Buffy Jo Christina Wicks is an American politician who serves in the California State Assembly. A Democrat, she represents the 15th Assembly District, which encompasses the cities of Berkeley, Emeryville and parts of the City of Oakland in the East Bay. Prior to being elected to the State Assembly, she was an American political strategist, credited as one of the architects of President Barack Obama's grassroots organizing model, she served on the senior staff of Obama's 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns, as Deputy Director at the White House Office of Public Engagement. Wicks was first elected to the State Assembly in November 2018 after defeating Richmond City Councilmember Jovanka Beckles, a fellow Democrat. Born in Foresthill, California in 1977, Wicks graduated from Placer High School in 1995, she graduated from the University of Washington in 1999 with a B. A. degree in political science and history. In 2000, she began a two-year program for an International Master in Peace and Development Studies of the Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, under the UNESCO Chair of Philosophy for Peace, but left in 2001 and did not complete the degree.
Wicks has worked in the labor movement, on women's issues, as a children's rights advocate. Wicks's started her political career in the early 2000s in the San Francisco Bay Area by organizing rallies against the Iraq War, she worked on the unsuccessful 2004 presidential campaign of Howard Dean. As one of the early hires on the 2008 presidential campaign for Barack Obama, Wicks was active in grassroots mobilization and outcome-based organizing, she ran various state operations during the primaries and general election, including in California and Missouri. Wicks was tapped by President Obama to serve in the Executive Office of the President as the Deputy Director of the White House Office of Public Engagement. From 2010 to 2011, Wicks "served as Rahm Emanuel’s campaign manager in early months of campaign and developed core strategy and positioning in race as well as early infrastructure." In 2012, she joined President Obama's re-election effort and served as the National Director of Operation Vote.
She was responsible for mobilizing voters in demographic groups including African American, Latino and the youth. From 2014 to 2015, Wicks transitioned the super PAC Priorities USA Action into a pro-Hillary Clinton vehicle and served as its executive director. In 2016, Wicks was named the California State Director by Clinton's presidential campaign in advance of the June 7 primary. Wicks worked as the political director of "Wake Up Wal-mart," a United Food and Commercial Worker-funded movement, she was a Fellow at Institute of Politics and Public Policy at Georgetown University and a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress focusing on public policies affecting women and families. Wicks has published opinion editorials for TIME, the Daily Beast on current political events, she gives regular speeches in the United States and abroad on organizing, women's issues, the state of American politics. In 2017, Wicks declared herself a candidate for the California State Assembly election, 2018, running for the 15th district.
The seat was vacated by Tony Thurmond, who ran for California State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Wicks's opponents in the race included Jovanka Beckles. In the primary held on June 5, Wicks finished first with 31.4% of the vote. In the general election on November 6, Wicks won with 56% of the vote to Beckles's 44%. Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008 Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2012 Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, 2016 Official website Buffy Wicks on Twitter White House Office of Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs Buffy Wicks on why Obama will win
Hayward Fault Zone
The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive earthquakes. This fault is about 74 mi long, situated along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay, it runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Union City and San Jose. The Hayward Fault is parallel to the San Andreas Fault, which lies offshore and through the San Francisco Peninsula. To the east of the Hayward lies the Calaveras Fault. In 2007 the Hayward Fault was discovered to merge with the Calaveras Fault east of San Jose at a depth of 4 miles, with the potential of creating earthquakes much larger than expected; some geologists have suggested that the Southern Calaveras should be renamed as the Southern Hayward. North of San Pablo Bay is the Rodgers Creek Fault, shown in 2016 to be linked with the Hayward Fault under San Pablo Bay to form a combined Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault, 118 miles long, stretching from north of Healdsburg through Santa Rosa down to Alum Rock in San Jose.
