Avenida de Blasco Ibañez
The Avenida de Blasco Ibañez is an avenue in the Spanish city of Valencia named after Spanish writer and journalist Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, from Valencia. The Avenida leads from the Jardines del Real in the west to the Poblats Marítims in the east. Plans to extend the Avenida to the sea have existed for a long time, but have not been realized. Envisioned as a jardin street under the name of "camino-paseo hasta el mar" the project was approved by law on 1 August 1893; the aim of the street was to link the Jardines del Real in the west to the Poblats Marítims in the east of the city. A first design was made by Casimiro Meseguer who intended to make the street part of a green city plan he called "Ciudad Jardín". Meseguer finished his plan in 1895, it was made with the bourgeoisie in mind, with villas for the rich directly on the avenue and less expensive houses behind it. Meseguer's design gave the street a width of 100 meters and included three large plazas with a diameter of 200 meters. A central part of the street would be a 60-meter wide gardened stretch, streets ending on the camino would have a width of 20 meters.
However, the plans were cancelled due to the projected high costs and the Avenida was constructed differently. It became part of the growth of the city to the north-east and the sea and in line with the practice of ensanche; the first part of the Avenida has a 50-meter wide gardened stretch. A second part, leading to the Avenida de Cataluña, was finished in 1952. Construction on the third and final part started in 1972 and leads to the Cabanyal metro station. Although the Avenida was constructed differently than designed, Meseguer's ideas, remained popular throughout the 20th-century and were defended by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez; the Avenida de Blasco Ibañez obtained its current name in 1977 it had been called: calle número 141 del plano. Plans to extend the Avenida to the sea have existed for decades but have not been realized. In 2010 the Spanish ministry of Culture blocked the plans of the city of Valencia to extend the Avenida and kept the protection of Bien de Interés Cultural of the Cabanyal neighborhood.
In 2014 Valencia mayor Rita Barberá announced that the Plan Especial de Protección y Reforma Interior del Cabanyal-Canyamelar would go on, including an expansion of the Avenida to the sea. The Pepri plan is controversial due to an expected destruction of homes in the Cabanyal neighborhood; the University of Valencia has several of its faculties located on the Avenida de Blasco Ibañez. Due to the presence of students the Avenida de Blasco Ibañez is known as one of the nightlife areas of Valencia
María Rita Barberá Nolla was a Spanish politician and the Mayor of Valencia, Spain from 1991 until 2015. Born in Valencia to a prominent industrial and political family, she was a member of the National Council of the People's Party of Spain and was a Representative in the Valencian regional Parliament, she turned down an offer to become a national deputy at the 2008 Spanish General Election, but her party made her a senator after she lost the 2015 municipal elections. As such, she became answerable only to the Tribunal Supremo, the ordinary judge in charge of the Taula corruption case could therefore not indict her like the rest of her team. On 21 April 2016, this investigating judge therefore requested her indictment for money laundering to the Tribunal Supremo. On 13 September 2016 the Tribunal Supremo opened a formal investigation the step before an indictment, the People's Party asked her to resign her senate seat, she chose instead to formally leave the party and to become an independent senator, remaining answerable only to the Tribunal Supremo and keeping her senator salary.
Until her death, she continued to vote with the party that she had formally left. Barberá died in Madrid on 23 November 2016 of a heart attack as a result of hepatic cirrhosis, she was in the process of being investigated for money laundering at the time, had testified to the Tribunal Supremo only two days prior to her death. Rita Barberá Nolla Rita Barberá Nolla related stories in El Pais newspaper
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
Public service is a service, provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly or by financing provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income, physical ability or mental acuity. Where public services are neither publicly provided nor publicly financed, for social and political reasons they are subject to regulation going beyond that applying to most economic sectors. Public policy when made in the public's interest and motivations can provide public services. Public service is a course that can be studied at a college or university. Examples of public services are the fire brigade, air force, paramedics. Public services are associated with fundamental human rights; the Volunteer Fire Dept. and Ambulance Corps. Are institutions with the mission of servicing the community. A service want. Here, service ranges from a doctor curing an illness, to a food pantry. In modern developed countries, the term "public services" includes: In modern democracies, public service is performed by employees known as civil servants who are hired by elected officials.
Government agencies are not profit-oriented and their employees are motivated differently. Studies of their work have found contrasting results including both higher levels of effort and fewer hours of work. A survey in the UK found that private sector hiring managers do not credit government experience as much as private sector experience. Public workers tend to make less in wages when adjusting for education, although that difference is reduced when benefits and hours are included. Public workers have other intangible benefits such as increased job security. A public service may sometimes have the characteristics of a public good, but most are services which may be under-provided by the market. In most cases public services are services, i.e. they do not involve manufacturing of goods. They may be provided by local or national monopolies in sectors which are natural monopolies, they may involve outputs that are hard to attribute to specific individual effort or hard to measure in terms of key characteristics such as quality.
