Mother Nature is a Greco-Roman personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother. The concept is far from universal, there are no equivalent term or concept in many languages and/or cultures; the word "nature" comes from "natura", meaning birth or character. In English its first recorded use was in 1266 A. D.. "Natura", the personification of Mother Nature, was popular in the Middle Ages. As a concept, seated between the properly divine and the human, it can be traced to Ancient Greece, though Earth may have been personified as a goddess; the Norse had a goddess called Jord. The earliest written usage is in Mycenaean Greek- Ma-ka, "Mother Gaia", written in Linear B syllabic script; the various myths of nature goddesses such as Inanna/Ishtar show that the personification of the creative and nurturing sides of nature as female deities has deep roots. In Greece, the pre-Socratic philosophers had "invented" nature when they abstracted the entirety of phenomena of the world as singular: physis, this was inherited by Aristotle.
Medieval Christian thinkers did not see nature as inclusive of everything, but thought that she had been created by God. Nature lay somewhere in the center, with agents above her, below her. For the medieval mind she was only a personification, not a goddess. In Greek mythology, daughter of Demeter, was abducted by Hades, taken to the underworld as his queen. Demeter was so distraught that no crops would grow and the "entire human race have perished of cruel, biting hunger if Zeus had not been concerned". Zeus forced Hades to return Persephone to her mother, but while in the underworld, Persephone had eaten pomegranate seeds, the food of the dead and thus, she must spend part of each year with Hades in the underworld. Demeter's grief for her daughter in the realm of the dead, is reflected in the barren winter months and her joy when Persephone returns is reflected in the bountiful summer months. Demeter would take the place of her grandmother and her mother, Rhea, as goddess of the earth in a time when humans and gods thought the activities of the heavens more sacred than those of earth.
Roman Epicurean poet Lucretius opens his didactic poem De rerum natura by addressing Venus as a veritable mother of nature. Lucretius uses Venus as "a personified symbol for the generative aspect of nature"; this has to do with the nature of Lucretius' work, which presents a nontheistic understanding of the world that eschews superstition. Algonquian legend says that "beneath the clouds lives the Earth-Mother from whom is derived the Water of Life, who at her bosom feeds plants and human", she is otherwise known as the Grandmother. In Inca mythology, Mama Pacha or Pachamama is a fertility goddess who presides over planting and harvesting. Pachamama is translated as "Mother Earth" but a more literal translation would be "Mother Universe". Pachamama and her husband, are the most benevolent deities and are worshiped in parts of the Andean mountain ranges. In her book Coateteleco, pueblo indígena de pescadores, Teódula Alemán Cleto states, En nuestra cultura prehipánica el respeto y la fe a nuestra madre naturaleza fueron primordiales para vivir en plena armonía como seres humanos.
In the Southeast Asian Indochina countries of Cambodia and Thailand, earth is personified as Phra Mae Thorani, but her role in Buddhist mythology differs from that of Mother Nature. In the Malay Archipelago, that role is filled by The Rice-mother in the East Indies. In the early 1970s, a television ad featured character actress Dena Dietrich as Mother Nature. Vexed by an off-screen narrator who informs her she has mistaken Chiffon margarine for butter, she responds with the trademarked slogan: "It's not nice to fool Mother Nature". Mother Nature is featured in The Year Without a Santa Claus voiced by Rhoda Mann; this version is the mother of Snow Miser. Mother Nature appears. Progressive rock band Kansas recorded the song "Death of Mother Nature Suite" as a protest against industrialization. Mother Earth appears in The Earth Day Special, portrayed by Bette Midler; when she falls from the sky and faints due to the problems with nature, she is rushed to the hospital where she is tended to by Doogie Howser and other doctors.
Mother Nature is featured in Happily Ever After, voiced by Phyllis Diller. She is depicted as the most powerful force of good in this movie, having complete control over nature, as well as the ability to create creatures from potions she makes in her sanctuary. Mother Nature is a recurring character in The New Woody Woodpecker Show, voiced by B. J. Ward, she is depicted as a fairy who makes sure that Woody Woodpecker is doing his part in nature. Mother Nature is a supporting character in
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process, it is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, or 109 times that of Earth, its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth. It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. Three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen; the Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally and not accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf, it formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System; the central mass became so hot and dense that it initiated nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that all stars form by this process.
The Sun is middle-aged. It fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result; this energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. In about 5 billion years, when hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand to become a red giant, it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, render Earth uninhabitable. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion; the enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity.
The synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of solar calendars, one of, the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun may be related to south. Cognates to English sun appear in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian sunne, Old Saxon sunna, Middle Dutch sonne, modern Dutch zon, Old High German sunna, modern German Sonne, Old Norse sunna, Gothic sunnō. All Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn; the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not used in everyday English. Sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars; the related word solar is the usual adjectival term used for the Sun, in terms such as solar day, solar eclipse, Solar System. A mean Earth solar day is 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian'sol' is 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.244 seconds. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, itself a translation of the Greek ἡμέρα ἡλίου.
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. The Sun has an absolute magnitude of +4.83, estimated to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way, most of which are red dwarfs. The Sun is heavy-element-rich, star; the formation of the Sun may have been triggered by shockwaves from more nearby supernovae. This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements in the Solar System, such as gold and uranium, relative to the abundances of these elements in so-called Population II, heavy-element-poor, stars; the heavy elements could most plausibly have been produced by endothermic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation through neutron absorption within a massive second-generation star. The Sun is by far the brightest object in the Earth's sky, with an apparent magnitude of −26.74. This is about 13 billion times brighter than the next brightest star, which has an apparent magnitude of −1.46. The mean distance of the Sun's center to Earth's center is 1 astronomical unit, though the distance varies as Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July.
