Union Station (Los Angeles)
Los Angeles Union Station is the main railway station in Los Angeles and the largest railroad passenger terminal in the Western United States. It opened in May 1939 as the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, replacing La Grande Station and Central Station. Approved in a controversial ballot measure in 1926 and built in the 1930s, it served to consolidate rail services from the Union Pacific, Santa Fe, Southern Pacific Railroads into one terminal station. Conceived on a grand scale, Union Station became known as the "Last of the Great Railway Stations" built in the United States; the structure combines Art Deco, Mission Revival, Streamline Moderne style. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Today, the station is a major transportation hub for Southern California, serving 110,000 passengers a day, it is Amtrak's fifth-busiest station, by far the busiest in the Western United States and the tenth-busiest in the entire country. Four of Amtrak's long-distance trains originate and terminate here: the Coast Starlight to Seattle, the Southwest Chief and Texas Eagle to Chicago, the Sunset Limited to New Orleans.
The state-supported Amtrak California Pacific Surfliner regional trains run to San Diego and to Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo. The station is the hub of the Metrolink commuter trains, several Metro Rail subway and light rail lines serve it as well, with more in construction or planning; the Patsaouras Transit Plaza, on the east side of the station, serves dozens of bus lines operated by Metro and several other municipal carriers. In 1926, a measure was placed on the ballot giving Los Angeles voters the choice between the construction of a vast network of elevated railways or the construction of a much smaller Union Station to consolidate different railroad terminals; the election would take on racial connotations and become a defining moment in the development of Los Angeles. The proposed Union Station was located in the heart of. Reflecting the prejudice of the time, the anti-railroad Los Angeles Times, a lead opponent of elevated railways, argued in editorials that Union Station would not be built in the "midst of Chinatown" but rather would "forever do away with Chinatown and its environs."
The Times attacked the elevateds for blocking out the California sun and in general being antithetical to the ethos of Los Angeles. Two questions were put to vote in 1926. First, the voters approved Union Station instead of elevated railways by 61.3 to 38.7 percent margin. Second, the electorate voted in favor of the Los Angeles Plaza as the site of the new station but by a much smaller 51.1 to 48.9 percent margin. Due to the efforts of preservationist Christine Sterling and Los Angeles Times publisher Harry Chandler, Union Station would not replace the Plaza, but be built across the street in Chinatown, demolished for the project; the glamorous new $11 million station took over from La Grande Station which had suffered major damage in the 1933 Long Beach earthquake and Central Station, which had itself replaced the Arcade Depot in 1914. Passenger service was provided by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, Southern Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad, as well as the Pacific Electric Railway and Los Angeles Railway.
The famed Super Chief luxury train carried Hollywood stars and others to Chicago and thence the East Coast. Union Station saw heavy use during World War II, but saw declining patronage due to the growing popularity of air travel and automobiles. In 1948 the Santa Fe Railroad's Super Chief lost its brakes coming into the station, smashed through a steel bumper and concrete wall, stopped with one third of the front of the locomotive dangling over Aliso St. No one was killed or injured; the station was designated as a Los Angeles Historic–Cultural Monument No. 101 on August 2, 1972 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The first commuter rail service to Union Station was the short-lived CalTrain that began operating on October 18, 1982 between Los Angeles and Oxnard; the service faced economic and political problems from the start and was suspended in March 1983. The next attempt at commuter rail came in 1990 with the launch of the Amtrak-operated Orange County Commuter.
The once-daily round-trip served stations between San Juan Capistrano. Metrolink commuter rail service began on October 26, 1992, with Union Station as the terminus for the San Bernardino Line, the Santa Clarita Line and the Ventura County Line. In January 1993, Metro's Red Line subway began service to the station, followed by Metrolink's Riverside Line in June; the Orange County Commuter train was discontinued on March 28, 1994 and replaced by Metrolink's Orange County Line. In May 2002, Metrolink added additional service to stations in Orange and Riverside counties with the opening of the Via Fullerton Line. Light Rail service arrived at Union Station on July 26, 2003 when Metro's Gold Line began operating to Pasadena from tracks 1 and 2; the line was expanded south over US 101 in November 2009 with the opening of the Gold Line Eastside Extension. In February 2011, the board of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority approved the purchase of Union Station from Prologis and Catellus Development for $75 million.
