Chané is the collective name for the southernmost Arawak-speaking peoples. They lived in the plains of the northern Gran Chaco and in the foothills of the Andes in Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina; the historical Chané are divided into two principal groups. The Chané proper who lived in eastern Bolivia and the Guaná who lived in Paraguay and adjacent Brazil. Twenty-first century survivors of the Chané are the Izoceno people of Bolivia and 3,034 descendants reported in Argentina by the 2010 census. Survivors of the Guaná are the Tereno and the Kinikinao both of Mato Grosso do Sul province in Brazil. Most of the historical Chané were subjects of and absorbed by the Eastern Bolivian Guarani called Chiriguanos, while the Guaná were subjects of the Mbayá, a Guaycuruan speaking people; the Chané, together with other Arawak groups, are believed to have originated in northeastern South America, but to have spread southward about 2,500 years ago. They developed an agrarian culture, built densely populated villages, cultivated corn, peanuts and squash, are famous for their ceramics and graphics which have been found in the pampas of Bolivia surrounding the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and in Samaipata, Valle Abajo, Cotoca, El Pari and Warnes.
They craft wooden masks and fabric clothing. An ancient Chané religious site dating from about 300 CE is El Fuerte de Samaipata, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, they were a rather peaceful culture and traded with the Quechua-speaking Incas in the Andes and with other Arawak-speaking groups to the north and east. Chanés and Incas established a truce to join forces against the Eastern Guarani peoples of the Andes foothills, who the Incas and Spaniards called Chiriguanos; the Chiriguanos raided the Chané homeland on a regular basis, prior to the Spanish conquest, the Chiriguanos defeated the Chanés and halted the Inca advance into the plains and valleys of what is now the Santa Cruz Department of Bolivia. Some Chane weré forced into slavery by the Chiriguanos, others migrated to less fertile regions to the southeast. Many Chané women were taken as wives by Chiriguano men. Both Guaraní and Guaraní-speaking Chané assimilated and mixed with Europeans during the colonial period and after the independence of both Argentina and Bolivia.
The Guaná, are the eastern branch of the Chané. They were vassals of the Mbayá, a relationship that, according to Spanish accounts, existed in 1548, much earlier; the Guaná were agricultural and pedestrian as opposed to the nomadic Mbayá who became equestrians by the early 17th century. In the early 18th century the Guaná lived in seven large villages of 1,000 or more people on the western side of the Paraguay River between 19 and 22 south latitudes. In the 18th century, some of them migrated along with the Mbayá east of the Paraguay River, they were estimated generously, in the early 18th century to have numbered 18,000 to 30,000. In 1793 they numbered about 8,200; the Guaná provided Mbayá chiefs with labor, agricultural products and wives and in exchange were given protection and European goods such as iron tools by the Mbayá. The cultures of the Guaná and Mbayá became more similar as the Mbayá adopted agriculture and weaving and the Guaná became equestrian; the Mbayá augmented their numbers limited by late marriages and abortion, by intermarriage with Guaná and captive women of other ethnic groups.
Spanish chroniclers describe the Guaná as docile. The Mbayá, arrogant and ethnocentric, were described by Spanish chroniclers as benign and respectful in dealing with their Guaná subjects. In the late 18th century the Guaná, along with the Mbayá, migrated east of the Paraguay River, by 1850 the Guaná had broken their relationship with the Mbayá and were living in the area of Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; the largest sub-tribe of the Guaná was the Tereno. In 2001, they were called the Terêna, 16,000 if them were living in the same area. There are some Chané communities still living in the Izozog region in Santa Cruz, in Yacui and Che-Renda near Tartagal, Argentina. In both cases, they have been influenced by the Guaraní language and culture, but still retain their Chane identity; the other descendants of the Chane culture were first mixed with the Guaranis with the Spaniards, in the last two centuries with migration flows of other Europeans and migrants from other parts of Bolivia and Argentina.
