A bouleuterion, translated as council house, assembly house, and senate house, was a building in ancient Greece which housed the council of citizens of a democratic city state. These representatives assembled at the bouleteurion to confer and decide about public affairs, there are several extant bouleuteria around Greece and its former colonies. It should not be confused with the Prytaneion, which housed the council of the assembly. The Athenian Boule is better known as the Council of 500, solon was credited with its formation in 594 BC as an assembly of 100 men each from Athenss four original tribes. At the adoption of the new constitution around 507 BC, this was changed to 50 men each from the 10 newly created tribes, the Old Bouleuterion was built on the west side of the Agora below the Kolonos Agoraios around 450 BC. It was almost square and included an antechamber and a main council chamber. The roof was supported by five columns and it is now better known as the Metroon since it was repurposed as her temple after the construction of the New Bouleuterion.
The New Bouleuterion was built west of the old building in the late 5th century BC and it was smaller but more sophisticated, with an amphitheater-like system of 12 levels of semicircular benches. Both the Old and New Bouleuteria used the nearby Tholos, the Olympian Bouleuterion was shaped like an early Greek temple, a kind of square horse-shoe. It had a seating arrangement and was located near the citys agora. Other bouleuteria exist at Anemourion, Argos in Greece, Lemnos in Greece, Messene and Troy
The Pnyx is a hill in central Athens, the capital of Greece. Beginning as early as 507 BC, the Athenians gathered on the Pnyx to host their popular assemblies, the Pnyx is located less than 1 kilometre west of the Acropolis and 1.6 km south-west of the centre of Athens, Syntagma Square. The Pnyx was used for popular assemblies in Athens as early as 507 BC and it was outside the city proper, but close enough to be convenient. It looks down on the ancient Agora, which was the commercial and social centre of the city, at this site all the great political struggles of Athens of the Golden Age were fought out. Pericles and Alcibiades spoke here, within sight of the Parthenon, here Demosthenes delivered his vilifications of Philip of Macedon, the famous Philippics. The Pnyx is a small, rocky hill surrounded by parkland, with a flat platform of eroded stone set into its side. It was the place of one of the worlds earliest known democratic legislatures, the Athenian ekklesia, and the flat stone platform was the bema.
As such, the Pnyx is the embodiment of the principle of isēgoría, equal speech. The other two principles of democracy were isonomía, equality under the law, and isopoliteía, equality of vote, the right of isēgoría was expressed by the presiding officer of the Pnyx assembly, who formally opened each debate with the open invitation Tís agoreúein boúletai. The Pnyx was the meeting place of the Athenian democratic assembly. In the earliest days of Athenian democracy, the met in the Agora. Sometime in the early 5th century, the place was moved to a hill south. This new meeting place came to be called Pnyx (from the Greek word meaning tightly packed together, three phases can be distinguished, Pnyx I, Probably constructed in the early 5th century. The people apparently sat on the hillside facing a platform on the north. The seating capacity may have anywhere from 6000 to 13,000 people. This phase is represented only by a few cuttings in the bedrock. Pnyx II, Probably late 5th century B. C, in this phase the orientation of the auditorium was apparently reversed.
A stepped terrace wall was created on the north to support an artificial terrace, part of the stepped terrace wall is preserved, as well as a staircase with rock-cut steps leading up to it from the direction of the Agora
Democracy, in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as rule of the majority, Democracy was originally conceived in Classical Greece, where political representatives were chosen by a jury from amongst the male citizens and poor. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French, in the 5th century BC, to denote the political systems existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, the term is an antonym to aristocracy, meaning rule of an elite. While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically, the political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In 1906, Finland became the first government to harald a more inclusive democracy at the national level.
Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders, No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law, other uses of democracy include that of direct democracy. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, in the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review, though the term democracy is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organisations.