The deal was closed on 14 April 2011. Since taking over ownership of the station, Metro has focused on increasing services for passengers at the station. One of the most noticeable changes is the addition of several retail and dining businesses to the concourse. Amtrak opened a
Blue Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Blue Line is a 22.0-mile light rail line running north-south between Los Angeles and Long Beach, passing through Downtown Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Willowbrook, Rancho Dominguez and Long Beach in Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines in the Metro Rail system. Opened in 1990, it is the system's oldest and second busiest line with an estimated 22.38 million boardings per year as of December 2017. It is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Blue Line passes near the cities of Vernon, Huntington Park, South Gate and Carson. The famous Watts Towers can be seen from the train near 103rd Street station; the under-construction Regional Connector will directly link this line beyond. On January 26, 2019, Metro shut down the Blue Line between Downtown Long Beach and 103rd Street station, it is undergoing heavy construction, including track and wire replacement. Metro Local and Rapid shuttle buses replace Blue Line service along this portion of the route until late May 2019.
After the renovation project is complete, the line will be renamed to A Line while retaining its blue coloring. The Metro Blue Line runs 22.0 miles between Downtown Los Angeles and Downtown Long Beach making stops at 22 stations. The line's northern terminus is the underground 7th Street/Metro Center station, after rising to street level, trains run south along Flower Street, sharing tracks with the Expo Line. Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at 7th Street/Metro Center and Grand stations; the Blue and Expo Lines diverge at Flower Street and Washington Boulevard just south of downtown Los Angeles. Here the Blue Line turns east on Washington Boulevard before turning south on Long Beach Avenue where it enters the former Pacific Electric right-of-way; this historic rail corridor has four tracks, two are used by Blue Line trains and two are used by freight trains. There are some elevated sections as this private right of way cuts through more densely populated areas.
Passengers can connect with the Metro Green Line at midway through the rail corridor as it passes under Interstate 105 at Willowbrook station. Just south of Willow station, Blue Line trains exit the rail corridor and follows Long Beach Boulevard into the city of Long Beach, where trains travel through the Long Beach Transit Mall while making a loop using 1st Street, Pacific Avenue and 8th Street. Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Long Beach Northbound First Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 4:46 a.m. Last Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 12:03 a.m. Southbound First Train to Long Beach: 5:00 a.m. Last Train to Long Beach: 1:01 a.m. Of note, some trains operate at or earlier times due to the Blue Line making the turnaround in Downtown Long Beach. Trains on the Blue Line operate every six minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday.
They operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 9 a.m.. Night service consists of ten-minute headways. During peak hours, every other train serves only the stations between Willow and 7th Street/Metro Center to decrease the headway on that portion of the route. Willow was chosen because of its proximity to the Blue Line storage yard and because it is the last southbound station with a park-and-ride lot. In the evening rush hour, riders will see some trains destined to "Willow" and others to "Long Beach"; those riders destined to Long Beach must exit at Willow Station and wait for the next train which will terminate at Downtown Long Beach Station. When the Blue Line began operation in 1990, it was projected to have a daily ridership of 5,000; the line performed much better than expected with daily ridership reaching 12,000 passengers within the first months of service and reaching 32,000 by the end of the first year of service. As of October 2018, the Blue Line had an average weekday ridership of 63,008, Saturday and Sunday boardings of 30,579 and 30,314, respectively.
