Alexa Internet, Inc. is a California-based company that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics. It is an owned subsidiary of Amazon. com. Founded as an independent company in 1996, Alexa was acquired by Amazon in 1999 and its toolbar collects data on browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis for the web traffic reporting. According to its website, Alexa provides traffic data, global rankings, as of 2015, its website has been visited by over 6.5 million people monthly. Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by American web entrepreneurs Brewster Kahle, Alexa initially offered a toolbar that gave Internet users suggestions on where to go next, based on the traffic patterns of its user community. The company offered context for each site visited, to whom it was registered, how many pages it had, how other sites pointed to it. Alexas operations grew to include archiving of web pages as they are crawled and this database served as the basis for the creation of the Internet Archive accessible through the Wayback Machine.
In 1998, the company donated a copy of the archive, Alexa continues to supply the Internet Archive with Web crawls. In 1999, as the company moved away from its vision of providing an intelligent search engine. Alexa began a partnership with Google in early 2002, and with the web directory DMOZ in January 2003, in May 2006, replaced Google with Bing as a provider of search results. In December 2006, Amazon released Alexa Image Search, built in-house, it was the first major application built on the companys Web platform. In December 2005, Alexa opened its extensive search index and Web-crawling facilities to third-party programs through a set of Web services. These could be used, for instance, to construct vertical search engines that could run on Alexas own servers or elsewhere. In May 2007, Alexa changed their API to limit comparisons to three websites, reduce the size of embedded graphs in Flash, and add mandatory embedded BritePic advertisements. In April 2007, the company filed a lawsuit, Alexa v.
Hornbaker, in the lawsuit, Alexa alleged that Ron Hornbaker was stealing traffic graphs for profit, and that the primary purpose of his site was to display graphs that were generated by Alexas servers. Hornbaker removed the term Alexa from his name on March 19,2007. Thereafter, Alexa became a purely analytics-focused company, on March 31,2009, Alexa launched a major website redesign
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
Politiken is a leading Danish daily broadsheet newspaper, published by JP/Politikens Hus in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1884 and played a role in the formation of the Danish Social Liberal Party, since 1970 it has been independent of the party but maintains a liberal and centre-left stance. It now runs a newspaper, politiken. dk. The papers design won international awards, and a number of its journalists won the Cavling Prize. Dagbladet Politiken was founded on 1 October 1884 in Copenhagen by Viggo Hørup, Edvard Brandes, Hørup and Brandes formed the newspaper after being fired as editors from the Morgenbladet over political differences. Hørup led the paper as editor-in-chief for fifteen years from its start in 1884, in 1904, the tabloid Ekstra Bladet was founded as a supplement to Politiken and was spun off as an independent newspaper on 1 January 1905. The paper established its present location in central Copenhagen at The City Hall Square in 1912, in 1987 Politiken started its business supplement.
The paper was published by Politikens Hus until 1 January 2003 when the merged with Jyllands-Posten A/S to form JP/Politikens Hus. Thus, Jyllands-Posten became its sister paper, Politiken is published in broadsheet format. The newspaper publishes an international edition named Politiken Weekly which compiles the most important stories of the week for Danes living abroad, on 28 April 1940, three weeks after the German invasion of Denmark, Politiken ran an editorial in which Winston Churchill was called a dangerous man. To have been to please the German occupation force, though no other Danish newspaper took such steps at the time, usually, it was enough to keep within the newly introduced censorship. The article led to 15,000 readers, about 10% of subscribers, during the early 1900s Politiken had a cultural radical political stance. Historically the paper was connected to the Danish Social Liberal Party, the paper has a far-leaning social and centre-left stance. Seidenfaden explained that Politiken has never intended to reprint the cartoon drawing as a statement of opinion or values.
