Nordstrand is a district of the city of Oslo, Norway. It borders Gamle Oslo in the north, Østensjø in the east and Søndre Nordstrand in the south; the district is located in the southern part of the city and with a population of more than 40,000 people, it was the second most populated district in Oslo in 2004. In 2004, Nordstrand was merged with two other boroughs and Ekeberg-Bekkelaget, to form what is today known as Nordstrand. In early 2012 the population was 47,696 inhabitants. First and second generation immigrants make up 14.6% of the population, the lowest percentage in the entire city. The district is named after a house named Nordstranden, located at Mosseveien 196. Nordstrand is one of the wealthiest districts in Oslo, net incomes, real estate prices, life expectancy are among the city’s highest. Nordstrand is, by many accounts, the best place in the world. In demographic statistics Oslo is divided into an eastern and a western part; as Nordstrand differs from its bordering boroughs, it is considered as belonging to the western part though it is geographically located in the eastern part.
Solveien, Nordstrand's most famous road, has been one of Oslo's most expensive addresses since the early 20th century. Nordstrand is known for its beautiful view of the Oslofjord and its long beach; the district consists of these neighborhoods of Oslo: Nordstrand Bekkelaget Ekeberg Lambertseter Ljan Nordstrand Vel Oslo/South travel guide from Wikivoyage Magnus Hydle. Nordstrand før og nå. Published by Nordstrand Vel on the occasion of its 50th anniversary. Oslo: Fabritius, 1942. OCLC 247833448 Finn Erhard Johannessen. Utsikt over Nordstrands historie. Oslo: Nordstrand Vel, 2000. ISBN 9788278470619
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language online encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978, when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norway's two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, respectively; the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The slump in sales for paperbased encyclopedias around the turn of the 21st century hit Kunnskapsforlaget hard, but a fourth edition of the paper encyclopedia was secured by a grant of 10 million Norwegian kroner from the foundation Fritt Ord in 2003; the fourth edition consisted of a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries. First edition, 1978-1981, 12 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås Second edition, 1986-1989, 15 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås.
Third edition, 1995-1998, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen. Fourth edition, 2005-2007, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen; the online edition of SNL was launched in 2000, had both private and institutional subscribers. The paywall was removed on 25 February 2009, the online encyclopedia became free. On 12 March 2010, Kunnskapsforlaget announced that they would close the online encyclopedia because of lacklustre sales and failing revenue, it was announced that the articles would not be given to the Wikimedia Foundation, with chief-editor Petter Henriksen stating that: "It is important that the people behind the articles remain visible". In 2011, the foundations Fritt Ord and Sparebankstiftelsen DNB acquired the encyclopedia, hired Anne Marit Godal as the new chief editor and established a new organisation, assisted by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and Norwegian Non-Fiction Writers and Translators Association. In 2014 the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia Association took over the encyclopedia.
In 2016 Erik Bolstad became the new chief editor. As of 2018, the SNL has around 200,000 articles online, updated by 750 affiliated academics; the SNL accepts contributions from users, but all changes to the articles are verified by a topic expert before publication. The online encyclopedia are among the most-read Norwegian published sites, with around 2 million unique visitors per month; the online version of Store norske leksikon
Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is regulated, sanctioned boxing. Professional boxing bouts are fought for a purse, divided between the boxers as determined by contract. Most professional bouts are supervised by a regulatory authority to guarantee the fighters' safety. Most high-profile bouts obtain the endorsement of a sanctioning body, which awards championship belts, establishes rules, assigns its own judges and referee. In contrast with amateur boxing, professional bouts are much longer and can last up to twelve rounds, though less significant fights can be as short as four rounds. Protective headgear is not permitted, boxers are allowed to take substantial punishment before a fight is halted. Professional boxing has enjoyed a much higher profile than amateur boxing throughout the 20th century and beyond. In Cuba professional boxing is banned. So was the case in Sweden between 1970 and 2007, Norway between 1981 and 2014. In 1891, the National Sporting Club, a private club in London, began to promote professional glove fights at its own premises, created nine of its own rules to augment the Queensberry Rules.