In 2017, the line saw a total of 22.38 million boardings. Much of the current Blue Line follows the route of streetcar service operated by Pacific Electric Railway; the current line opened on Saturday, July 14, 1990, at a cost of US$877 million.. An intended extension to Pasadena was scrapped after the 1998 county ballot was approved which banned the use of sales tax revenue for subway projects, preventing construction of a downtown light rail tunnel; the line was operated by two-car trains, but proved more popular than expected and 19 platforms were lengthened to accommodate three-car trains in 2002-2003 at a cost of US$11 million. A series of major improvements is underway for Metro's oldest light rail line; the six-year, $1.2 billion overhaul began in late 2014 with several months of projects to refurbish Blue Line stations that were completed in July 2015. The next major improvement came to the rolling stock on the line, which included $130 million to refurbish older light rail vehicles and $739 million to purchase 78 new vehicles.
The final phase of improvements come in 2019, where large sections of the line are closed for months as crews replace tracks and overhead wiring, upgrade signal systems, refurbish aerial rail bridges, a reb
Oxnard is a city in Ventura County, United States. Located along the coast of Southern California, it is the most populous city in Ventura County and the 19th most populous city in California. Incorporated in 1903, the city lies 60 miles west of downtown Los Angeles and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area, it is located at the western edge of the fertile Oxnard Plain, sitting adjacent to an agricultural center of strawberries and lima beans. Oxnard is a major transportation hub in Southern California, with Amtrak, Union Pacific, Metrolink and Intercalifornias stopping in Oxnard. Oxnard has a small regional airport called Oxnard Airport; the population of Oxnard is 207,906. Oxnard is the most populous city in the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, listed as one of the wealthiest areas in America, with most of its residents making well above the average national income. Before the arrival of Europeans, the area, now Oxnard was inhabited by Chumash Native Americans.
The first European to encounter the area was Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, who claimed it for Spain in 1542. During the mission period, it was serviced by the Mission San Buenaventura, established in 1782. Ranching began to take hold among Californio settlers, who lost their regional influence when California became a US state in 1850. At about the same time, the area was settled by American farmers, who cultivated barley and lima beans. Henry T. Oxnard, founder of today's Moorhead, Minnesota-based American Crystal Sugar Company who operated a successful sugar beet factory with his three brothers in Chino, was enticed to build a $2 million factory on the plain inland from Port Hueneme. Shortly after the 1897 beet campaign, a new town emerged, now commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places as the Henry T. Oxnard Historic District. Oxnard intended to name the settlement after the Greek word for "sugar", but frustrated by bureaucracy, named it after himself. Given the growth of the town of Oxnard, in the spring of 1898, a railroad station was built to service the plant, which attracted a population of Chinese and Mexican laborers and enough commerce to merit the designation of a town.
The Oxnard brothers, who never lived in their namesake city, sold both the Chino and the giant red-brick Oxnard factory in 1899 for nearly $4 million. The Oxnard factory with its landmark twin smokestacks operated from August 19, 1899 until October 26, 1959. Factory operations were interrupted in the Oxnard Strike of 1903. Oxnard was incorporated as a California city on June 30, 1903, the public library was opened in 1907. Prior to and during World War II, the naval bases of Point Mugu and Port Hueneme were established in the area to take advantage of the only major navigable port on California's coast between the Port of Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay, the bases in turn encouraged the development of the defense-based aerospace and communications industries. In the mid-20th century Oxnard grew and developed the areas outside the downtown with homes, retail, a new harbor named Channel Islands Harbor. Martin V. Smith became the most influential developer in the history of Oxnard during this time.
Smith's first enterprise in 1941 was the Colonial House Restaurant and the Wagon Wheel Junction in 1947. He was involved in the development of the high-rise towers at the Topa Financial Plaza, the Channel Islands Harbor, Casa Sirena Resort, the Esplanade Shopping Mall, Fisherman's Wharf, the Carriage Square Shopping Center, the Maritime Museum, many other major hotel and retail projects. In June 2004, the Oxnard Police Department and the Ventura County Sheriff imposed a gang injunction over a 6.6-square-mile area of the central district of the city, in order to restrict gang activity. The injunction was upheld in the Ventura County Superior Court and made a permanent law in 2005. A similar injunction was imposed in September 2006 over a 4.26-square-mile area of the south side of the city. Oxnard is located on an area with fertile soil. With its beaches, wetlands and the Santa Clara River, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Native plant communities include: coastal sage scrub, California Annual Grassland, Coastal Dune Scrub species.