Majority rule is listed as a characteristic of democracy. Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the tyranny of the majority in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of a representative democracy is competitive elections that are substantively and procedurally fair, i. e. just. It has suggested that a basic feature of democracy is the capacity of all voters to participate freely and fully in the life of their society. While representative democracy is sometimes equated with the form of government. Many democracies are constitutional monarchies, such as the United Kingdom, the term democracy first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought in the city-state of Athens during classical antiquity. The word comes from demos, common people and kratos, led by Cleisthenes, Athenians established what is generally held as the first democracy in 508–507 BC
Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, the peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles. The radical politician of aristocratic background, took charge, the reforms of Cleisthenes replaced the traditional four Ionic tribes with ten new ones, named after legendary heroes of Greece and having no class basis, which acted as electorates. Each tribe was in divided into three trittyes, while each trittys had one or more demes —depending on their population—which became the basis of local government. The tribes each selected fifty members by lot for the Boule, the public opinion of voters could be influenced by the political satires written by the comic poets and performed in the city theaters. Most offices were filled by lot, although the ten strategoi were elected, prior to the rise of Athens, Sparta, a city-state with a militaristic culture, considered itself the leader of the Greeks, and enforced a hegemony.
In 499 BC Athens sent troops to aid the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor and this provoked two Persian invasions of Greece, both of which were repelled under the leadership of the soldier-statesmen Miltiades and Themistocles. In 490 the Athenians, led by Miltiades, prevented the first invasion of the Persians, guided by king Darius I, in 480 the Persians returned under a new ruler, Xerxes I. Simultaneously the Athenians led a naval battle off Artemisium. However, this action was not enough to discourage the Persian advance which soon marched through Boeotia, setting up Thebes as their base of operations. This forced the Athenians to evacuate Athens, which was taken by the Persians, subsequently the Athenians and their allies, led by Themistocles, defeated the Persian navy at sea in the Battle of Salamis. It is interesting to note that Xerxes had built himself a throne on the coast in order to see the Greeks defeated, spartas hegemony was passing to Athens, and it was Athens that took the war to Asia Minor.
These victories enabled it to bring most of the Aegean and many parts of Greece together in the Delian League. He fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history and he executed a large number of public works projects and improved the life of the citizens. Hence, he gave his name to the Athenian Golden Age, silver mined in Laurium in southeastern Attica contributed greatly to the prosperity of this Golden Age of Athens. During the time of the ascendancy of Ephialtes as leader of the democratic faction, the conflict marked the end of Athenian command of the sea. The war between Athens and the city-state Sparta ended with an Athenian defeat after Sparta started its own navy, Athenian democracy was briefly overthrown by the coup of 411, brought about because of its poor handling of the war, but it was quickly restored. The war ended with the defeat of Athens in 404
Theatre of Dionysus
The Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus is a major theatre in Athens, built at the foot of the Athenian Acropolis. It was the first stone theatre ever built, cut into the cliff face of the Acropolis. The remains of a restored and redesigned Roman version can still be seen at the site today and it is sometimes confused with the later and better-preserved Odeon of Herodes Atticus, located nearby on the southwest slope of the Acropolis. The site was used as a theatre since the sixth century BC, the existing structure dates back to the fourth century BC but had many other remodellings. On November 24,2009 the Greek government announced that they would restore the Theatre of Dionysus. The site of the Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus, on the slope of the Athenian Acropolis, has been known since the 1700s. The Greek Archaeological Society excavated the remains of the beginning in 1476. The only certain the evidence of this theatre consists of an few stone blocks that were reused in the 100 century BC. After the collapse of the stands, the dramatic and musical contests were moved to the precinct of Dionysus on the slope of the Acropolis.
The early theatre must have very simple, comprising a flat orchestra. The oldest orchestra in the precinct is thought to have been circular with a diameter of around 27 metres, although there is some debate as to its original size. A wooden scene building was introduced at the back of the orchestra, serving for the display of artificial scenery. It was in this setting that the plays of the great fifth century BC Attic tragedians were performed. By the end of the fifth century BC, some of the constructions had been replaced with stone. The fourth century theatre had a permanent stage extending in front of the orchestra, the scene building had projecting wings at both ends, which might have accommodated stairways or movable scenery. According to Margarete Bieber, the earliest stone skene with remains surviving is that of the Theatre of Dionysus, the marble thrones that can be seen today in the theatre take the form of klismos chairs, and are thought to be Roman copies of earlier versions. At the center of this row of seats was a marble throne reserved for the priest of Dionysus.
