passage beneath the appropriately named Bahnstraße, it was built by a Swedish architect Grenander in 1902, it was supposed to be named Potsdamer Bahnhof, or Potsdamer Ringbahnhof. But after 5 years the station was relocated just 180m to the southwest at Leipziger Platz; that year, the system was developed into a through line running from Warschauer Brücke to Knie, which placed Potsdamer Platz on a branch accessed via a triangle of lines between Möckernbrücke and Bülowstraße stations near the current Gleisdreieck station. The first Potsdamer Platz U-Bahn station saw use for just over five and a half years, until its inconvenient site, the desire to reach other parts of the city, enabled it to be superseded by a better sited new station on an extension of the line to Spittelmarkt.
The new station opened first, on 29 September 1907, the rest of
Berlin Schönhauser Allee station
Berlin Schönhauser Allee is a railway station in the Prenzlauer Berg district of Berlin. It is located on the Berlin U-Bahn line U 2 and on the Ringbahn. Built in 1913 by A. Grenander opened as "Bahnhof Nordring"; as the station was well accepted the roof was elongated in 1925 and a new entrance build. In 1936 the station was named "Schönhauser Allee". On an average day 500 trains and more than 26000 people cross this station. At this station, the Elevated U2 crosses the below-ground S-bahn, while at the other crossing of the U2 and the ringbahn, messe-nord/Icc S-bahn station and kaiserdamm U2 station, the U2 crosses above the below-ground s-bahn on the bottom deck of a road bridge
Gleisdreieck (Berlin U-Bahn)
Gleisdreieck is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on a viaduct on the U 1/U 3 and the U 2 lines in the Kreuzberg district. The station has platforms; the platforms of the U1/U3 are at a higher level than, at right angles to, those of the U2. The station's name means "railway triangle" or wye in English and marks the spot of an earlier major train hub opened in 1902, where the three branches of the first Stammstrecke U-Bahn line from Zoologischer Garten, Potsdamer Platz and Warschauer Brücke met. A major accident at the triangle happened on 26 September 1908. One car derailed and fell from the viaduct, killing 18 people and injuring 21. Upon another dangerous incident, the single level triangle from 1912 was rebuilt and replaced by the current two-level station. Since there is no direct rail connection between the two lines at Gleisdreieck, only an intersection. Though in 1939 the North-South Tunnel was opened in close vicinity, there is no interchange to the S-Bahn system. In 28/29 January 1944, there was a heavy hit in the viaduct, on 14 February 1945, there was adverse bombing hits heavy air pressure damage to the steel station construction.
It was directly hit on 3 February 1945. On 11/12 March 1945, the signal box was destroyed, on 18 March 1945, the upper platform was destroyed. A viaduct was destroyed in the Battle of Berlin. After the building of the Berlin Wall from 13 August 1961 the lower platform became the eastern terminus of the U2, until service discontinued on 1 January 1972. Between 1984 and 1991 it served as the southern terminal of the short-lived M-Bahn maglev running to Kemperplatz near the Philharmonie; the U2 train service on the lower platform was resumed on 13 November 1993. It is the westernmost station in Kreuzberg for both lines; the German Museum of Technology is adjacent to the station. The name Gleisdreieck refers to a large area in the south, the former freight yards of the Anhalter and Potsdamer Bahnhof, which are redeveloped as an urban park. Gardner, Nicky. "Letter from Europe: The Lost Kingdom". Hidden Europe website. Hidden europe. Retrieved 30 August 2013
Bayerischer Platz (Berlin U-Bahn)
Bayerischer Platz is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 4 and the U 7 lines. The station is located under the square of the same name in the centre of the Bayerisches Viertel neighbourhood in Schöneberg; the U4 station opened with the rest of that line on 1 December 1910 and is now a protected historic landmark. The Schöneberg line between Nollendorfplatz and Innsbrucker Platz, today's U4, was built by the independent city of Schöneberg to connect it to the "new West" of Berlin; the Bayerischer Platz station was built in 1909/10 to the design of Johannes Kraaz. However, the platform areas of each station on the line were built to a standardised design, presumed to be by Friedrich Gerlach, the Prussian official, involved in every facet of the development of Schöneberg; the stations resemble those of Alfred Grenander and emulate his use of a distinguishing colour for each station. Kraaz conceived of the south entrance to the station as a pergola integrated into Fritz Encke's architecture in the square.
Since it was the only station on the line to have a 90 m long platform from the start, it was given another entrance at the north end in pergola style. This entrance survives unchanged today. However, the south entrance, rebuilt after being destroyed in World War II, had to be removed in 1956/57 when Grunewaldstraße was straightened to run through the square. At the time of the station's construction, there were plans to have a line to Neukölln cross at this point; the station was intended to bridge such a future line, which would be built 60 years later. On 3 February 1945, during World War II, several Allied bombs scored direct hits on the station while 2 trains were halted there, killing 63 people; the north entrance and lobby with their wrought iron railings and pilasters are unchanged, the only station entrance on the line to be preserved. The walls are tiled in blue and the stairwells faced with fossil-bearing rock. In the platform area, the original white and blue wall tiles were replaced with brighter colours during reconstruction after the war, but the platform appears as it did, two original kiosks, one with the original tiling remain.
The next station is Rathaus Schoneberg. The lower-level U7 portion of the station, built to Rainer G. Rümmler's design in 1968–70 and opened in 1971 makes use of the Bavarian colours: the walls are clad in blue fibre cement panels with the station name on a white horizontal stripe, the support columns are white; the ceiling, resembling skylights in industrial buildings, was designed to avoid dazzling train operators. The lobbies are decorated in contrasting colours: white and turquoise; the design resembles that at Eisenacher Straße by Rümmler. The next station is Eisenacher Straße. At the same time, the glass-fronted south entrance building erected in the 1950s to replace the demolished original was rebuilt to a modernistic design by Rümmler. Colourful art is mounted on the walls inside; the BVG has done fundamental maintenance to the main entrance building in 2013. In addition, the station will be equipped with two additional handicapped accessible lifts by the end of the year. On 27 May 2013 the demolition of the main building began.
These were completed by 3 December 2013. Biagia Bongiorno. Die Bahnhöfe der Berliner Hoch- und Untergrundbahn. Verkehrsdenkmale in Berlin. Berlin: Imhof, 2007. ISBN 978-3-86568-292-5. P. 128. Map of station location, Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe
Kurfürstenstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Kurfürstenstraße is part of the Berlin U-Bahn network in Germany. It is on the U1 and U3; the station opened on 24 October 1926 and it is located in Berlin Mitte borough. It lies just to the north of Bülowstraße, the corresponding station on the U2, in the southeast corner of Tiergarten; the area has a rather seedy reputation due to prostitution. Potsdamer Straße is a major thoroughfare
Schlesisches Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
Schlesisches Tor is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 1 and U 3 lines. It is located in eastern Kreuzberg, near Oberbaumbrücke, in the Bohemian quarter known as SO36; the station is named after one of the former city gates of Berlin built in the early 18th century. The exceptionally richly designed station opened on 18 February 1902, on the first Berlin U-Bahn line erected by the Siemens & Halske company. On 11/12 March 1945, this station was directly hit, the track area was damaged. During the division of Berlin after 13 August 1961, the station was the eastern terminus of the U1, as the final station, Warschauer Straße, was in East Berlin; the link was reopened in 1995. An intermediate station at the Spree river, Stralauer Tor, had been destroyed in 1945 and never reopened. Schlesisches Tor was an atmospheric location in the 1966 espionage film The Quiller Memorandum starring George Segal and Alec Guinness