Native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, the last self-sustaining population is in Oxnard in the center of a approved high-end housing development. The city of Oxnard is home to over 20 miles of scenic uncrowded coastline; the beaches in Oxnard are large and the sand is exceptionally soft. The sand dunes in Oxnard, which were once much more extensive, have been used to recreate Middle-Eastern desert dunes in many movies, the first being The Sheik with Rudolph Valentino. There are few rocks or driftwood piles at most beaches, but Oxnard is known to have dangerous rip-currents at certain beaches. Oxnard has good surfing at many of its beaches. Beaches in Oxnard include: Ormond Beach, Silver Strand Beach, Hollywood Beach, Hollywood-by-the-Sea, Mandalay Beach, Oxnard Beach Park, Oxnard Shores, 5th Street Beach, Mandalay State Beach, McGrath State Beach and Rivermouth Beach; the Santa Clara River separates Ventura. Tributaries to this river include Sespe Creek, Piru Creek, Castaic Creek.
Oxnard is on a tectonically active plate, since most of Coastal California is near the boundaries between the Pacific a
Oregon, Pacific and Eastern Railway
The Oregon and Eastern Railway is an Oregon-based short line railroad that began near Eugene as the Oregon and Southeastern Railroad in 1904. O&SE's line ran 18 miles along the Row River between the towns of Cottage Disston; the Oregon, Pacific & Eastern Railway Company incorporated in 1912, purchased the physical assets of the O&SE two years and shortened their total trackage to operate 16.6 miles from an interchange yard with the Southern Pacific Railroad at Cottage Grove, east to a turnaround loop at Culp Creek. The last of this track was closed and scrapped in 1994, ownership of its abandoned right of way property was reverted to the state of Oregon to become one of the first-ever Government/Private Sector cooperative partnership Rails to Trails programs in the US, forming the Row River National Recreation Trail. A successor corporation now operates a narrow-gauge line at Wildlife Safari; the O&SE was built to serve the gold, copper and lead mines in the Bohemia mining district of Mid-Coastal Oregon's Willamette River Valley.
Sawmills were built along the route as soon as transportation was available for the lumber they would produce, but traffic was sufficient to encourage investment in new equipment. Covered bridges were built at Walden and Wildwood to prevent rot after a train fell through the wooden bridge into the inland Row River on 5 June 1909, at Currin. In 1912, J. H. Chambers Lumber Company was a major investor when the line was reorganized as the OP&E; the OP&E built a 6-mile logging branch from Disston up Layng Creek in 1914, in 1917, Chambers' Lumber company secured complete control of OP&E. As an economy move, Chambers built a gasoline-powered railbus to replace the daily passenger train; this "Galloping Goose" began operation on 1 April 1917 and remained the only passenger service until replaced by a thrice weekly mixed train under different ownership in March, 1929. The Anderson-Middleton Lumber Company purchased OP&E from Chambers in 1924, built a new sawmill, south of Cottage Grove; the logging branch up Layng Creek was dismantled, the rail relaid to form a new branch up to Herman Creek.
Locomotive #8 and a trainload of logs fell through Walden bridge into Mosby Creek on 5 September 1924, killing both the engineer, brakeman. In 1925, Buster Keaton used the railway for his 1926 silent film classic The General. OP&E locomotives played the parts of #3 General, #5 Texas, a Union Army locomotive pulling "Civil War coaches". Local National Guard soldiers were hired to wear Civil War uniforms, filming battle scenes caused several fires including one that destroyed the Red Bridge Station; the most exciting fire was the intentional destruction of Texas scene, on a bridge the movie company built over the Row River, filming of, scheduled on July 4 for the enjoyment of local spectators, resulted in a rousing success. Anderson-Middleton Lumber Company went bankrupt in 1930, OP&E struggled through the Great Depression with only 7 employees until increasing lumber demand caused sawmills to resume operations in the late 1930s; the company reorganized under the same name in 1940, resumed daily service.