These rules specified more the role of the officials, produced a system of scoring that enabled the referee to decide the result of a fight. The British Boxing Board of Control was first formed in 1919 with close links to the N. S. C. and was re-formed in 1929 after the N. S. C. Closed. In 1909, the first of twenty-two belts were presented by the fifth Earl of Lonsdale to the winner of a British title fight held at the N. S. C. In 1929, the B. B. B. C. Continued to award Lonsdale Belts to any British boxer who won three title fights in the same weight division; the "title fight" has always been the focal point in professional boxing. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there were title fights at each weight. Promoters who could stage profitable title fights became influential in the sport, as did boxers' managers; the best promoters and managers have been instrumental in bringing boxing to new audiences and provoking media and public interest. The most famous of all three-way partnership was that of Jack Dempsey, his manager Jack Kearns, the promoter Tex Rickard.
Together they grossed US$8.4 million in only five fights between 1921 and 1927 and ushered in a "golden age" of popularity for professional boxing in the 1920s. They were responsible for the first live radio broadcast of a title fight. In the United Kingdom, Jack Solomons' success as a fight promoter helped re-establish professional boxing after the Second World War and made the UK a popular place for title fights in the 1950s and 1960s. In the early twentieth century, most professional bouts took place in the United States and Britain, champions were recognised by popular consensus as expressed in the newspapers of the day. Among the great champions of the era were the peerless heavyweight Jim Jeffries and Bob Fitzsimmons, who weighed less than 12 stone, but won world titles at middleweight, light heavyweight, heavyweight. Other famous champions included light heavyweight Philadelphia Jack O'Brien and middleweight Tommy Ryan. On May 12, 1902 lightweight Joe Gans became the first black American to be boxing champion.
Despite the public's enthusiasm, this was an era of far-reaching regulation of the sport with the stated goal of outright prohibition. In 1900, the State of New York enacted the Lewis Law, banned prizefights except for those held in private athletic clubs between members. Thus, when introducing the fighters, the announcer added the phrase "Both members of this club", as George Wesley Bellows titled one of his paintings; the western region of the United States tended to be more tolerant of prizefights in this era, although the private club arrangement was standard practice here as well, San Francisco's California Athletic Club being a prominent example. On December 26, 1908, heavyweight Jack Johnson became the first black heavyweight champion and a controversial figure in that racially charged era. Prizefights had unlimited rounds, could become endurance tests, favouring patient tacticians like Johnson. At lighter weights, ten round fights were common, lightweight Benny Leonard dominated his division from the late teens into the early twenties.
Prizefighting champions in this period were the premier sports celebrities, a championship event generated intense public interest. Long before bars became popular venues in which to watch sporting events on television, enterprising saloon keepers were known to set up ticker machines and announce the progress of an important bout, blow by blow. Local kids hung about outside the saloon doors, hoping for news of the fight. Harpo Marx fifteen, recounted vicariously experiencing the 1904 Jeffries-Munroe championship fight in this way. In the 1920s, prizefighting was the pre-eminent sport in the United States, no figure loomed larger than Jack Dempsey, who became world heavyweight champion after brutally defeating Jess Willard. Dempsey was one of the hardest punchers of all time and as Bert Randolph Sugar put it, "had a left hook from hell", he is remembered for his iconic fight with Luis Ángel Firpo, followed by a lavish life of celebrity away from the ring. The enormously popular Dempsey would conclude his career with a memorable two bouts with Gene Tunney, breaking the $1 million gate threshold for the first time.