The Chane culture is an important heritage component of the populations of Santa Cruz, the Paraguayan Chaco, Salta Province, Jujuy Province and the Argentine Chaco. Arawak Chané language Maipurean languages
Inka Mach'ay, Bolivia
Inka Mach'ay is an archaeological site in Bolivia. It is situated in the Chuquisaca Department, Oropeza Province, Chuquisaca Municipality, at a height of 3,510 metres. Inka Mach'ay was declared a National Monument on May 27, 1958, by Supreme Decrete No. 4954
Florida is a province in the Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Its capital is Samaipata; the province was created by law on December 15, 1924. The province is divided into four municipalities; the archaeological site of Fort Samaipata, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998 and Amboró National Park are the principal tourist attractions of the province. Laguna Volcán Las Cuevas. There are several pools and beaches where the locals swim and disport themselves
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia. Located in the south-central part of the country, Sucre lies at an elevation of 2,810 meters; this high altitude gives the city a cool temperate climate year-round. On November 30, 1538, Sucre was founded under the name Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo by Pedro Anzures, Marqués de Campo Redondo. In 1559, the Spanish King Philip II established the Audiencia de Charcas in La Plata with authority over an area which covers what is now Paraguay, southeastern Peru, Northern Chile and Argentina, much of Bolivia; the Audiencia de Charcas was a subdivision of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1776, when it was transferred to the newly created Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1601 the Recoleta Monastery was founded by the Franciscans and in 1609 an archbishopric was founded in the city. In 1624 St Francis Xavier University of Chuquisaca was founded. Much a Spanish city during the colonial era, the narrow streets of the city centre are organised in a grid, reflecting the Andalusian culture, embodied in the architecture of the city's great houses and numerous convents and churches.
Sucre remains the seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Bolivia, a common sight is members of religious orders dressed in traditional costume. For much of its colonial history, Sucre's temperate climate was preferred by the Spanish royalty and wealthy families involved in silver trade coming from Potosí. Testament to this is the Glorieta Castle. Sucre's University is one of the oldest universities in the new world. On May 25, 1809 the Bolivian independence movement was started with the ringing of the bell of the Basilica of Saint Francisco; this bell was rung to the point of breakage, but it can still be found in the Basilica today: it is one of the most precious relics of the city. Until the 19th century, La Plata was the judicial and cultural centre of the region, it was proclaimed provisional capital of the newly independent Alto Peru in July 1826. On July 12, 1839, President José Miguel de Velasco proclaimed a law naming the city as the capital of Bolivia, renaming it in honor of the revolutionary leader Antonio José de Sucre.
After the economic decline of Potosí and its silver industry, Sucre lost the Bolivian seat of government when it was moved to La Paz in 1898. Many argue Sucre was the location of the beginning of the Latin American independence movement against Spain; the first "Grito Libertario" in any Western Hemisphere Spanish colony is said to have taken place in Sucre in 1809. From that point of view, Bolivia was the last Spanish imperial territory in South America to gain its independence, in 1825. In 1991 Sucre became a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city attracts thousands of tourists every year due to its well-preserved downtown with buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries. Nestled at the foot of the twin hills of Churuquella and Sika Sika, Sucre is the gateway to numerous small villages that date from the colonial era, the most well-known of, Tarabuco, home of the colorful "Pujllay" festival held each March. Most of these villagers are members of one of the indigenous ethnicities. Many dress in clothing distinctive to their respective villages.
Sucre is the capital of Chuquisaca department and one of the capitals of Bolivia, where the Supreme Court is located. The government of the City of Sucre is divided into legislative branches; the Mayor of Sucre is the head of the city government, elected for a term of five years by general election. The legislative branch consists of the Municipal Council, which elects a President, Vice President and Secretary from a group of eleven members; the current mayor of Sucre is Iván Arciénega, who defeated former mayor Jaime Barrón in elections held on March 30, 2015. The current Municipal Council was elected in the regional election of April 4, 2010; the election was by proportional representation with the Pact of Social Integration and the Movement Towards Socialism gaining the largest and second largest shares of the vote. The council elected in April 2010 and seated in late December 2010 is as follows: Sucre is divided into eight numbered districts: the first five of these are urban districts, while Districts 6, 7, 8 are rural districts.
