An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not the end of a war, since it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace, it is derived from the Latin arma, meaning "arms" and -stitium, meaning "a stopping". The United Nations Security Council imposes, or tries to impose, cease-fire resolutions on parties in modern conflicts. Armistices are always negotiated between the parties themselves and are thus seen as more binding than non-mandatory UN cease-fire resolutions in modern international law. An armistice is a modus vivendi and is not the same as a peace treaty, which may take months or years to agree on; the 1953 Korean War Armistice Agreement is a major example of an armistice which has not been followed by a peace treaty. Armistice is different from a truce or ceasefire, which refer to a temporary cessation of hostilities for an agreed limited time or within a limited area. A truce may be needed in order to negotiate an armistice.
Under international law an armistice is a legal agreement which ends fighting between the "belligerent parties" of a war or conflict. At the Hague Convention of 1899, where three treaties were agreed and three declarations made, the Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land stated that "If duration is not fixed," the parties can resume fighting as they choose, but with proper notifications; this is in comparison to a "fixed duration" armistice, where the parties can renew fighting only at the end of the particular fixed duration. When the belligerent parties say, "this armistice ends the fighting" without any end date for the armistice duration of the armistice is fixed in the sense that no resumption of the fighting is allowed at any time. For example, the Korean Armistice Agreement calls for a "ceasefire and armistice" and has the "objective of establishing an armistice which will ensure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the Armistice of 11 November 1918 signed between the Allies of World War I and the German Empire at Compiègne, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918. Most countries changed the name of the holiday after World War II, to honor veterans of that and subsequent conflicts. Most member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted the name Remembrance Day, while the United States chose Veterans Day. Armistice of Copenhagen of 1537 ended the Danish war known as the Count's Feud Armistice of Stuhmsdorf of 1635 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden Peace of Westphalia of 1648 that ended the Thirty Years' War and Eighty Years' War World War I Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, December 1917 Armistice of Salonika between Bulgaria and the Allies, September 1918 Armistice of Mudros between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies, October 1918 Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti ended the fighting of the war on the Italian front in early November 1918 Armistice with Germany, ended the fighting of the war on the western front, November 11, 1918 Armistice of Mudanya between Turkey, Italy and the UK and Greece, 1922 World War II Armistice with France, 1940 Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre between British forces in the Middle East and Vichy France forces in Syria, 1941 Armistice with Italy, formal agreement of warring parties, the Allies and Italy, to stop fighting, signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano.
Moscow Armistice, signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan and Syria Korean War Armistice Agreement, July 1953 Geneva Agreements signed by France and the Viet Minh on 20 July 1954 ending the First Indochina War Armistice in Algeria, 1962, which attempted to end the Algerian War "Allied Armistice Terms, 11 November 1918". The War to End All Wars. FirstWorldWar.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04; the Expanded Cease-Fires Data Set Code Book
Olympia, is a small town in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula in Greece, famous for the nearby archaeological site of the same name, a major Panhellenic religious sanctuary of ancient Greece, where the ancient Olympic Games were held. The site was dedicated to Zeus and drew visitors from all over the Greek world as one of a group of such "Panhellenic" centres which helped to build the identity of the ancient Greeks as a nation. Despite the name, it is nowhere near Mount Olympus in northern Greece, where the Twelve Olympians, the major deities of Ancient Greek religion, were believed to live; the Olympic Games were held every four years throughout Classical antiquity, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. The archaeological site held over 70 significant buildings, ruins of many of these survive, although the main Temple of Zeus survives only as stones on the ground; the site is a major tourist attraction, has two museums, one devoted to the ancient and modern games. Olympia lies in the wide valley of the rather small Alfeiós River in the western part of the Peloponnese, today around 18 kilometers away from the Ionian Sea, but in antiquity half that distance.
The name Altis was derived from a corruption of the Elean word meaning "the grove" because the area was wooded and plane trees in particular. The Altis, as the sanctuary was known, was an irregular quadrangular area more than 200 yards on each side and walled except to the North where it was bounded by the Kronion. According to Pausanias there were over 70 temples in total, as well as treasuries, altars and other structures dedicated to many deities. Somewhat in contrast to Delphi, where a similar large collection of monuments were packed within the tenemos boundary, Olympia sprawled beyond the boundary wall in the areas devoted to the games; the Altis consists of a somewhat disordered arrangement of buildings, the most important of which are the Temple of Hera, the Temple of Zeus, the Pelopion, the area of the great altar of Zeus, where the largest sacrifices were made. There was still a good deal of wooded areas inside the sanctuary. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the Prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city-states.