Politiken started with a circulation of 2,000 copies. Its circulation was 23,142 copies in 1901, in 1910 its circulation rose to 41,400 copies. Later it became one of Denmarks leading newspapers in terms of both circulated copies and number of readers and its circulation was 165,615 copies in 1950. During the last six months of 1957 the paper had a circulation of 148,169 copies on weekdays and it fell to 142,847 copies in 1960
European Court of Justice
The European Court of Justice, officially just the Court of Justice, is the highest court in the European Union in matters of European Union law. As a part of the Court of Justice of the European Union it is tasked with interpreting EU law, the Court was established in 1952 and is based in Luxembourg. It is composed of one judge per member state – currently 28 – although it normally hears cases in panels of three, five or 15 judges, the court has been led by president Koen Lenaerts since 2015. The court was established in 1952, by the Treaty of Paris as part of the European Coal and it was established with seven judges, allowing both representation of each of the six member States and being an unequal number of judges in case of a tie. One judge was appointed from each state and the seventh seat rotated between the large Member States. The Maastricht Treaty was ratified in 1993, and created the European Union, the name of the Court did not change unlike the other institutions. The power of the Court resided in the Community pillar, the Court gained power in 1997 with the signing of the Amsterdam Treaty.
Issues from the pillar were transferred to the first pillar. Previously, these issues were settled between the member states, the ECJ is the highest court of the European Union in matters of Union law, but not national law. It is not possible to appeal the decisions of courts to the ECJ. However, it is ultimately for the court to apply the resulting interpretation to the facts of any given case. Although, only courts of appeal are bound to refer a question of EU law when one is addressed. The treaties give the ECJ the power for consistent application of EU law across the EU as a whole, the court acts as arbiter between the EUs institutions and can annul the latters legal rights if it acts outside its powers. The judicial body is now undergoing strong growth, as witnessed by its continually rising caseload, the Luxembourg courts received more than 1,300 cases when the most recent data was recorded in 2008, a record. The staff budget hit a new high of almost €238 million in 2009, the Court of Justice consists of 28 Judges who are assisted by 11 Advocates-General.
The Judges and Advocates-General are appointed by common accord of the governments of the member states, 37% of judges had experience of judging appeals before they joined the ECJ. In practice, each member state nominates a judge whose nomination is ratified by all the member states. The President of the Court of Justice is elected from and by the judges for a term of three years
Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Apples consumer software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the media player, the Safari web browser. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, Apple joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015. In November 2014, Apple became the first U. S. company to be valued at over US$700 billion in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. The company employs 115,000 full-time employees as of July 2015 and it operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the worlds largest music retailer. Consumers use more than one billion Apple products worldwide as of March 2016, Apples worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015.
This revenue accounts for approximately 1. 25% of the total United States GDP.1 billion, the corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials. Apple was founded on April 1,1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the Apple I kits were computers single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard, which was less than what is now considered a personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66, Apple was incorporated January 3,1977, without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple, during the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months.
Between September 1977 and September 1980 yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118m, the Apple II, invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16,1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics. While early Apple II models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II. The Apple II was chosen to be the platform for the first killer app of the business world, VisiCalc. VisiCalc created a market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore, by the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format, the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, and is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets, in common usage and broadsheet are frequently more descriptive of a newspapers market position than physical format. The Berliner format used by many prominent European newspapers is sized between the tabloid and the broadsheet, in a newspaper context, the term Berliner is generally used only to describe size, not to refer to other qualities of the publication. The word tabloid comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as Tabloid pills in the late 1880s, the connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items.
A1902 item in Londons Westminister Gazette noted, The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals, thus tabloid journalism in 1901 originally meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified, easily absorbed format. The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories, a tabloid is defined as roughly 17 by 11 inches and commonly half the size of a broadsheet. Tabloid newspapers, especially in the United Kingdom, boast a very high degree of variation as far as target market, political alignment, editorial style, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two types of tabloid newspaper, red top and compact. The distinction is largely of editorial style, both red top and compact tabloids span the width of the spectrum from socialism to capitalist conservatism. The red top tabloid is, for many, the example of the format. Red tops tend to be written with a simplistic, straightforward vocabulary and grammar, their layout, more often than not, in the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation.