The "Texas" Locomotive #5 would remain in the Row River until the Japanese' military preparations in 1941 raised the price of scrap iron just before World War II. Damming of the Row River in 1947 to form Dorena Reservoir required the United States Army Corps of Engineers to relocate 8 miles of track above the north side of the reservoir; the Wildwood covered bridge was replaced with a steel girder span in 1948, the other two covered bridges were replaced in 1950, as Booth-Kelly Lumber Company built a 7.2-mile logging branch up Mosby Creek and purchased OP&E. Rails were removed from the track east of Culp Creek in 1954 after two sawmills in Disston ceased operations. After steam-powered excursion trains were run 18–19 July 1959 to celebrate the Oregon Centennial, Georgia-Pacific purchased Booth-Kelly in 1959. Georgia-Pacific sold OP&E in 1970 to Willis B. Kyle, who formed the Row River Investment Company; the line operated passenger excursions from 1972 until 1987. During these years, the railroad used a 1st generation self-propelled Budd Rail Diesel Car built for Southern Pacific, which had spent most of its life as #10 on Southern Pacific's subsidiary Northwestern Pacific.
On OP&E it was known as "The Goose". During the Summer of 1972, 20th Century Fox's 1973 motion picture Emperor of the North Pole, starring Lee Marvin, Ernest Borgnine, Keith Carradine, was filmed along the railroad's right-of-way using some of the company's equipment, including Kyle's 1915-built 90 ton Baldwin 2-8-2 steam logging locomotive #19; the film was released on DVD as Emperor of the North in 2006. In 1985, Stand By Me, Rob Reiner's motion picture of a Stephen King novelette, was filmed along the railroad's right of way. In March 1986, the company owned a total of three locomotives, 31 boxcars, 44 flatcars. All of that fleet is gone, except for an old GE 44-ton switcher. Bohemia Incorporated bought out the railroad in Cottage Grove from Kyle in 1987. Kyle's 1915 Baldwin 2-8-2 Mikado Steam Engine #19 was returned to the Yreka Western Railroad in California that same year. In 1994, Bohemia discontinued service along the entire 17 mile OP&E line, the Oregon Pacific & Eastern
The EMD F40PH is a four-axle 3,000–3,200 hp B-B diesel-electric locomotive built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division in several variants from 1975 to 1992. Intended for use on Amtrak's short-haul passenger routes, it became the backbone of Amtrak's diesel fleet after the failure of the EMD SDP40F; the F40PH found widespread use on commuter railroads in the United States and with Via Rail Canada. Additional F40PH variants were remanufactured from older locomotives by Morrison-Knudsen and MotivePower Industries between 1988 and 1998. Amtrak retired its fleet of F40PHs in the mid-1990s in favor of the GE Genesis, but the locomotive remains the mainstay of Via Rail's long-distance trains and an image of the locomotive hauling the Canadian was featured on the frontier series of the Canadian $10 bill; the F40PHs is a common sight on many other commuter railroads throughout the United States. A few F40PHs have been modified for freight service as well. In addition, Amtrak has kept a number of de-engined F40PHs in use as cab cars.
Amtrak inherited an aging and mechanically-incompatible fleet of diesel locomotives from various private railroads on its startup in 1971. The most modern locomotives remained in private hands for freight service, or to operate the various commuter services which, by law, did not pass to Amtrak. To replace these Amtrak ordered 150 EMD SDP40F locomotives, which began entering service in 1973; these were supplemented by 25 GE P30CHs which entered service in 1975. The SDP40F was a troubled design. Meanwhile, the poor truck design of the P30CH curtailed further orders of that unit when Amtrak found itself needing more short- and medium-distance power in the spring of 1975; the design of the F40PH was based on the EMD GP40-2 freight locomotive and shared that locomotive's turbocharged EMD 645E3 V16 cylinder, two-stroke, water-cooled diesel engine. The prime mover developed 3,000 hp at 893 RPM; the main generator converts mechanical energy from the prime mover into electricity distributed through a high voltage cabinet to the traction motors.