They require high levels of training and education. They may attract people with a public service ethos who wish to give something to the wider public or community through their work. Governing bodies have long provided core public services; the tradition of keeping citizens secure through organized military defence dates to at least four thousand years ago. Maintaining order through local delegated authority originated at least as early as the Warring States period in ancient China with the institution of xian under the control of a centrally-appointed prefect. Historical evidence of state provision of dispute resolution through a legal/justice system goes back at least as far as ancient Egypt. A primary public service in ancient history involved ensuring the general favor of the gods through a theologically and ceremonially correct state religion; the widespread provision of public utilities as public services in developed countries began in the late nineteenth century with the municipal development of gas and water services.
Governments began to provide other services such as electricity and healthcare. In most developed countries local or national governments continue to provide such services, the biggest exceptions being the U. S. and the UK, where private provision is arguably proportionally more significant. Nonetheless, such provided public services are strongly regulated, for example by Public Utility Commissions. In developing countries public services tend to be much less well developed. For example, water services might only be available to the wealthy middle class. For political reasons the service is subsidized, which reduces the finance available for expansion to poorer communities. Nationalization took off following the World Wars of the first half of the twentieth century. Across Europe, because of the extreme demands on industries and the economy, central planning was required to make production maximally efficient. Many public services electricity and public transport are products of this era. Following the Second World War, many countries began to implement universal health care and expanded education under the funding and guidance of the state.
There are several ways to privatize public services. A free-market corporation may be established and sold to private investors, relinquishing government control altogether, thus it becomes a private service. Another option, used in the Nordic countries, is to establish a corporation, but keep ownership or voting power in the hands of the government. For example, the Finnish state owned 49% of Kemira until 2007, the rest being owned by private investors. A 49% share did not make it a "government enterprise", but it meant that all other investors together would have to oppose the state's opinion in order to overturn the state's decisions in the shareholder's meeting. Regulated corporation can acquire permits on the agreement that they fulfill certain public service duties; when a private corporation runs a natural monopoly the corporation is heavily regulated, to prevent abuse of monopoly power. Lastly, the government can buy the service on the free market. In many countries, medication is provided in this manner: the gov
A bulldozer or dozer is a crawler equipped with a substantial metal plate used to push large quantities of soil, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and equipped at the rear with a claw-like device to loosen densely compacted materials. Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites and quarries, military bases, heavy industry factories, engineering projects and farms; the term "bulldozer" refers only to a tractor fitted with a dozer blade. Bulldozers are large and powerful tracked heavy equipment; the tracks give them excellent ground holding capability and mobility through rough terrain. Wide tracks help distribute the bulldozer's weight over a large area, thus preventing it from sinking in sandy or muddy ground. Extra wide tracks are known as LGP tracks. Bulldozers have transmission systems designed to take advantage of the track system and provide excellent tractive force; because of these attributes, bulldozers are used in road building, mining, land clearing, infrastructure development, any other projects requiring mobile and stable earth-moving equipment.
Another type of bulldozer is the wheeled bulldozer, which has four wheels driven by a 4-wheel-drive system and has a hydraulic, articulated steering system. The blade is mounted forward of the articulation joint, is hydraulically actuated; the bulldozer's primary tools are the ripper. The word "bulldozer" is sometimes used inaccurately for other similar construction vehicles such as a large front loader; the bulldozer blade is a heavy metal plate on the front of the tractor, used to push objects, shove sand, soil and sometimes snow. Dozer blades come in three varieties: A straight blade, short and has no lateral curve and no side wings and can be used for fine grading. A universal blade, tall and curved, has large side wings to carry more material. An "S-U" combination blade, shorter, has less curvature, smaller side wings; this blade is used for pushing piles of large rocks, such as at a quarry. Blades can be fitted straight across the frame, or at an angle, sometimes using additional'tilt cylinders' to vary the angle while moving.
The bottom edge of the blade can be sharpened. Sometimes a bulldozer is used to push another piece of earth moving equipment known as a "scraper"; the towed Fresno Scraper, invented in 1883 by James Porteous, was the first design to enable this to be done economically, removing the soil from the cut and depositing it elsewhere on shallow ground. Many dozer blades have a reinforced center section with this purpose in mind, are called "bull blades". In military use, dozer blades are fixed on combat engineering vehicles and can optionally be fitted on other vehicles, such as artillery tractors such as the Type 73 or M8 Tractor. Dozer blades can be mounted on main battle tanks, where it can be used to clear antitank obstacles and dig improvised shelters. Combat applications for dozer blades include clearing battlefield obstacles and preparing fire positions; the ripper is the long claw-like device on the back of the bulldozer. Rippers can come in groups of two or more. A single shank is preferred for heavy ripping.