Although Tunney dominated both fights, Dempsey retained the public's sympathy after the controversy of a "long count" in their second fight. This fight introduced the new rule that the counting of a downed opponent w
Ekebergsletta is a field in the neighborhood of Ekeberg in the Nordstrand district, southeast of downtown Oslo, Norway. Ekebergsletta is a large grass covered area located on Ekeberg plateau; the area was farmland where crops were cultivated until the 1950s. Shortly after the end of World War II, the idea of an airport for Oslo was entertained for this area. Roald Amundsen had landed his Airship Norge here for a few hours in 1926 on his way to towards the North Pole; the foundation of the mooring mast used by the airship can still be found. The idea of an airport was rejected in favor of an area for sports and related activities. Today Ekebergsletta is part of Oslo's biggest park system and is used for sporting events. Ekebergsletta is associated with the Norway Cup which started here in 1972 and, still one of several places around Oslo where the game is held. Ekebergparken Sculpture Park Map of Ekebergsletta
Frank Vincent Zappa was an American musician, composer and filmmaker. His work is characterized by nonconformity, free-form improvisation, sound experiments, musical virtuosity, satire of American culture. In a career spanning more than 30 years, Zappa composed rock, jazz, jazz fusion and musique concrète works, produced all of the 60-plus albums that he released with his band the Mothers of Invention and as a solo artist. Zappa directed feature-length films and music videos, designed album covers, he is considered one of the stylistically diverse rock musicians of his era. As a self-taught composer and performer, Zappa's diverse musical influences led him to create music, sometimes difficult to categorize. While in his teens, he acquired a taste for 20th-century classical composers such as Edgard Varèse, Igor Stravinsky, Anton Webern, Halim El-Dabh, along with 1950s rhythm and blues and doo-wop music, he began writing classical music in high school, while at the same time playing drums in rhythm and blues bands switching to electric guitar.
His 1966 debut album with the Mothers of Invention, Freak Out!, combined songs in conventional rock and roll format with collective improvisations and studio-generated sound collages. He continued this eclectic and experimental approach, irrespective of whether the fundamental format was rock, jazz or classical. Zappa's output is unified by a conceptual continuity he termed "Project/Object", with numerous musical phrases and characters reappearing across his albums, his lyrics reflected his iconoclastic views of established social and political processes and movements humorously so, he has been described as the "godfather" of comedy rock. He was a strident critic of mainstream education and organized religion, a forthright and passionate advocate for freedom of speech, self-education, political participation and the abolition of censorship. Unlike many other rock musicians of his generation, he disapproved of drugs, but supported their decriminalization and regulation. During Zappa's lifetime, he was a productive and prolific artist with a controversial critical standing.
He had some commercial success in Europe, worked as an independent artist for most of his career. He remains a major influence on composers, his honors include his 1995 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the 1997 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2000, he was ranked number 36 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him at number 71 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", in 2011 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Zappa was born on December 1940 in Baltimore, Maryland, his mother, Rosemarie was of French ancestry. Frank, the eldest of four children, was raised in an Italian-American household where Italian was spoken by his grandparents; the family moved because his father, a chemist and mathematician, worked in the defense industry. After a time in Florida in the 1940s, the family returned to Maryland, where Zappa's father worked at the Edgewood Arsenal chemical warfare facility of the Aberdeen Proving Ground run by the U.
S. Army. Due to their home's proximity to the arsenal, which stored mustard gas, gas masks were kept in the home in case of an accident; this living arrangement had a profound effect on Zappa, references to germs, germ warfare and the defense industry occur throughout his work. Zappa was sick as a child, suffering from asthma and sinus problems. A doctor treated his sinusitis by inserting a pellet of radium into each of Zappa's nostrils. At the time, little was known about the potential dangers of small amounts of therapeutic radiation, although it has since been claimed that nasal radium treatment has causal connections to cancer, no studies have provided significant enough evidence to confirm this. Nasal imagery and references appear in his music and lyrics, as well as in the collage album covers created by his long-time collaborator Cal Schenkel. Zappa believed his childhood diseases might have been due to exposure to mustard gas, released by the nearby chemical warfare facility, his health worsened when he lived in Baltimore.
In 1952, his family relocated for reasons of health to Monterey, where his father taught metallurgy at the Naval Postgraduate School. They soon moved to Claremont, to El Cajon, before settling in San Diego. Zappa joined his first band at Mission Bay High School in San Diego as the drummer. At about the same time, his parents bought a phonograph, which allowed him to develop his interest in music, to begin building his record collection. R&B singles were early purchases, he was interested in sounds for their own sake the sounds of drums and other percussion instruments. By age 12, he began learning the basics of orchestral percussion. Zappa's deep interest in modern classical music began when he read a LOOK magazine article about the Sam Goody record store chain that lauded its ability to sell an LP as obscure as The Complete Works of Edgard Varèse, Volume One; the article described Varèse's percussion composition Ionisation, produced by EMS Record
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology