Province of Alicante
Alicante, or Alacant, is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the Valencian Community. The second and third biggest cities in the Valencian Community are located in this province. Alicante is bordered by the provinces of Murcia on the southwest, Albacete on the west, Valencia on the north, the Mediterranean Sea on the east; the province is named after the city of Alicante. According to the 2018 population data, Alicante ranks as the 4th most populous province in Spain, with 1,838,819 inhabitants. Cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the province are Alicante, Torrevieja, Benidorm, Alcoy and San Vicente del Raspeig; the province has the largest ratio of foreigner population among all Spanish provinces. The total of 446,368 foreigners are registered in the province, which represents 23.6 percent of the total population. Out of 141 municipalities that make up the province, foreign population is above 25% in 54 municipalities, above 50% in 19 municipalities; the latter include San Fulgencio, Benitatxell, Algorfa, Llíber, Daya Vieja.
From the 50 provinces of Spain, Alicante is the only one with three metropolitan areas—Alicante–Elche, Elda–Petrer and Benidorm—even though only one of them is ranked within the Spanish top ten metropolitan areas. It has an area of 5.816,5 km², so it has a population density of 313.8 hab/km². The province is mountainous in the north and west, whereas it is flat to the south, in the Vega Baja del Segura area. All of these peaks are a part of the Subbaetic Range; the coast extends from the cape, Cap de la Nau, in the north to reaching the Mar Menor in the south. With regard to water sources, due to the dry rain regime there are no major rivers, but ramblas, which fill in with water when torrential rains occur; the only remarkable streams are the Vinalopó, the river Segura. Other minor seasonal creeks are Girona, Algar and Ebo. There are saline wetlands and marshlands along the coast such El Fondo and the former wetlands and now salt evaporation ponds in Santa Pola and Torrevieja. All of them are key Ramsar Sites which make the Alicante province of high relevance for both migratory and resident seabirds and waterbirds.
Important coastal dunes are present in the Guardamar area which were planted with thousands of pine trees during the 19th century in order to protect the ville from the dunes advancing, which has created now an area of remarkable ecologic value. The climate is strikingly diverse for such a reduced area. Three major areas can be cited, it goes along the coastal plain from La Vila Joiosa through the southernmost border. Summers are long, hot to hot and dry, winters are cool to mild and its most prominent feature is scarce precipitation below 300mm. Per year and most to happen during spring and autumn; the reasons for this lack of precipitation is the marked rain shadow effect caused by hills to the west of the Alicante province. Most of its few rainy days happen during Spring; the predominant vegetation in this part of the province is Matorral Scrublands including thyme, esparto and the like. Proper Mediterranean climate is present in the northeastern areas around Cap de la Nau to its North but to its South, in diminishing grades until disappearing north of Benidorm.
It goes along the coastal plain from the northern border of the province through the Benidorm area. The north slopes of the mountains in the Marina Alta have a remarkably wetter microclimate with an average of up to 900mm of precipitation due to orographic lift, with most of the precipitation occurring in Autumn and Spring; the precipitation in this area is an average four times the one of the semiarid South, with this big precipitation gap occurring in a matter of just 100 km. The vegetation of this part is an enriched version of the Matorral shrubland and Mediterranean pine woods; the Alicante province has a dry Mediterranean to Continental Mediterranean climate. These are the innermost part of some closer to the sea but at a higher elevation. Here winters are cool to cold and a few days of snow are not unusual; the innermost part of this domain is more quite dry while the mountainous part reach higher precipitation figures which allow Kermes Oak woods to thrive, such as the one in La Carrasqueta or in the Mariola range, both near Alcoy.
The Iberians were the oldest documented people living in. Belonging to these there are several archaeologi
Dolores is town located in the comarca of Vega Baja del Segura in southern Alicante province, Spain. The town is in the heart of the Segura huerta about 10 km from the nearest beaches in La Marina and Guardamar. Dolores is accessible from the Autovia del Mediterráneo motorway and a new motorway from Elche, is about 20 minutes away from the Alicante international airport; the town has a population of 7427, an area of 18.25 km2, the average monthly temperature varies between 16 °C in December–January and 28 °C in July–August. The most important monument is the 18th-century church, with sculptures by Roque Lopez; the two most important fiestas in Dolores are the Feria de Agosto in early August. The Feria de Agosto is one of the more important fairs of Spain, it features a Spanish Horse Contest. More than 1,500 horses are shown each year in all sorts of activities. Cattle and dog contests are held at the fair; the Fiesta de la Virgen includes a carriage parade, the running of the "vaca toposa", the procession to honor the Virgen de los Dolores, the patron saint of the village.