The ripper shank is fitted with a replaceable tungsten steel alloy tip, referred to as a'boot'. Ripping rock breaks the ground surface rock or pavement into small rubble easy to handle and transport, which can be removed so grading can take place. With agricultural ripping, a farmer breaks up rocky or hard earth, otherwise unploughable, in order to farm it. For example, much of the best land in the California wine country consists of old lava flows; the grower shatters the lava with heavy bulldozers so surface trees can be planted. Some bulldozers are equipped with a less common rear attachment referred to as a stumpbuster, a single spike that protrudes horizontally and can be raised to get it out of the way. A stumpbuster is used to split a tree stump. A bulldozer with a stumpbuster is used for landclearing operations, is equipped with a brush-rake blade. Bulldozers have been further modified over time to evolve into new machines which can work in ways that the original bulldozer cannot. One example is that loader tractors were created by removing the blade and substituting a large volume bucket and hydraulic arms which can raise and lower the bucket, thus making it useful for scooping up earth and loading it into trucks, these are known as a Drott, trackscavator or track loader.
Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making it smaller to let it operate in small work areas where movement is limited, such as in mining. Some lightweight form of bulldozer are used in snow removal and as a tool for preparing winter sports areas for ski and snowboard sports. A small light bulldozer is sometimes called a "calfdozer". In an angledozer the blade can be pushed forward at one end to make it easier to push material away to the side; the original earthmoving bulldozers are still irreplaceable as their tasks are concentrated in deforestation, ground levelling, road carving. Heavy bulldozers are employed to level the terrain to prepare it for construction; the construction, however, is done by small bulldozers and loader tractors. Bulldozers employed for combat engineering roles are fitted with arm
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state, according to certain procedures. It has the force of law; the particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President of the United States, for example, are decrees. In non-legal English usage, the term refers to any authoritarian decision. Documents or archives in the format of royal decrees or farming were issued by rulers. In Belgium, a decree is a law of regional parliament, e.g. the Flemish Parliament. The word décret "decree", is an old legal usage in France and is used to refer to executive orders issued by the French President or Prime Minister. Any such order must not violate the French Constitution or Civil Code, a party has the right to request an order be annulled in the French Council of State. Orders must be ratified by Parliament. Special orders known as décret-loi "decree-act" or "decree-law" considered an illegal practice under the 3rd and 4th Republic, were abolished and replaced by the ordinances under the 1958 Constitution.
Except for the reserve powers of the President, the executive can issue decrees in areas that the Constitution grants as the responsibility of Parliament only if a law authorizes it to do so. In other cases, orders are illegal and, should anyone sue for the order's annulment, it would be voided by the Council of State. There exists a procedure for the Prime Minister to issue ordinances in such areas, but this procedure requires Parliament's express consent. Orders issued by the Prime Minister take two forms: Orders. Sometimes, people refer to décrets en Conseil d'État improperly as décrets du Conseil d'État; this would imply that it is the Council of State that takes the decree, whereas the power of decreeing is restricted to the president or prime minister. Decrees may be classified into: Regulations, which may be: Application decrees, each of which must be authorized by one or more statutes to determine some implementation conditions of this or these statutes. Only the prime minister may issue regulatory or application decrees.
Presidential decrees are nominations or exceptional measures where law mandates a presidential decree, such as the dissolution of the French National Assembly and the calling of new legislative elections. Decrees are published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française or "French Gazette". A decree in the usage of the canon law of the Catholic Church has various meanings. Any papal bull, brief, or motu proprio is a decree inasmuch as these documents are legislative acts of the pope. In this sense the term is quite ancient; the Roman Congregations were empowered to issue decrees in matters which come under their particular jurisdiction, but were forbidden from continuing to do so under Pope Benedict XV in 1917. Each ecclesiastical province and each diocese may issue decrees in their periodical synods within their sphere of authority. While in a general sense all documents promulgated by an ecumenical council can be called decrees. in a specific sense some of these documents, as at the Second Vatican Council, were called more constitutions or declarations.
Canon 29 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law offers a definition of general decrees: General decrees, by which a competent legislator makes common provisions for a community capable of receiving a law, are true laws and are regulated by the provisions of the canons on laws. The Holy See uses decrees from the pope such as papal bull, papal brief or motu proprio as legislative acts. According clause 77 of the Italian Constitution, "The Government may not, without an enabling act from the Houses, issue decrees having the force of ordinary law; when in extraordinary cases of necessity and urgency the Government adopts provisional measures having the force of law, it must on the same day present said measures for confirmation to the Houses which if dissolved, shall be summoned for this purpose and shall convene within five days. The decrees lose effect from their inception if they are not confirmed within sixty days from their publication; the Houses may however regulate by law legal relationships arising out of not confirmed decrees."
The effectiveness for sixty days produces the effects giving rights or expectations whose legal basis was in fact precarious when the conversion law never intervened. In Portugal, there are several types of decrees issued by the various bodies of sovereignty or by the bodies of self-government of autonomous regions. There are the following types of decrees: Decree-law: is a legislative act issued by the Government of Portugal under its legislative powers defined by Article 198 of the Portuguese Constitution.