Another fault further north, the Maacama Fault, is considered to be part of the "Hayward Fault subsystem". While the San Andreas Fault is the principal transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault takes up its share of the overall displacement of the two plates; the Pacific Plate is a major section of the Earth's crust expanding by the eruption of magma along the East Pacific Rise to the southeast. It is being subducted far to the northwest into the Aleutian Trench. In California, the plate is sliding northwestward along a transform boundary, the San Andreas Fault, toward the subduction zone. At the same time, the North American Plate is moving southwestward relative to the Earth's core, but southeastward relative to the Pacific Plate, due to the latter's much faster northwestward motion; the westward component of the North American Plate's motion results in some compressive force along the San Andreas and its associated faults, thus helping lift the Pacific Coast Ranges and other parallel inland ranges to the west of the Central Valley, in this region most notably the Diablo Range.
The Hayward Fault shares the same relative motions of the San Andreas. As with portions of other faults, a large extent of the Hayward Fault trace is formed from a narrow complex zone of deformation which can span hundreds of feet in width; the transform boundary defined by the San Andreas Fault is not straight, the stresses between the Pacific and North American Plates are diffused over a wide region of the West, extending as far as the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The Hayward Fault is one of the secondary faults in this diffuse zone, along with the Calaveras Fault to the east and the San Gregorio Fault, west of the San Andreas; the complete fault zone, including the Rodgers Creek fault, is divided by seismologists into three segments – Rodgers Creek, Northern Hayward, Southern Hayward. It is expected that these segments may fail singly or in adjacent pairs, creating earthquakes of varying magnitude; the Association of Bay Area Governments in concert with other government agencies has sponsored the analysis of local conditions and the preparation of maps indicative of the destructive potential of these earthquakes.
The various ABAG maps shown below represent some of the more possible combinations. While there are indications that a substantial earthquake on a nearby parallel fault can release stress and so decrease the near-term probability of an earthquake, the opposite appears to be true concerning sequential segments. A release on a major segment can increase the likelihood of an earthquake on an adjacent fault segment, increasing the likelihood of two major regional earthquakes within a period of a few months; the connection between the Rodgers Creek Fault Zone and the Hayward Fault Zone was unclear until 2015 when a survey of the floor of San Pablo Bay found that the ends of the two faults were smoothly linked between Point Pinole and Lower Tubbs Island. An alternate prior hypothesis suggested that the Hayward Fault and Rodgers Creek Fault were connected by a series of en echelon fault strands beneath San Pablo Bay; the new finding means that the Rodgers-Hayward system together could produce a quake with a magnitude as high as 7.2.
It is considered possible that a major seismic event on either fault may involve movement on the other, either concurrently or within an interval of up to several months. The Association of Bay Area Governments has prepared ground shaking maps that include a possible concurrent scenario. In October 2016, scientists found definitive evidence that the Rodgers Creek Fault and the Hayward Fault are linked together under San Pablo Bay. A simultaneous rupture of the connected Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault – about 118 mi long from just north of Healdsburg down to Alum Rock in San Jose – could result in a major earthquake of magnitude 7.4 that "would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact". It has been suggested that the name "Rodgers Creek Fault" be retired and that the entire 118 mi fault be known as the "Hayward Fault"; the Calaveras Fault is continuous from the Sunol area south to Hollister. It was long believed that there was no connection between the Hayward Fault and the Calaveras, but geological studies suggest that the two may be connected.
If true, this link would have significant implications for the potential maximum strength of earthquakes on the Hayward, since this strength is determined by the maximum length of the fault ruptur
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. High intensity shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, an agricultural region to the south of the San Francisco Bay Area. Devastating fires soon lasted for several days. Thousands of homes were dismantled; as a result, up to 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed. The events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest earthquakes in the history of the United States; the death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history and high in the lists of American disasters. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate; the strike-slip fault is characterized by lateral motion in a dextral sense, where the western plate moves northward relative to the eastern plate.
This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, a distance of about 810 miles. The maximum observed; the 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the modern moment magnitude scale is 7.9. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earth's crust took place both before and after the earthquake's impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the supposed cause of the damage along the 450-kilometer-long segment of the San Andreas plate boundary; the 1906 rupture propagated both southward for a total of 296 miles. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, inland as far as central Nevada. A strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds; the strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds. There were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake.