The Metroon lies with the Echo Stoa to the east. The hippodrome and stadium were located east of the Echo Stoa. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the bouleuterion, whereas the palaestra, the workshop of Pheidias, the gymnasion, the Leonidaion lie to the west. Olympia was known for the gigantic chryselephantine statue of Zeus, the cult image in his temple, sculpted by Pheidias, named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Close to the Temple of Zeus which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found; the ancient ruins sit south of Mount Kronos. The Kladeos, a tributary of the Alpheios, flows around the area. 1. Northwest Propylon, 2. Prytaneion, 3. Philippeion, 4. Temple of Hera, 5. Pelopion, 6. Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus, 7. Metroon, 8. Treasuries, 9. Crypt, 10. Stadium, 11. Echo Stoa, 12. Building of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II, 13. Hestia stoa, 14. Hellenistic building, 15. Temple of Zeus, 16. Altar of Zeus, 17. Ex-voto of Achaeans, 18.
Ex-voto of Mikythos, 19. Nike of Paeonius, 20. Gymnasion, 21. Palaestra, 22. Theokoleon, 23. Heroon, 24. Pheidias' workshop and paleochristian basilica, 25. Baths of Kladeos, 26. Greek baths, 27. and 28. Hostels, 29. Leonidaion, 30. South baths, 31. Bouleuterion, 32. South stoa, 33. Villa of Nero. Treasuries. I. Sicyon, II. Syracuse, III. Epidamnus, IV. Byzantium, V. Sybaris, VI. Cyrene, VII. Unidentified, VIII. Altar, IX. Selinunte, X. Metapontum, XI. Megara, XII. Gela. For a history of the Olympic Games, see Olympic Games or Ancient Olympic Games, it used to be thought that the site had been occupied since about 1500 BC, with a religious cult of Zeus developing around 1000 BC. It may be that instead there was only a sanctuary from the 9th or 8th centuries, though the question remains in debate. Others believe that remains of food and burnt offerings dating back to the 10th century BC give evidence of a long history of religious activity at the site. No buildings have survived from this earliest period of use; the first Olympic festival was organized on the site by the authorities of Elis in the 8th century BC – with tradition dating the first games at 776 BC.
Major changes were made to the site including levelling land and digging new wells. Elis' power diminished and the sanctuary fell into the hands of the Pisatans in 676 BC; the Pisatans organized the games until the late 7th century BC. The earliest evidence of building activity on the site dates from around 600 BC. At this time the Skiloudians, allies of the Pistans, built the Temple of Hera; the Treasuries and the Pelopion were built during the course of the 6th century BC. The secular structures and athletic arenas were under construction during this period including the Bouleuterion; the first stadium was constructed around 560 BC, it consisted of just a simple track. The stadium was remodelled around 500 BC with sloping sides for spectators and shifted to the east. Over the course of the 6th century BC a range of sports were added to the Olympic festival. In 580 BC, Elis, in alliance with
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second-century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations; this work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as: A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is careless or makes unwarranted inferences, his guides or his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, his value without par. Pausanias was born in 110 AD into a Greek family and was a native of Lydia. Before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids. While at the temple of Ammon, he had been shown the hymn once sent to that shrine by Pindar. In Macedonia, he appears to have seen.
Crossing over to Italy, he had seen something of the wonders of Rome. He was one of the first known to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Mycenae. Pausanias' Description of Greece is in each dedicated to some portion of Greece, he begins his tour in Attica, where the city of its demes dominate the discussion. Subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris; the project is more than topographical. Pausanias digresses from the description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them; as a Greek writing under the auspices of the Roman empire, he was in an awkward cultural space, between the glories of the Greek past he was so keen to describe and the realities of a Greece beholden to Rome as a dominating imperial force. His work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece, he is not a naturalist by any means, although from time to time, he does comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape.
He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the wild boars in the oak woods of Phelloe, the crows amid the giant oak trees of Alalcomenae. It is in the last section that Pausanias touches on the products of nature, such as the wild strawberries of Helicon, the date palms of Aulis, the olive oil of Tithorea, as well as the tortoises of Arcadia and the "white blackbirds" of Cyllene. Pausanias is most of Delphi, yet in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of deities, holy relics, many other sacred and mysterious objects. At Thebes he views the shields of those who died at the Battle of Leuctra, the ruins of the house of Pindar, the statues of Hesiod, Arion and Orpheus in the grove of the Muses on Helicon, as well as the portraits of Corinna at Tanagra and of Polybius in the cities of Arcadia. Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary; as his modern editor, Christian Habicht, has said, In general, he prefers the old to the new, the sacred to the profane.
Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not mentioned. Unlike a Baedeker guide, in Periegesis Pausanias stops for a brief excursus on a point of ancient ritual or to tell an apposite myth, in a genre that would not become popular again until the early nineteenth century. In the topographical part of his work, Pausanias is fond of digressions on the wonders of nature, the signs that herald the approach of an earthquake, the phenomena of the tides, the ice-bound seas of the north, the noonday sun that at the summer solstice, casts no shadow at Syene. While he never doubts the existence of the deities and heroes, he sometimes criticizes the myths and legends relating to them, his descriptions of monuments of art are unadorned. They bear the impression of reality, their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains, he is frank in his confessions of ignorance. When he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so.