The town boasts one of the largest paintball and outdoor quaser fields in the Valencia region: Paintball Fight Club, a 5-acre field with 6 developed paintball scenarios, dressing room and showers, barbecue area. The field offers special discounts for large groups and students, barbecues at affordable prices; the typical cuisine of Dolores takes advantage of the fresh vegetables available in the area, includes plenty of meat and seafood. The most typical dish is "cocido con pelotas", which includes meatballs and potato and chickpea stew. There are many fresh fruits such as melons, watermelons and apricots. An open-air market is held every Friday morning. Housing in Dolores is affordable, cheaper than in the nearby beach areas. On November 25, 2005 the Municipal government of Dolores approved the development of a 1.6 km² area -Dolores Golf- to accommodate 2,664 new housing units, which includes a 580,000 m² golf course. The new development was modified afterwards, is now consistent with the regional government requirements.
The improved Dolores Golf plan was approved on March 26, 2007, with the agreement of the two main political forces in Dolores -People's Party and the Socialist Party - which, accounted for some 92 percent of the votes in the May 2007 local elections.. The revised plan was approved by the Conselleria de Urbanismo on March 27, 2008.. The development is expected to be completed over the next few years. Ayuntamiento de Dolores, Official website of the municipal government of Dolores Paintball Fight Club, Website of the six-scenario Paintball Fight Club in Dolores
Pilar de la Horadada
Pilar de la Horadada is a town and district in the Province of Alicante, in the southeast of Spain. Located 66 km south of Alicante, the city is the southernmost of the Valencian Community, only 1 km north of the regional border The town and its neighbouring villages are home to thousands of British and Northern European expatriates. San Javier Airport is within close proximity; the district boasts great ecological value, with an abundance of hawthorn, mastic, Kermes Oak and chamaerops. There are many birds of prey to be found in the region, such as peregrine falcons, golden eagles, European sparrowhawks and kestrels. Parish Church of "Nuestra Señora del Pilar", in the centre of the town, it was built in 1986 on the same site as its predecessor. The bell tower of the original structure stands to this day, its advocation is to the Blessed Virgin. In the building there are lots of examples of religious art works from the local artists José María Sánchez Lozano and Manuel Ribera Girona. Watch Tower, built in 1591 to protect inhabitants of the town against the Mediterranean pirates.
It is situated in the nearby village of Torre de la Horadada. Río Seco in Pinar de Campoverde: a local river without water for the most of the year; the area is home to a lot of native plants. Protected Zone of Sierra Escalona: protected in order to preserve native animals the birds. Archaeological ruins of Thiar: an old Roman town on the Vía Augusta, the main route between Illici and Carthago Nova, two of the most important Roman cities in Spain. Archaeological - Ethnological Museum Remains of a Roman quarry on the Mil Palmeras beach The beaches of Pilar de la Horadada are spread along five kilometres, they are long with white sand. Under the sea, one can see the poseidonia; the quality of these beaches is demonstrated with their Blue Flags. Las Higuericas and Mil Palmeras are two of the most popular beaches in the district. Festivals in honour of the Blessed Virgin: from 29 September until 30 October; the Floral Tribute is one of the highlights alongside the 12th with the Solemn Mass, the procession and "Las carrozas".
Summer festivals: 30 July - Independence from the Orihuela Council. The town has been the site of many battles because of its location at the historical frontier between two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Murcia and the Kingdom of Valencia. Pilar de la Horadada was few houses known as Campo de la Horadada. After various centuries of agricultural economy, its tourism breakthrough came with its independence from the Orihuela municipal district in 1986. Co-operative societies such as'Surinver' and'Teresa Hermanos' use many of the local fields for vegetable growing. Pilar de la Horadada is placed between the sea and the mountains and has a Mediterranean climate. Unión Deportiva Horadada is a football club in Pilar de la Horadada. Official Site History of Pilar de la Horadada The Roman Quarry at Mil Palmeras beach. Pilar de la Horadada was once a Roman settlement called Thiar
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Orihuela is a city and municipality located at the feet of the Sierra de Orihuela mountains in the province of Alicante, Spain. The city of Orihuela had a population of 33,943 inhabitants at the beginning of 2013; the municipality has a total area of 367.19 km², stretches all the way down to the Mediterranean coast, west of Torrevieja, had a total population of 92,000 inhabitants at the beginning of 2013. This includes not only the city of Orihuela, but the coastal tourist centre of Dehesa de Campoamor with 33,277 inhabitants and a few other villages; the river Segura flows through Orihuela. The city was settled by Romans. Orihuela is the capital of the region of the "Vega Baja del Segura"; the city was named the first city of the province of Alicante, 11 September 1437. In 576 it was the capital of the Visigothic province of Aurariola. In 713 the military man and Count Teodomiro, proclaimed himself King of Tudmir. In 825 the Kingdom of Tudmir, became a dependent kingdom under Umayyad control, the capital was moved to Murcia.