Each of the four traction motors is geared to a pair of driving wheels. A standard F40PH has a gear ratio of 57:20, permitting a maximum speed of 103 mph; some Amtrak F40PHs were delivered with a 56:21 gearing for 110 mph. The first thirty locomotives were built with a 1,500-US-gallon fuel tank. Beginning with the EMD F40PH-2, introduced in 1985, the prime mover developed 3,200 horsepower. Many of the original F40PHs were updated to match that output; the locomotives were 56 feet 2 inches long. A standard F40PH weighs 260,000 lb. For passenger service the F40PH has the head-end generator; the HEP unit generates three-phase AC power at 480 V for lighting and air-conditioning the train. F40PHs powered the HEP alternator from the prime mover. Power to the traction motors was controlled by varying the field excitation of the main generator. On some versions of the F40PH, a second small diesel engine at the rear of the locomotive powers the HEP alternator. In these engines, the prime-mover speed varies in the usual way.
Remaining F40s, with the constant-RPM prime movers, are noticeably louder. In the initial design the battery box and air reservoirs were located forward of the fuel tank; the battery box returned to its original location in the F40PH-2. The F40PH-2s delivered to Caltrain incorporated Southern Pacific Railroad-style headlights; the designation "F40PH" stood for the following: "F" for the full-width cowl carbody, "40" as the locomotive is part of EMD's 40-series, "P" for passenger service, "H" for head-end power. Amtrak ordered its first 30 F40PHs on May 8, 1975. Amtrak intended the locomotives for short routes such as the San Diegan in California and Northeast Corridor services between New Haven and Boston, Massachusetts; the long-distance routes were protected by the then-new EMD SDP40F, described by J. David Ingles in late 1975 as the "stars of Amtrak's long-distance trains". Two events led to a major change in thinking within Amtrak; the first was a sharp decline in the mechanical reliability of the EMD SDP40F, including several derailments.
The second was the unusually harsh winter of 1976–1977, which sidelined many of Amtrak's aging steam-heated coaches. Amtrak suspended numerous routes and pressed the new HEP-equipped Amfleet I coaches, designed for short runs, into service; the F40PH, with its built-in HEP generator, was the natural choice to haul these trains. As problems with the EMD SDP40F mounted, Amtrak adopted the F40PH as its long-term solution nationwide for diesel service. In the spring of 1977 Amtrak traded 40 SDP40Fs back to EMD; the 40 rebuilt locomotives were designated F40PHR and were identical to new-build F40PHs, incorporating the larger fuel tank and more powerful HEP generator which had become stan
Green Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Green Line is a 20-mile light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk within Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines forming the Los Angeles Metro Rail system; the line opened on August 12, 1995. It became the third line in the Metro Rail system after the opening of the Blue Red Line; the line was delayed due to a change of the line's route from Los Angeles International Airport to El Segundo. In addition to Redondo Beach and Norwalk, the route serves El Segundo, South Los Angeles, Lynwood and Willowbrook, it serves the Plaza Mexico shopping center at the Long Beach Boulevard station in the city of Lynwood. A free shuttle bus to Los Angeles International Airport is available at the line's Aviation/LAX Station; the line is suburb-to-suburb service, so it is the only one in the entire Metro Rail system not to serve Downtown Los Angeles but passengers can reach it by connecting with the Metro Silver Line busway at the Harbor Freeway Station, the Metro Blue Line light rail at Willowbrook Station or Metro Express 460 at Norwalk Station.
The grade-separated route runs in the median of the Century Freeway with a elevated section to the west. The line is maintained by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Green Line is internally known as Line 803: this designation appears on internal operating schedules, as well as in the hyperlink on Metro's timetable website. The Green Line is the fastest light rail line in the Metro light rail network. Green Line trains operate at 55–65 mph on the I-105 freeway portion and around 40 mph on the elevated portion west of Aviation/LAX Station; when the Green Line began service in 1995, it operated with only one-car trains. As ridership increased, two-car trains were used. Ridership on the Green Line has not been as high as the Blue Line, although it did have a higher ridership than the Gold Line until 2013. Additionally, the Green Line runs with one-car trains in the early mornings and late evenings on weekdays, on weekends. Although nearly all of the Green Line stations were built to accommodate three-car trains, the Green Line has never used trains consisting of more than two cars.