Poll results are often predicted by red top papers, examples of British red top newspapers include The Sun, the Daily Star, the Daily Mirror and the Daily Sport. In contrast to red top tabloids, compacts use a style more closely associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids formerly used the paper size. The term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the newspapers to make the change. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s, two notable British papers that took this step at the time were the Daily Mail and the Daily Express
BT is a Danish tabloid newspaper which offers general news about various subjects such as sports and current affairs. Until 2012 it was known as B. T, the paper is based in Copenhagen. A large, red neon sign displays the logo at the square Trianglen in Østerbro. BT is part of Berlingske Media Group and it had a conservative stance in the 1960s. During the last six months of 1957 the circulation of BT was 157,932 copies on weekdays, the paper had a circulation of 196,000 copies in 1991 and 192,000 copies in 1992. It fell to 181,000 copies in 1993, to 164,000 copies in 1994 and its circulation further fell to 147,000 copies in 1996, to 138,000 copies in 1997 and to 134,000 copies in 1998. The papers circulation continued to decrease, and it was 124,000 copies in 1999,123,000 copies in 2000 and 122,000 copies in 2001, the circulation of BT in 2003 was 110,000 copies. In 2004 the paper had a circulation of 100,000 copies, the 2007 circulation of the paper was 87,319 copies. Its circulation was 82,024 copies in 2008 and 74,330 copies in 2009 and it was 69,839 copies in 2010 and 67,983 copies in 2011
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
App Store (iOS)
App Store is a digital distribution platform and maintained by Apple Inc. for mobile apps on its iOS operating system. The store allows users to browse and download apps developed with Apples iOS software development kit, App Store was opened on July 10,2008, with an initial 500 applications available. As of January 2017, the store features over 2.2 million apps, major changes introduced in the following months include ads in search results, a new app subscription model, and the ability for developers to respond to customer reviews. The iPhone App Store opened on July 10,2008, on July 11, the iPhone 3G was released and came pre-loaded with support for App Store. After the success of Apples App Store and the launch of services by its competitors. However, Apple applied for a U. S. trademark on the term App Store in 2008, which was tentatively approved in early 2011. In June 2011, U. S. District Judge Phyllis Hamilton, in July, Apple was denied preliminary injunction against Amazons Appstore by a federal judge.
The term app has become a buzzword, in January 2011. App has been used as shorthand for application since at least the mid-1990s, in February 2011, Apple announced its new subscription-based service, which was to allow publishers the freedom to set the length and price of subscriptions. Previously, new magazine or news releases were sold on a per-release basis, the new service enabled publishers to sell content directly through their apps, allowing users to receive new content over specified periods of time. In February 2013, Apple informed developers that they could begin using appstore. com for links to their apps, in September 2015, it was discovered that hundreds of apps submitted and approved on App Store were using XcodeGhost, a malicious version of the Xcode development software. The issues prompted Apple to remove infected apps from the store, a security firm published lists of infected apps, including a China-only version of Angry Birds 2, CamCard, TinyDeal. com, and WeChat. On September 1,2016, Apple announced that starting September 7, developers will be warned and given 30 days to update their apps, but apps that crash on startup will be removed immediately.7 billion vs.
approximately $1.5 billion by American users. Apples senior vice president of worldwide marketing Phil Schiller tweeted in December 2016 that November marked the record of highest monthly App Store sales, in January 2017, reports surfaced that documentation for a new beta for the then-upcoming release of iOS10. The functionality was enabled on March 27,2017 when iOS10.3 was released to users. Developers are forbidden from manipulating or incentivizing feedback, the Software Development Kit for iPhone OS was announced at the iPhone Software Roadmap event on March 6,2008. The SDK allows developers running Mac OS X10.5.4 or higher on an Intel Mac to create applications using Xcode that will run on the iPhone, iPod Touch. A beta version was released after the event and a version was released in July 2008 alongside the iPhone 3G