The Theatre of Dionysus underwent a modernization in the Roman period, although the Greek theatre retained much of its integrity, an entirely new stage was built in the first century CE, dedicated to Dionysus and the Roman emperor Nero
Ecclesia (ancient Athens)
The ecclesia or ekklesia was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens during its Golden Age. It was the assembly, open to all male citizens with 2 years of military service. In 594 BCE, Solon allowed all Athenian citizens to participate, regardless of class, the assembly was responsible for declaring war, military strategy and electing the strategoi and other officials. It was responsible for nominating and electing magistrates, thus indirectly electing the members of the Areopagus and it had the final say on legislation and the right to call magistrates to account after their year of office. In the 5th century BC its members numbered about 43,000 people and it would have been difficult, for non-wealthy people outside of the urban center of Athens to attend until payments for attendance were introduced in the late 5th century. It originally met once every month, but it met three or four times per month, the agenda for the ekklesia was established by the Boule, the popular council.
Votes were taken by a show of hands, counting of stones, the assembly consist of, the general, a little group of daily government and judges. A quorum of 6,000 members was required sometimes to do business, the ecclesia elected by lot annually the Boule or council. Some of their power under Solon was delegated to the Court by Pericles in his reforms, in ancient Greece an ekklesiasterion was a building specifically built for the purpose of holding the meetings of the ecclesia. Like many other cities Athens did not have an ekklesiasterion, the regular meetings of the assembly were held on the Pnyx and two annual meetings took place in the Theater of Dionysus. Around 300 BC all the meetings of the ekklesia were moved to the theater, the meetings of the assembly could attract large audiences,6,000 citizens might have attended in Athens during the fifth century BC. A police force of 300 Scythian slaves carried red ochre-stained ropes to induce the citizens who loitered in the agora of Athens to attend the meetings of the assembly, anyone with red-stained clothes who was not in the meeting was liable to a penalty.
Apella Athenian democracy Heliaia Areopagus Constitution of the Athenians Mytilenian Debate Citations Bibliography
Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia. The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order, dating from about 600 to 450 BC, the city walls and amphitheatre are largely intact, and the bottom of the walls of many other structures remain, as well as paved roads. The site is open to the public, and there is a national museum within it. After its foundation by Greek colonists under the name of Poseidonia it was conquered by the local Lucanians. The Lucanians renamed it to Paistos and the Romans gave the city its current name, as Pesto or Paestum, the town became a bishopric, but it was abandoned in the Early Middle Ages, and left undisturbed and largely forgotten until the eighteenth century. Today the remains of the city are found in the frazione of Paestum. The modern settlement, directly to the south of the site, is a popular seaside resort. Much the most celebrated features of the site today are the three temples in the Archaic version of the Greek Doric order, dating from about 550 to 450 BC.
All are typical of the period, with massive colonnades having a pronounced entasis. Above the columns, only the second Temple of Hera retains most of its entablature, the two temples of Hera are right next to each other, while the Temple of Athena is on the other side of the town center. There were other temples, both Greek and Roman, which are far less well-preserved, Paestum is far from any sources of good marble. The three main temples had few stone reliefs, perhaps using painting instead, painted terracotta was for some detailed parts of the structure. The large pieces of terracotta that have survived are in the museum, the whole ancient city of Paestum covers an area of approximately 120 hectares. It is only the 25 hectares that contain the three temples and the other main buildings that have been excavated. The other 95 hectares remain on land and have not been excavated. The city is surrounded by walls that still stand. The walls are approximately 4750 m long,5 –7 m thick and 15 m high, positioned along the wall are 24 square and round towers.
There may have been as many as 28, but some of them were destroyed during the construction of a highway during the century that effectively cut the site in two
The island of Delos, near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological and archaeological sites in Greece. Delos had a position as a sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of Apollo. Established as a center, Delos had an importance that its natural resources could never have offered. Investigation of ancient stone huts found on the island indicate that it has been inhabited since the 3rd millennium BCE, thucydides identifies the original inhabitants as piratical Carians who were eventually expelled by King Minos of Crete. By the time of the Odyssey the island was famous as the birthplace of the twin gods Apollo. Indeed, between 900 BCE and 100 CE, sacred Delos was a cult centre, where Dionysus is in evidence as well as the Titaness Leto. Eventually acquiring Panhellenic religious significance, Delos was initially a religious pilgrimage for the Ionians, a number of purifications were executed by the city-state of Athens in an attempt to render the island fit for the proper worship of the gods.