The stations west of Aviation/LAX Station were not built to accommodate three-car trains. However, it is possible that the Green Line would use three-car trains when the Crenshaw/LAX Line is complete. Beginning in 2019, Metro will rename all of their BRT lines from colors to letters; as such, the bulk of the current Green Line, combined with the soon-to-open Crenshaw/LAX Line project, will be renamed as C Line while retaining the current green coloring on maps. The entire route of the Green Line is grade-separated, with its tracks following a elevated route, either on a guideway or in the median of the Century Freeway; the line begins in the west at Redondo Beach station heads north through El Segundo. At Aviation/LAX, passengers can transfer to any one of several bus lines from different operators Shuttle Bus "G", a shuttle bus from the Green Line to LAX. From here, the Green Line heads east in the median of the Century Freeway, with a connection to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at the Harbor Freeway Station.
It continues to a major transfer connection at the Willowbrook Station. The line terminates in the city of Norwalk, just east of the 605 Freeway. Metro Green Line trains run between 3:36 a.m. and 11:55 p.m. daily. Service on Friday and Saturday nights continues until 2:15 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To Norwalk Station Eastbound First Train to Norwalk from Willowbrook/Rosa Parks Station: 3:33 a.m. First Train to Norwalk from Douglas Station: 3:41 a.m. Last Train to Norwalk: 11:59 p.m. To Redondo Beach Station Westbound First Train to Redondo Beach Station: 4:04 a.m. Last Train to Redondo Beach Station: 12:50 a.m. Trains on the Green Line operate every seven to eight minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every 15 minutes during the midday and all day on the weekends, with night service running every 20 minutes. As part of the consent decree signed by Caltrans in 1972 to allow construction of the fiercely opposed Century Freeway, provisions were made for a transit corridor in the freeway's median.
Construction began in 1987 on the line as a light rail line, with a route following I-105 but a short section in the South Bay following the Harbor Subdivision. This western alignment was planned and constructed to connect with LAX, but the airport was planning a major renovation during the line's construction. Los Angeles World Airports wanted the connection to LAX to be integrated with this construction, but there were concerns from the Federal Aviation Administration that the overhead lines of the rail line would interfere with the landing paths of airplanes. Various studies have suggested extending the Green Line north to LAX, Loyola Marymount University, Santa Monica. A possible southern extension could take the Green Line's southern terminus farther southeast, to the South Bay Galleria or beyond, and on the line's east end, the line may one day be extended from its current terminus at Norwalk station to Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs station. The Crenshaw/LAX Line project extends from the existing Green Line, the question of how the new segment would be integrated into the Metro Rail system was the subject of some controversy in 2018 as completion of the project loomed.
A streamliner is a vehicle incorporating streamlining in a shape providing reduced air resistance. The term is applied to high-speed railway trainsets of the 1930s to 1950s, to their successor "bullet trains". Less the term is applied to faired recumbent bicycles; as part of the Streamline Moderne trend, the term was applied to passenger cars and other types of light-, medium-, or heavy-duty vehicles, but now vehicle streamlining is so prevalent that it is not an outstanding characteristic. In land speed racing, it is a term applied to the long, custom built, high-speed vehicles with enclosed wheels; the first high-speed streamliner in Germany was the "Schienenzeppelin", an experimental propeller driven single car, built 1930. On 21 June 1931, it set a speed record of 230.2 km/h on a run between Hamburg. In 1932 the propeller was removed and a hydraulic system installed; the Schienenzeppelin made 180 km/h in 1933. The Schienenzeppelin led to the construction of the diesel-electric DRG Class SVT 877 "Flying Hamburger".