At this average distance, light travels from the Sun's horizon to Earth's horizon in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds, while light from the closest points of the Sun and Earth takes about two seconds less. The energy of this sunlight supports all life on Earth by photosynthesis, drives Earth's climate and weather; the Sun does not have a definite boundary, but its density decreases exponentially with increasing height above the photosphere. For the purpose of measurement, the Sun's radius is considered to be the distance from its center to the edge of the photosphere, the apparent visible surface of the Sun. By this measure, the Sun is a near-perfect sphere with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths, which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 kilometres; the tidal effect of the planets is weak and does not affect the shape of the Sun. The Sun rotates faster at its equator than at its poles; this differential rotation is caused by convective motion
The mythology of the ancient Basques did not survive the arrival of Christianity in the Basque Country between the 4th and 12th century AD. Most of what is known about elements of this original belief system is based on the analysis of legends, the study of place names and scant historical references to pagan rituals practised by the Basques. One main figure of this belief system was the female goddess Mari. According to legends collected in the area of Ataun, the other main figure was her consort Sugaar. However, due to the scarcity of the material it is difficult to say if this would have been the "central pair" of the Basque pantheon. Based on the attributes ascribed to these mythological creatures, this would be considered a chthonic religion as all its characters dwell on earth or below it, with the sky seen as an empty corridor through which the divinities pass; the Christianization of the Basque Country has been the topic of some discussion. Broadly speaking there are two views: either Christianity arrived in the Basque Country during the 4th and 5th century, or this did not occur until the 12th and 13th century.
The main issue lies in the different interpretations of. Early traces of Christianity can be found in the major urban areas from the 4th century onwards, a bishopric from 589 in Pamplona and three hermit cave concentrations were in use from the 6th century onwards. In this sense, Christianity arrived "early". At the same time, various historical sources and research directly or indirectly bear witness to the fact that large-scale conversion did not begin to take place until the 10th and 11th century: the bishops of Pamplona were absent from the Synods of Toledo during the Visigoth period reports of a failed mission by Bishop Amandus around 640 AD Arab authors from the time of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania labeled the Basques as being mağūs or "wizards, pagans" the famous cemetery of Argiñeta in Biscay from around 880 AD with Basque gravestones devoid of any Christian symbols the comparatively low density of religious centers in the Atlantic Basque Country until the 15th centuryMost Vasconists broadly agree that Christianity thus arrived some time in the 4th/5th century.
Serious missionary and religious activity only began in the 9th century from the kingdom of Asturias and Franks, continued after the Reconquista with famous monastic foundations and the diocese of Bayonne in the 11th century. Thus Christian and non-Christian beliefs lived side by side past the 11th century. Various traditions connected to this ancient belief system have survived by adapting a Christian veneer or by turning into folk traditions, as happened elsewhere in Europe. However, in spite of the process of Christianization being completed late, the process was thorough and little direct evidence remains of pre-Christian beliefs. For this reason research into the matter tends to be putative as it has to rely on the analysis of folklore, folk traditions, sketchy references and place-name evidence; the main sources for information about non-Christian Basque beliefs are: Strabo who mentions the sacrifice of male goats and humans. Arab writers from the time of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania The 12th century diary of the pilgrim Aymeric Picaud Various medieval sources making references to pagan rituals, including the records of the Inquisition 19th and 20th century collections of myths and folk-tales, for example by José Miguel Barandiaran.
This is by far the largest body of material relating to non-Christian beliefs and practices Basque Mythology: History of the myths and deities of the Basque mythological universe by Patxi Xabier Lezama Perier. This is an Ebook; the modern study of place-names in the Basque Country Urtzi may or may not have been a Basque mythological figure. There is evidence that can be read as either supporting or contradicting the existence of such a deity. To date neither theory has been able to convince fully; the Iberian Peninsula's Indo-European cultures like the Lusitanians and Celtiberians seem to have a significant Basque substrate in their mythologies. This includes the concept of the Enchanted Mouras, which may be based on the Mairu, the god Endovelicus, whose name may come from proto-Basque words. After Christianization, the Basques kept importing myths. Jaun Zuria is the mythical first Lord of Biscay, said to be born of a Scottish princess who had an encounter with the god Sugaar in the village of Mundaka.
The battle of Roncesvalles was mythified in the cycle of the Matter of France. In the Aralar Range, Saint Michael was said to appear to assist a local noble turned hermit; the coat of arms of Navarre was said to come from a feat in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The battle of Amaiur was the battle. Ortíz-Osés, A. Antropología simbólica vasca Anthropos, 1985. El matriarcalismo vasco Universidad de Deusto, 1988. El inconsciente colectivo vasco, 1982. Barandiaran, J. M. Mitologia Vasca Txertoa, 1996 Patxi Xabier Lezama Perier. Basque Mythology: History of the myths and deities of the Basque mythological universe. /Euskadi Public Reading Network / Bilbao-Mediateka BBK Library of Azkuna Zentroa. 2018 Hartsuaga, J. I. Euskal Mitologia Konparatua, Kriseilu, 1987. La Paglia, Antonio. Beyond Greece and Rome: Faith and Worship in Ancient Europe, Black Mountain Press, 2004. Everson, M. Tenacity in religion and folklore: the Neolithic Goddess of Old Europe preserved in a non-Indo-European setting, Journal of Indo-European Studies 17, 277.
Satrústegi, J. "Haitzuloetako euskal mitologia". Euskal Mitologia. 68: 165–174. Arriaga, J.. "Euskal mitologia"