The first took place in the 6th century BC, directed by the tyrant Pisistratus who ordered that all graves within sight of the temple be dug up and the bodies moved to another nearby island. In the 5th century, during the 6th year of the Peloponnesian war and under instruction from the Delphic Oracle, immediately after this purification, the first quinquennial festival of the Delian games were celebrated there. The island had no capacity for food, fiber, or timber. Limited water was exploited with a cistern and aqueduct system, wells. Strabo states that in 166 BCE the Romans converted Delos into a free port, Roman traders came to purchase tens of thousands of slaves captured by the Cilician pirates or captured in the wars following the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire. It became the center of the trade, with the largest slave market in the larger region being maintained here. The island was attacked in 88 BCE by the troops of Mithridates VI of Pontus, an enemy of Rome. Another devastating attack was by pirates in 69 BCE, before the end of the 1st century BCE, trade routes had changed, Delos was replaced by Puteoli as the chief focus of Italian trade with the East, and as a cult-centre too it entered a sharp decline.
Due to the history, Delos - unlike other Greek islands - did not have an indigenous. As a result, in times it became uninhabited. Since 1872 the École française dAthènes has been excavating the island, in 1990, UNESCO inscribed Delos on the World Heritage List, citing it as the exceptionally extensive and rich archaeological site which conveys the image of a great cosmopolitan Mediterranean port
Polis, plural poleis literally means city in Greek. It can mean a body of citizens, in modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as city-state. The term city-state, which originated in English, does not fully translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, the term polis, which in archaic Greece meant city, changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify state. Finally, with the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, the ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta and other poleis as such, they often spoke instead of the Athenians, Thebans and so on. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the polis in ancient Greece. The Greek term that meant the totality of urban buildings. Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία, the best form of government of the polis for Plato is the one that leads to the common good.
The philosopher king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, in Platos analogy of the ship of state, the philosopher king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. Books II–IV of The Republic are concerned with Plato addressing the makeup of an ideal polis, in The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society, mutual needs and differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the structure of an ideal polis. According to Plato, there are five main classes of any polis, merchants, sailors/shipowners, retail traders. Along with the two principles and five classes, there are four virtues. The four virtues of a just city include, courage, with all of these principles and virtues, it was believed that a just city would exist. Publication of state functions, laws and major fiscal accounts were published, conurbation, Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, and the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis.
Many of a polis citizens lived in the suburbs or countryside, most cities were composed of several tribes or phylai, which were in turn composed of phratries, and finally génea. They had the right to vote, be elected into office, and bear arms, metics could not vote, be elected to office, bear arms, or serve in war. They otherwise had full personal and property rights, albeit subject to taxation, chattel in full possession of their owner, and with no privileges other than those that their owner would grant at will
The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, which was to leave a lasting imprint in Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome. Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred to the south of Italy as Magna Graecia in his poem Fasti, according to Strabo, Magna Graecias colonization started already at the time of the Trojan War and lasted for several centuries. Also during that period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and they included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks, the ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria, Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, an original Hellenic civilization soon developed, interacting with the native Italic civilisations.
Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis, Acragas Paestum, other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum, Epizephyrian Locri, Croton, Elea, Ancona, Syessa and others. Following the Pyrrhic War in the 3rd century BC, Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic, a remarkable example of the influence is the Griko-speaking minority that still exists today in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is the name of a language combining ancient Doric, Byzantine Greek, there is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia, one example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain their Greek language and customs. For example, Greeks re-entered the region in the 16th and 17th century in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire, especially after the end of the Siege of Coron, large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria and Sicily.
Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property and they were granted special privileges and tax exemptions. Other Greeks who moved to Italy came from the Mani Peninsula of the Peloponnese, the Maniots were known for their proud military traditions and for their bloody vendettas, many of which still continue today. Another group of Maniot Greeks moved to Corsica, Ancient Greek dialects Greeks in Italy Italiotes Graia Graïke Graecus Griko people Griko language Hellenic civilization Names of the Greeks Cerchiai L. Jannelli L. Longo F. The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily, in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 21 June,2005,17,19 GMT18,19 UK, salentinian Peninsula and Greater Greece. Traditional Griko song performed by Ghetonia, traditional Griko song performed by amateur local group. Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Hellenic Heritage of Southern Italy, the Greeks in the West, genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily
Theatre of ancient Greece
The ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c.700 BC. Tragedy and the play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies and allies in order to promote a cultural identity. The word τραγῳδία, from which the tragedy is derived, is a compound of two Greek words, τράγος or goat and ᾠδή meaning song, from ἀείδειν, to sing. This etymology indicates a link with the practices of the ancient Dionysian cults and it is impossible, however, to know with certainty how these fertility rituals became the basis for tragedy and comedy. The classical Greeks valued the power of word, and it was their main method of communication. Bahn and Bahn write, To Greeks the spoken word was a living thing, socrates himself believed that once something was written down, it lost its ability for change and growth. For these reasons, among others, oral storytelling flourished in Greece. Greek tragedy as we know it was created in Athens around the time of 532 BC, being a winner of the first theatrical contest held in Athens, he was the exarchon, or leader, of the dithyrambs performed in and around Attica, especially at the rural Dionysia.