This two-car train set had a top speed of 160 km/h. During regular service starting on 15 May 1933, this train ran the 286 kilometres between Hamburg and Berlin in 138 minutes with an average speed of 124.4 km/h. The SVT 877 was the prototype for the DRG Class SVT 137, first built in 1935 for use in the FDt express train service. During test drives, the SVT 137 "Bauart Leipzig" set a world speed record of 205 km/h in 1936; the fastest regular service with SVT 137 was between Hannover and Hamm with an average speed of 132.2 km/h. This service lasted until 22 August 1939. In 1935 Henschel & Son, a major manufacturer of steam locomotives, introduced the 4-6-4 DRG Class 05 high speed streamliner locomotives for use on the Deutsche Reichsbahn Frankfurt am Main to Berlin route. Three examples were built during 1935-36. Built for top speeds of over 85 mph, they soon proved much faster in test runs. DRG 05-002 made seven runs during 1935-36 during which it attained top speeds of more than 177 km/h with trains up to 254 t weight.
On 11 May 1936 it set the world speed record for steam locomotives after reaching 200.4 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg line hauling a 197 t train. The engine power was more than 2,535 kW ); that record was broken two years by the British LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard engine. On 30 May 1936 05-002 set an unbroken start stop speed record for steam locomotives: During the return run from a 190 km/h test on the Berlin-Hamburg route it did the ~113 kilometres from Wittenberg to a signal stop before Berlin-Spandau in 48 min 32 s, meaning 139.4 km/h average between start and stop. In the United Kingdom, development of streamlined passenger services began in 1934, with the Great Western Railway introducing low-speed streamlined railcars, the London and North Eastern Railway introducing the "Silver Jubilee" service using streamlined A4 class steam locomotives and full length trains rather than railcars. In 1938 on a test run, the locomotive Mallard built for this service set the official record for the highest top speed attained by a steam locomotive, reaching 126 mph.
That record stands to this day. The London Midland and Scottish Railway introduced streamline locomotives of the Princess Coronation Class shortly before the outbreak of war; the Ferrovie dello Stato developed a three-unit electric streamliner. The development started in 1934; these trains went into service in 1937. On 6 December 1937, an ETR 200 made a top speed of 201 km/h between Campoleone and Cisterna on the run Rome-Naples. In 1939 the ETR 212 made 203 km/h; the 219-kilometre journeys from Bologna to Milan were made in 77 minutes, meaning an average of 171 km/h. In the Netherlands, Nederlandse Spoorwegen introduced the Materieel 34, a three unit 140 km/h streamlined diesel-electric trainset in 1934. An electric version, Materieel 36, went into service in 1936. From 1940 the "Dieselvijf", a 160 km/h top speed five unit diesel-electric trainset based on DE3, completed the Dutch streamliner fleet. During test runs, a DE5 ran 175 km/h; that year the similar electric Materieel 40 were first built.
In the 1930s, NS developed a streamlined version of the class 3700/3800 steam locomotive, nicknamed "potvis". In Czechoslovakia in 1934, Czechoslovak State Railways ordered two motor railcars with maximum speed 130 km/h; the order was received by Tatra company, producing first streamlined mass-produced automobile Tatra 77 in that time. The railcar project received streamlined design. Both ČSD Class M 290.0 were delivered in 1936 with desired 130 km/h maximum speed, although during test runs one car reached 148 km/h mark. They were run on Czechoslovak prominent route Prague-Bratislava under Slovenská strela brand; the earliest known streamlined rail equipment in the United States were McKeen rail motorcars built for Union Pacific and Southern Pacific between 1905 and 1917. Most of them sported a pointed "wind splitter" front, a rounded rear, round porthole style windows in a style, as much nautically as aerodynamically inspired; the McKeen cars were unsuccessful because internal combustion drive technology for that application was unreliable at the time and the lightweight frames dictated by their limited power tended to break.
Streamlined rail motorcars would appear again in the early 1930s after the internal combustion-electric prop