Each is administered by a Sub-Mayor, appointed by the Mayor of Sucre. The rural districts include numerous rural communities outside the urban area. Sucre is served by Alcantari Airport, situated 30 km to the South. Sucre has a subtropical highland climate, with mild temperatures year round; the highest record temperature was 34.7 °C while the lowest record temperature was −6 °C Each of the well known names represent a specific era of the city's history. Charcas was the indigenous name for the place upon. La Plata was the name given to the emerging Hispanic city of honor; the name Chuquisaca was bestowed upon the city during the independence era. Sucre honors the great marshal of the Battle of Antonio José de Sucre. "La Ciudad Blanca" is a nickname, bestowed upon the city because many of the colonial style houses and structures are painted white. Sucre has the most important sport facilities in Bolivia, the most practiced sport in the city is football. Sucre has the second-biggest football and Olympic stadium in the Estadio Patria.
It is the home ground of Sucre's first-division team in the Bolivian professional league, Universitario de Sucre, t
Iskanwaya is a pre-Columbian sacred site, situated on a mountain ridge above the Llica River in Bolivia, 325 km north of La Paz. In its extension and its age Iskanwaya surpasses Machu Picchu in Peru, but it is less well preserved; the sacred site of Iskanwaya is found on the edge of the Cordillera Real, 250 m above the Llica River and 1,672 meters above sea level. The site is located near a small town in the Muñecas Province; the city of Iskanwaya was built on two platforms on an area of 0.6 square kilometers and was notable for its running water. More than one hundred large buildings of an average of thirteen rooms have survived. Mollo streets ran in east-west direction, their houses were rectangular and grouped around patios, they were built with blocks of slate stone, joined with mud trench mortars. Agriculture patterns included irrigation. UN-archaeologist Alvaro R. Fernholz Jemio suggests that in its time the site was inhabited by 2,500 to 3.000 people The Iskanwaya ruins go back to the Mollo culture which predated the Inca civilization and whose people built the constructions as early as 800 BC or in their prime cultural period from 1145 to 1425.
Gate of the Sun
The Gate of the Sun is a megalithic solid stone arch or gateway constructed by the ancient Tiwanaku culture of Bolivia. It is located near Lake Titicaca at about 12,549.2 ft above sea level near Bolivia. The object is 9.8 ft tall and 13 ft wide, is constructed from a single piece of stone. The weight is estimated to be 10 tons; when rediscovered by European explorers in the mid-19th century, the megalith was lying horizontally and had a large crack through it. It presently stands in the location where it was found, although it is believed that this is not its original site, which remains uncertain; some elements of Tiwanaku iconography spread throughout parts of Bolivia. Although there have been various modern interpretations of the mysterious inscriptions found on the object, the carvings that decorate the gate are believed to possess astronomical and/or astrological significance and may have served a calendrical purpose; the lintel is carved with 48 squares surrounding a central figure. Each square represents a character in the form of winged effigy.
There are 16 with condors' heads. All look to the central motif: the figure of a man with his head surrounded by 24 linear rays, which may represent rays of the sun; the styled staffs held by the figure symbolize thunder and lightning. Some historians and archaeologists believe that the central figure represents the “Sun God” and others have linked it with the Inca god Viracocha. Media related to Gate of the Sun at Wikimedia Commons
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America. They are distinguished from the related Tupí by their use of the Guaraní language; the traditional range of the Guaraní people is in present-day Paraguay between the Uruguay River and lower Paraguay River, the Misiones Province of Argentina, southern Brazil once as far north as Rio de Janeiro, parts of Uruguay and Bolivia. Although their demographic dominance of the region has been reduced by European colonisation and the commensurate rise of mestizos, there are contemporary Guaraní populations in these areas. Most notably, the Guaraní language, still spoken across traditional Guaraní homelands, is one of the two official languages in Paraguay, the other one being Spanish; the language was once looked down upon by the upper and middle classes, but it is now regarded with pride and serves as a symbol of national distinctiveness. The Paraguayan population learns Guaraní both informally from social interaction and formally in public schools.