In 910 the Kingdom of Tudmir passed to the Emirate of Cordova. In 1053 the principality of Murcia, part of the Kingdom of Denia, is created. In 1086 the principality of Murcia becomes independent from Denia. In 1212 the area passed to the Kingdom of Murcia. In 1304 Orihuela was considered to be on the border between the kingdoms of Aragón. In 1366 it passed to the kingdom of Valencia. In 1437, it was declared a city and in 1707, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor made Orihuela capital of the province of Orihuela. In 1737 Alicante, Monforte, Villajoyosa, Busot, San Juan or Muchamiel became independent from the province of Orihuela, forming the one of Alicante. 1799 Orihuela was part of the province of Alicante. In 1810, Napoleon made Orihuela part of the Department of Segura with the capital at Murcia. In 1822, Orihuela passed to the province of Murcia. 1833 it became part of the province of Alicante. In 1920 nationalistic movements spoke of Orihuela as belonging to the "country of Murcia." Between 1988 and 2006 various research studies from the Universities of Andalusia and Murcia demonstrated that Orihuela was more culturally part of Murcia than Valencia in terms of phonetics, architecture, folklore, musical celebrations, language, burial customs and varieties.
In recent years, there has been growing support for the "independence" of Orihuela Costa from Orihuela itself. This is due to the perception among the foreign born population of Orihuela Costa that they are being unfairly treated by the local government. For example, the Orihuela Costa's share in the 2010-2014 municipal budget was 6x less than that for the city itself, or 4,2% of the 295 million € budget though the Costa creates around 30% of municipal tax income; the municipality had a total population of 92,000 inhabitants at the beginning of 2013, of which the city of Orihuela only accommodated 33,943 of them. Another major locality within the municipality is the tourist centre of Dehesa de Campoamor known as Orihuela Costa, located on the coast, more than 20 km from Orihuela, it had 33,277 inhabitants at the beginning of 2013. Only 59.6% of the local population are Spanish. In total there are people from 106 different nationalities living in Orihuela; the metropolitan area of Orihuela includes the eleven municipalities of Vega Baja del Segura: Benejúzar, Beniel, Callosa de Segura, Jacarilla, Redován and Santomera.
It had a total population of 151,358 inhabitants at the beginning of 2006, a total area of 510,3 km². The municipality of Orihuela include all these villages: Arneva Barbarroja Camino de Beniel Correntías Altas Correntías Bajas Correntías Medias El Escorratel El Mudamiento Hurchillo La Aparecida La Campaneta La MuradaThe metropolitan area of Orihuela is part of the larger Murcia-Orihuela conurbation, with a total population of 727,741 inhabitants and an area of 1,743.5 km². The agriculture of Orihuela is based on lemons, almonds, palm trees, cotton and vegetables, it has an important industry of silk and preserved food. The tourism industry is today the single most important sector in the economy, as been the main engine of growth for Orihuela in the 21st century. Orihuela Cathedral - built between the 14th and 16th centuries Orihuela Castle - ruins of a mountaintop Arab castle Church of Santa Justa y Rufina Baroque church of Santo Domingo; the medieval town center houses five National Monuments and an urban layout, the result of its former rank as a University Centre and Episcopal See.
The holiday celebrations: the processions of Holy Week, the parades of Moors and Christians, in July, are well-known celebrations. In September 2012 the shopping mall La Zenia Boulevard opened and became the largest shopping mall in the Costa Blanca and Costa Cálida region with 150 stores and 20 restaurants and bars. Spanish poet Miguel Hernández was born in this city CLARO Torrevieja Official Web of Dehesa de Campoamor Dehesa de Campoamor One of the best beaches of Spain. White and fine sand beaches on the Mediterranean coast. Ocmdigital.com English language edition of ocmdigital.com Digital newspaper in the English language. Local news from Orihuela Costa and surrounding areas, updated daily. Orihueladigital.es Up to date local news, culture
Torrevieja is a seaside city and municipality located on the Costa Blanca in the province of Alicante, on the southeastern Mediterranean coast of Spain. Torrevieja lies about 50 kilometres south of the city of Alicante and had a population of 105,000. Torrevieja was a salt-mining and fishing village as it is located between the sea and two large salt lakes, which give Torrevieja healthy microclimate; until 1802, Torrevieja existed only as an ancient guard tower, which gave the town its name and some labourers' cottages. But in 1803, Charles IV authorised the movement of the salt production offices from La Mata to the town itself and allowed the construction of dwellings there. In 1829, the town was destroyed by an earthquake, but the basins were soon reconstructed and re-opened. In 1931, Alfonso XIII gave Torrevieja city status by special grant. During this period, there was a growing market for flax and cotton. In the 19th century, the salt was shipped from the town by Swedish and Dutch ships.