By Thespis time, the dithyramb had evolved far away from its cult roots, under the influence of heroic epic, Doric choral lyric and the innovations of the poet Arion, it had become a narrative, ballad-like genre. Thus, Thespiss true contribution to drama is unclear at best, the dramatic performances were important to the Athenians – this is made clear by the creation of a tragedy competition and festival in the City Dionysia. This was organized possibly to foster loyalty among the tribes of Attica, the festival was created roughly around 508 BC. While no drama texts exist from the sixth century BC, we do know the names of three competitors besides Thespis, Choerilus and Phrynichus, each is credited with different innovations in the field. He won his first competition between 511 BC and 508 BC and he produced tragedies on themes and subjects exploited in the golden age such as the Danaids, Phoenician Women and Alcestis. He was the first poet we know of to use a historical subject – his Fall of Miletus, produced in 493-2 and he is thought to be the first to use female characters.
This century is regarded as the Golden Age of Greek drama. The centre-piece of the annual Dionysia, which took place once in winter, each submitted three tragedies, plus a satyr play. Beginning in a first competition in 486 BC each playwright submitted a comedy, aristotle claimed that Aeschylus added the second actor, and that Sophocles introduced the third
Metapontum or Metapontium was an important city of Magna Graecia, situated on the gulf of Tarentum, between the river Bradanus and the Casuentus. It was distant about 20 km from Heraclea and 40 from Tarentum, the ruins of Metapontum are located in the frazione of Metaponto, in the comune of Bernalda, in the Province of Matera, Basilicata region, Italy. Though Metapontum was an ancient Greek Achaean colony, various traditions assigned to it an earlier origin. Another tradition, reported by Ephorus, assigned to it a Phocian origin, and called Daulius, Other legends carried back its origin to a still more remote period. With this view a colony was sent from the mother-country, under the command of a leader named Leucippus and it may probably be referred to about 700-690 BCE. The war seems to have ended in the capture and destruction of Siris, but our account of it is obscure. Metapontum, appears to have one of the cities where the doctrines. Even when the Pythagoreans were expelled from Crotona, they maintained themselves at Metapontum, whither the philosopher himself retired, and his tomb was still shown there in the days of Cicero.
It seems clear that Metapontum was at time a flourishing and opulent city. Its name is mentioned in 345 BCE, when Timoleon touched there on his expedition to Sicily. Hence, after his defeat and death at Pandosia,326 BCE and he was admitted into the city on friendly terms, but nevertheless exacted from them a large sum of money, and committed various other excesses. Their name is, again mentioned repeatedly in the Second Punic War, from this time the name of Metapontum does not again appear prominently in classical history, and it seems certain that it never recovered from the blow thus inflicted on it. But it did not altogether cease to exist, for its name is found in Pomponius Mela who does not notice any extinct places, the site was probably already subject to malaria, and from the same cause has remained desolate ever since. The fertility of its territory, especially in the growth of corn, hence we are told that the Metapontines sent to the temple at Delphi an offering of a golden harvest, by which we must probably understand a sheaf or bundle of corn wrought in gold.
For the same reason an ear of corn became the symbol on their coins. We learn that they had a treasury of their own at Olympia still existing in the days of Pausanias, herodotus tells us that they paid particular honors to Aristeas, who was said to have appeared in their city 340 years after he had disappeared from Cyzicus. They erected to him a statue in the middle of the forum, from their coins they would appear to have paid heroic honours to Leucippus, as the founder of their city. Strabo tells us, as a proof of their Pylian origin, the site and remains of Metapontum have been carefully examined by the Duc de Luynes, who has illustrated them in a special work