Interpreted as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and have been postulated to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by hydraulic mining in the years of the California Gold Rush. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement. In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more offshore of San Francisco, to the northwest of the Golden Gate; the most recent analyses support an offshore location for the epicenter, although significant uncertainty remains. An offshore epicenter is supported by the occurrence of a local tsunami recorded by a tide gauge at the San Francisco Presidio. Analysis of triangulation data before and after the earthquake suggest that the rupture along the San Andreas Fault was about 500 km in length, in agreement with observed intensity data.
The available seismological data support a shorter rupture length, but these observations can be reconciled by allowing propagation at speeds above the S-wave velocity. Supershear propagation has now been recognized for many earthquakes associated with strike-slip faulting. Using old photographs and eyewitness accounts, researchers were able to estimate the location of hypocenter of the earthquake as offshore from San Francisco or near the city of San Juan Bautista, confirming previous estimates. At the time, 375 deaths were reported; the total number of deaths is still uncertain, but various reports presented a range of 700–3,000+. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area. In Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina. Between 227,000 and 300,000 people were left homeless out of a population of about 410,000.
Newspapers described Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, the Panhandle and the beaches between Ingleside and North Beach as covered with makeshift tents. More than two years many of these refugee camps were still in operation; the earthquake and fire left long-standing and significant pressures on the development of California. At the time of the disaster, San Francisco had been the ninth-largest city in the United States and the largest on the West Coast, with a population of about 410,000. Over a period of 60 years, the city had become the financial and cultural center of the West. S. economic and military power was projected into the Asia. Over 80 % of the city was destroyed by the fire. Though San Francisco rebuilt the disaster diverted trade and populati
Wildcat Canyon Regional Park
Wildcat Canyon Regional Park is a 2,429-acre East Bay Regional Parks District park located within the city limits of Richmond in Contra Costa County in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. It includes a portion of Wildcat Canyon as well as a portion of the adjoining San Pablo Ridge, is directly connected to the more used Tilden Regional Park; the area was inhabited by Native Americans until 1772 when a group of "Catalan volunteers" led by Pedro Fagas and Fray Juan Crespi came across the settlement while searching for trade routes north beyond the Carquinez Strait. The Spanish settled the general area and by 1840 had parceled the land for missions and cattle raising coming into conflict with the historical communal practices of the Native Americans. Juan Jose and Victor Castro were given rights to all vacant land in the area, they kept some valuable lands and gave much of the land over to municipal authorities for water usage. In 1935, the East Bay Regional Parks District acquired the land that formed Tilden Park to the South and continued to acquire land to the north of Tilden until in 1976 it had sufficient land to form Wildcat Canyon Regional Park.
EBRPD announced on February 17, 2014 that it had acquired 362 acres of woodland on the east side of Wildcat Canyon Regional Park, which will be added to the existing park. The addition will provide easier access for visitors from El Richmond; the property had been owned by a developer who had intended to build 36 houses on it, before the collapse of real estate prices around 2009. Wildcat has an abundance of fauna. There are Coast Live Oak, California Bay Laurel, Big leaf maple, alder, willow and eucalyptus forests. There are humid chaparrals made up of coyote brush, poison oak, snowberry, bracken fern, blackberry brambles. There are some native grasses, but non-native species like rye and oat dominate, however many kinds of native flowers are present. With regards to animal life there are coyotes, raccoons, opossums, California ground squirrels thought to be gophers in addition to voles present. Reptilian life includes gopher snakes, king snakes, western racers, garter snakes, rubber boas, ringneck snakes.
In the skies red-tailed hawks, American kestrels, sharp shinned hawks, cooper's hawks and turkey vultures fly and great horned owls and many songbirds. Wildcat Creek Trail - Runs along Wildcat Creek from the Alvarado Park staging area in Richmond into Tilden Park's Nature Area; the Wildcat Park section measures 3.5 miles to the park border and continues for 1 mile to the Tilden Nature Area parking lot. The trail does not involve major elevation changes; the trail's midpoint can be accessed via Rifle Range Road Trail accessed via Rifle Range Road in El Cerrito, California. Nimitz Way - Starting at Tilden Park's Inspiration Point, Nimitz Way is a paved trail that connects to Wildcat Canyon Park after 1.5 miles. The Wildcat section connects to San Pablo Ridge Trail. Nimitz Way is a popular easy trail with views of the San Francisco Bay to the west and EBMUD's San Pablo & Briones Reservoirs and Mt. Diablo. Belgum Trail - Named for Dr. Belgum who ran a sanitarium, located close to this trail, it is accessed from Wildcat Creek Trail about 0.5 miles from the Alvarado Park staging area and climbs over a short 0.85 miles to Wildcat Canyon's meadows.