The work left faint traces in the known Greek corpus. "It was not read", Habicht relates. The only manuscripts of Pausanias are three fifteenth-century copies, full of errors and lacunae, which all appear to depend on a single manuscript that survived to be copied. Niccolò Niccoli had this archetype in Florence in 1418. At his death in 1437, it went to the library of San Marco, Florence it disappeared after 1500; until twentieth-century archaeologists concluded that Pausanias was a reliable guide to the sites they were excavating, Pausanias was la
A ceasefire called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces. A ceasefire is more limited than a broader armistice, a formal agreement to end fighting. Successful ceasefires may be followed by armistices, by peace treaties. During World War I, on December 24, 1914, there was an unofficial ceasefire on the Western Front as France, the United Kingdom, Germany observed Christmas. There are accounts that claimed the unofficial ceasefire took place through the week leading to Christmas and British and German troops exchanged seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches, it was brief but spontaneous, beginning when German soldiers lit Christmas trees, it spread up and down the Western Front. One account described this development in the following words:It was good to see the human spirit prevailed amongst all sides at the front, the sharing and fraternity.
All was well until the higher echelons of command got to hear about the effect of the ceasefire, whereby their wrath ensured a return to hostilities. There was the war resumed after a few days. On November 29, 1952, the newly U. S. president-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower, went to Korea to learn. With the United Nations' acceptance of India's proposed Korean War armistice, the Korean People's Army, the People's Volunteer Army, the UN Command ceased fire with the battle line at the 38th parallel. Upon agreeing to the ceasefire agreement, the belligerents established the Korean Demilitarized Zone, which has since been patrolled by the KPA and the joint ROKA, US, UN Command; the Korean Demilitarized Zone runs northeast of the 38th parallel. The old Korean capital city of Kaesong, site of the armistice negotiations lay in the pre-war ROK, but now is in the DPRK; the United Nations Command, the North Korean Korean People's Army, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army, signed the Armistice Agreement on July 27, 1953, to end the fighting.
The Armistice called upon the governments of South Korea, North Korea and the United States to participate in continued peace talks. For his part, ROK President Syngman Rhee attacked the peace proceedings; the war is considered to have ended at this point though there was no peace treaty. On January 15, 1973, President Richard Nixon of the USA ordered a ceasefire of the aerial bombings in North Vietnam; the decision came after Dr. Henry Kissinger, the National Security Affairs advisor to the president, returned to Washington from Paris, France with a draft peace proposal. Combat missions continued in South Vietnam. By January 27, 1973, all warring parties in the Vietnam War signed a ceasefire as a prelude to the Paris Peace Accord. After Iraq was driven by U. S.-led coalition forces out of Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm and the U. N. Security Council signed a ceasefire agreement on March 3, 1991. Throughout the 1990s, the U. N. Security Council passed 16 Resolutions calling for Iraq to disarm the WMDs program unconditionally and immediately.
Because no peace treaty was signed after the Gulf War, the war still remained in effect, such as an assassination attempt of former U. S. President George H. W. Bush by Iraqi agents while on a visit to Kuwait and Iraq was bombed in June 1993 as a response, Iraqi forces firing on coalition aircraft patrolling the Iraqi no-fly zones, U. S. President Bill Clinton's bombing of Baghdad in 1998 during Operation Desert Fox, an earlier 1996 bombing of Iraq by the U. S. during Operation Desert Strike. The war remained in effect until 2003 when U. S. and United Kingdom forces toppled Saddam Hussein's regime from power. A United Nations-mediated ceasefire was agreed between India and Pakistan on 1 January 1949, ending the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fighting broke out between the two newly independent countries in Kashmir in October 1947, with India intervening on behalf of the princely ruler of Kashmir who had joined India and the rebels, who were supported by Pakistan; the fighting was limited to Kashmir but, apprehensive that it might develop into a full-scale international war, India referred the matter to the UN Security Council under Article 35 of the UN Charter, which addresses situations `likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace'.
The Security Council set up a dedicated United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, which mediated for an entire year as the fighting continued. After several UN resolutions outlining a procedure for resolving the dispute via a plebiscite, a ceasefire agreement was reached between the countries towards the end of December 1948, which came into effect in the New Year; the Security Council set up a United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan to monitor the ceasefire line. India has declared a ceasefire in Kashmir Valley during Ramadan 2018. During World War I, an ally of Germany, had its troops stationed both in the Balkan States in the west and at the Russian-Iranian border in the north and east; the Russian army was holding its positions against Turkey in the Caucasus mountains on the north and at the Turkish-Iranian border on the east, but when the Russian army withdrew from the war zone in this area due to Lenin's Revolution, its army stationed in the Caucasus was no longer there to protect the Assyrian and Armenian minorities.
The Turkish government, who were angry at the Christians, had been kept under pressure by the Russian A
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