At the time, there was only limited demand from other regions of Spain Galiza and to a lesser extent, Valencia. Although by the dawn of the 20th century, a quarter of all the salt harvested from the lagoon in Torrevieja was sold in Spain itself, the rest was exported to foreign markets. Today, it is still an important industry in a major employer. You can visit the Museum of Salt. In recent years the local economy has hugely expanded due to the tourist industry; this includes both a strong contingent of British, Irish and Scandinavians, many of whom live there all the year round, Spanish people who have a second home in the city. By 2004, Torrevieja had the largest number of British residents of all Spanish municipalities The high number of British expatriates has led to Torrevieja being nicknamed as'the costa del Yorkshire' by some holidaymakers surprised that many British residents prefer imported cheap mass-produced bread from England such as Warburtons and Hovis. Since 2001, the city's authorities, along with Random House's Spanish subsidiary, Plaza & Janés, award Spain's second most important annual literary award, the Premio de Novela Ciudad de Torrevieja, its poetry correlative, Premio de Poesía Ciudad de Torrevieja.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot semi-arid, with sunny and mild winters and warm to hot sunny summers. Early autumn is the wettest season. In 1991, the city had 25,000 residents, two decades close to 100,000; the father of the expansion was Pedro Ángel Hernández i Mateo, mayor between 1988 and 2011. In order to encourage growth, all the land was rezoned fit for building, save for the two lagoons, designated natural parks in 1989; the INE of 2005 showed that the city had 84,838 residents, the ajuntament had 95,531 residents. By January 2008 this figure had reached 103,154 of whom only 47,870 were Spanish. 7,000+ of the Spanish residents were from Madrid and not for nothing is Torrevieja known as "la playa de Madrid". The most prominent nationalities in 2012 were: The city is a conservative stronghold, with the Partido Popular maintaining an absolute majority at the municipal elections of 2007, 2011. PP however narrowly lost its absolute majority in 2015 to a coalition of five parties which designated Green candidate José Manuel Dolón i García mayor.
Iglesia Arciprestal de la Inmaculada Concepción - Erected in 1789 and reconstructed in 1844, using stones reclaimed from the original Torre Vella. Panoramic viewpoint La Torre del Moro, old watchtower. Iglesia de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, constructed in 1896. Paseo de la Dique de Levante, Dyke or Breakwater of Levante, 1600 m long. Parque de las Naciones or The Park of the Nations - Scale reproduction of the map of the European Continent Museo del Mar y de la Sal Submarine S-61 Delfin Floating Museum Albatros III Patrol Boat Floating Museum Eras de la Sal - Served as a storehouse and wharf for salt from 1777 until 1958. Las Salinas - The two salt lagoons to the west of the city, Nature Park of the Lagoons of La Mata and Torrevieja; the Street Market on Fridays - As of May 2017, market has moved to a new location outside of the city centre, near Aquapolis Centro Comercial de Habaneras - A semi-outdoor shopping mall. Carrefour Torrevieja hypermarket Paraje Natural Municipal - Parque del Molino de Agua - Local natural park - Waterwheel park in La Mata Palacio de la Música Centro Cultural Virgen del Carmen Teatro Auditorio Municipal de Torrevieja International Music Auditorium of Torrevieja-Torrevieja Museo de la Habanera'Ricardo Lafuente' Museum of Easter Old Railway Station, houses Torrevieja Natural History Museum Cultural Society of Torrevieja Casino, Mozarabic style interior from 1880's Water Fountains Seaside Esplanade'Juan Aparicio' Park of the Molino Playa de los Náufragos Playa de la Mata Playa del Cura Playa de los Locos Natural swimming pools at the Juan Aparicio promenade Aquapolis, Water Park Boom Boom St Joaquín Chapaprieta, politician Nicola Kuhn, tennis player Ayuntamiento de Torrevieja Torrevieja travel guide from Wikivoyage
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".