The trail provides excellent views of San Francisco Bay. San Pablo Ridge Trail - Accessed from Belgum Trail or Clark-Boas Trail, which runs from the Clark Road park entrance in Richmond, the San Pable Ridge Trail is a short 1.43 miles but climbs over three peaks. The trail connects at its Southern terminus with Nimitz Way. Alavarado Park, a National Historic Place is the northernmost portion of Wildcat Canyon; the two-mile section in Wildcat Canyon Regional Park was a Nike missile base, decommissioned in the 1970s. Today there are few signs of the missile silos and military housing that used to populate these hills. Wildcat Canyon Regional Park hosts cattle who graze the hills of the park under a grazing program managed by the East Bay Regional Parks District; the park can be accessed via the following entry points: The main entrance and park office is the Alvarado Park area on Park Avenue in Richmond reached from McBryde Avenue. The Clark Road entrance in the northernmost area of the park is accessed off of San Pablo Dam Road.
Rifle Range Road in El Cerrito Leisure Lane off of San Pablo Dam Road Wildcat Canyon Regional Park at the East Bay Regional Parks District website Wildcat Regional Park Trail Map Wildcat Canyon Regional Park Map - Text Side
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
El Cerrito del Norte station
El Cerrito del Norte is a BART station located off Cutting Boulevard near San Pablo Avenue and Interstate 80 in El Cerrito, California. The station serves as a regional transit hub for local AC Transit bus services, for commuter feeder services from Solano and Marin Counties in the North Bay plus western Contra Costa County. Opened in 1973, the station is undergoing a renovation expected to be completed in 2019. El Cerrito del Norte station opened on January 29, 1973 when service began between MacArthur station and Richmond station. A 2014 study recommending expanding the station paid area and vertical logistics to allow more passengers to use the station and decrease dwelling times during congested alighting times. By 2017 the station had more than 9,000 passengers boarding per weekday, exceeding its design capacity. BART approved contracts to begin station expansion that year, with an expected completion in May 2019; the station features large parking areas throughout, including surface parking and a four-story parking garage on the east side.
There are reserved bicycle lockers and open air racks available. There is ride and taxi zone on the east side of the station; this plan determined that parking should be placed closer to the freeway to reduce traffic and that the impact of the large number of buses and area needed for them had to be mitigated in some manner. BART developed a station improvement plan in 2004 to create a transit village in the surrounding area; the city of El Cerrito is additionally planning and searching for funds to develop the area around the station as a transit oriented development similar to other transit villages, with the reservation that the development must be appropriately scaled. An apartment complex to be built on a former parking area was approved in 2017. El Cerrito del Norte station serves as the primary northern bus terminal for the Richmond branch due to its proximity to I-80; as of 2017, there are 29 bus bays that serve six bus agencies for fixed route service and various paratransit and dial-a-ride shuttles.
The bus bays are predominantly located on the west side of the station. Many stops have been relocated to surrounding streets during construction. AC Transit provides local and limited-stop service, plus two commuter routes serving San Francisco: Local: 7, 72, 72M, 72R, 76, 376 All Nighter: 800 School routes: 667, 668, 675, 684 Transbay route: LFive operators provide commuter-oriented express service from western Contra Costa County, Marin County, Napa County, Solano County: FAST SolanoExpress: Green Express Golden Gate Transit: 40, 40X, 704 Napa VINE: 29 SolTrans SolanoExpress: 80, 82 WestCAT: JL, JPX, JR, JX, 708 BART - El Cerrito del Norte Station BART - El Cerrito del Norte Station Modernization
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a