In modern Spanish, Guaraní is applied to refer to any Paraguayan national in the same way that the French are sometimes called Gauls. Their language is similar to Spanish, but there still are many small differences; the history and meaning of the name Guaraní are subject to dispute. Before they encountered Europeans, the Guaraní referred to themselves as Abá, meaning "men" or "people"; the term Guaraní was applied by early Jesuit missionaries to refer to natives who had accepted conversion to the Christian religion. Cayua is translated as "the ones from the jungle". While the term Cayua is sometimes still used to refer to settlements of indigenous peoples who have not well integrated into the dominant society, the modern usage of the name Guaraní is extended to include all people of native origin regardless of societal status. Barbara Ganson writes that the name Guaraní was given by the Spanish as it means "warrior" in the Tupi-Guaraní dialect spoken there. Guarinĩ is attested in 12th-century Old Tupi, by Jesuit sources, as "war, warrior, to wage war, warlord".
Early Guaraní villages consisted of communal houses for 10 to 15 families. Communities were united by common interest and language, tended to form tribal groups by dialect, it is estimated that the Guaraní numbered some 400,000 people when they were first encountered by Europeans. At that time, they were sedentary and agricultural, subsisting on manioc, wild game, honey. Little is known about early Guaraní society and beliefs, they practiced a form of animistic pantheism, much of which has survived in the form of folklore and numerous myths. According to the Jesuit missionary Martin Dobrizhoffer, they practiced cannibalism at one point as a funerary ritual, but disposed of the dead in large jars placed inverted on the ground. Guaraní mythology is still widespread in rural Paraguay. Much Guaraní myth and legend was compiled by the Universidad Nacional de Misiones in northern Argentina and published as Myths and Legends: A journey around the Guarani lands, Anthology in 1870. Guaraní myth and legend can be divided into the following broad categories: Cosmogonic and eschatological myths.
After him comes a pantheon of gods, chief among them Yporú, more known as Tupã. Jasy is another "good" deity who rules the night while Aña is a malign deity who dwells at the bottom of the Iguazu River. Animistic mythology, animals and minerals being animated and capable of becoming anthropomorphic beings or in reverse the transmuted souls of people, either born or unborn, who have become animals and minerals; the course of such anthropomorphism appears dictated by the pantheon of god-like deities because of their virtues or vices. Such animistic legends include that of the Lobizón, a werewolf type being, the Mainumby or hummingbird who transports good spirits that are resident in flowers back to Tupá "so he can cherish them". Isondú or glowworms are the reincarnated spirits of certain people. Ka'a Jarýi was a woman. Pombero are elf like spirits who dwell in the forest and must be appeased, they have never been human. Principal among these is Jasy Jatere who has never been human and like all Pombero is from a different realm.
His characteristics are vague and uncertain, his powers badly defined as is the place where he resides. He is described in one legend as a "handsome, thickly bearded, blond dwarf", naked and lives in tree trunks. Other versions say he loves honey, his feet are backwards, he is an "ugly, old man". Most legends agree that he snatches children and "licks them", wrapping them in climbing plants or drowning them in rivers. To appease him gifts, such as honey, are left in places in the forest associated with him. Another Pombero is Kuarahy Jára, their protector, he is known for abducting young boys who are alone and trying to catch birds. If necessary he can take the form of a tree or a hyacinth. Kurupi is a phallic mythological figure who will copulate with young women, he has scaly skin like a lizard, hypnotic eyes, an enormous penis. The sacred Iguazu Falls hold special significance for the Guaraní and are the inspiration for numerous myths and legends, they reveal the sound of ancient battles at certain times, they are the place where I-Yara—a malign Pomboro spirit—abducted