Mount Ossa (Tasmania)
Mount Ossa is a mountain of the Pelion Range located in the Central Highlands region of Tasmania, Australia. With an elevation of 1,617 metres above sea level, Mount Ossa is the highest peak in Tasmania; the mountain lies in the heart of Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park and is composed of Jurassic dolerite.. The Mount Ossa highland area spans the boundary between the Big River and Northern Tasmanian Aboriginal nations and may have been used as an access route. Several artifacts and campsites containing various stone types and tools have been discovered around Pelion to the north, Lake St Clair to the south, it was first surveyed by Charles Gould in the 1860s and named after Mount Ossa in Greece following the theme of classical Greek names set by George Frankland, an early Tasmanian surveyor. However, its location was marked as on what is now called Mount Nereus, surveyors alternatively referred to is at Parsons Hood, Mount Dundas, Mount Blackhouse or numbered it. For years it was thought that Cradle Mountain was the highest in Tasmania, with inexact equipment stymying attempts to examine the area.
It was confirmed to be the highest mountain in Tasmania after an aerial survey in 1954. In 1892 the Mole Creek and Zeehan Mineral Prospecting and Exploration Company Ltd discovered Permian coal at the base of Mt Ossa and surrounding areas, excavating several tunnels; the seams were found to be of low quality and the tunnels were not developed, although copper mining was present in the surrounding area. A 1920s attempt to prospect for oil failed. Mining and surveying activities led to the development of the area. Stewards Track was created from the east, was extended and renamed the Innes Track. Old Pelion Hut formed the base of mining operations, still stands today as a hut on the Overland Track and start point for bushwalkers climbing Mount Ossa. Trappers worked in the area from the 1860s until the collapse of the fur trade in the 1950s, although hunting in the park was declared illegal after 1927, they established huts, some of which are still in use, burned the land to encourage fresh growth and game.
In the 1910s Gustav and Kate Weindorfer began campaigning for the area from Cradle Mountain to Lake St Clair, including Mount Ossa, to be a national park. It was declared a scenic reserve in 1922, a wildlife reserve in 1927 and its current designation of national park from 1947. During this transition former trappers began building huts and guiding bushwalkers, including Paddy Hartnett and Bob Quaile. Since Mount Ossa has become a popular bushwalking destination with an established route to the top. In 1991 30% of Overland Track walkers detoured up the mountain. Mount Ossa can be climbed via a well worn track from Pelion Gap to the summit, it can be approached either via the Arm River Track. Conditions can be severe in winter, with powerful winds and freezing temperatures. A short scramble is required to ascend the summit. List of highest mountains of Tasmania List of Ultras of Oceania State8 Tasmania Mount Ossa
Castle Crag (Tasmania)
The Castle Crag known as the Falling Mountain, is a mountain in the Central Highlands region of Tasmania, Australia. The mountain is part of the Du Cane Range and is situated within the Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park; the mountain is a major feature of the national park and is a popular venue with bush walkers and mountain climbers. With an elevation of 1,482 metres above sea level, the mountain is the twentieth highest mountain in Tasmania. List of highest mountains of Tasmania Parks Tasmania
Central Highlands (Tasmania)
The Central Highlands is a region in Tasmania, Australia where geographical and administrative boundaries coincide. It is known as The Lake Country of Tasmania; the mountains of Central Tasmania are found in four different conservation reserves: Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park - in the western part Walls of Jerusalem National Park - in the central part Central Plateau Conservation Area in the eastern part The Central Highlands Council incorporates most of the highland region. Early power developments by Hydro Tasmania in the Central Highlands included the communities of workers who were employed in construction. Significant numbers of the communities were migrants to Australia The Tarraleah community was one established in 1934, a significant early community for the Upper Derwent Power Development; the part of Tarraleah known as Ticklebelly Flat - the area of the married quarters of the community - has become a part of Hydro history, being utilised in the most comprehensive history of the Hydro to date, Heather Fenton's book Ticklebelly Tales Due to the large number of waterbodies in the Central Highlands, fishing is a long-standing popular activity in the area.
The combined councils of the Central Highlands and the two Midlands councils - the southern and the northern have had for a decade a web based portal which combines the areas to a name of Tasmanian heartland. Many lakes are found in the Central Highlands - giving the region the tourist feature of the'Lakes Region'. Land degradation on the Central Plateau, Tasmania: the legacy of 170 years of exploitation Hobart, Tas.: Earth Science Section and Wildlife Service, Dept. of Environment and Land Management. ISBN 0-7246-1930-5 Occasional paper. Jetson, Tim; the roof of Tasmania: a history of the Central Plateau Launceston, Tas.: Pelion Press. ISBN 0-7316-7214-3 McKenny, Helen. A guide to vegetation management issues in the Central Plateau region, Tasmania Hobart, Tas. Dept. of Primary Industries and Environment, ISBN 0-7246-6238-3
River Derwent (Tasmania)
The Derwent River is a river located in Tasmania, Australia. It is known by the palawa kani name timtumili minanya; the river rises in the state's Central Highlands at Lake St Clair, descends more than 700 metres over a distance of more than 200 kilometres, flowing through Hobart, the state's capital city, before emptying into Storm Bay and flowing into the Tasman Sea. The banks of the Derwent occupied by Tasmanian Aborigines. European settlers farmed the area and during the 20th century many dams were built on its tributaries for the generation of hydro-electricity. Agriculture, hydropower generation and fish hatcheries dominate catchment land use; the Derwent is an important source of water for irrigation and water supply. Most of Hobart's water supply is taken from the lower Derwent River. Nearly 40% of Tasmania's population lives around the estuary's margins and the Derwent is used for recreation, recreational fishing, marine transportation and industry, it was named after the River Derwent, Cumbria, by British Commodore John Hayes who explored it in 1793.
The name is Brythonic Celtic for "valley thick with oaks". John Hayes placed the name "River Derwent" only in the upper part of the river. Matthew Flinders placed the name "Derwent River" on all of the river; the Derwent River valley was inhabited by the Mouheneener people for at least 8,000 years before British settlement. Evidence of their occupation is found in many middens along the banks of the river. In 1793, John Hayes named it after the River Derwent, which runs past his birthplace of Bridekirk, Cumberland; when first explored by Europeans, the lower parts of the valley were clad in thick she-oak forests, remnants of which remain in various parts of the lower foreshore. There was a thriving whaling industry until the 1840s when the industry declined due to over-exploitation. Formed by the confluence of the Narcissus and Cuvier rivers within Lake St Clair, the Derwent flows southeast over a distance of 187 kilometres to New Norfolk and the estuary portion extends a further 52 kilometres out to the Tasman Sea.
Flows average in range from 50 to 140 cubic metres per second and the mean annual flow is 90 cubic metres per second. The large estuary forms the Port of the City of Hobart – claimed to be the deepest sheltered harbour in the Southern Hemisphere; the largest vessel to travel the Derwent is the 113,000-tonne, 61-metre high, ocean liner Diamond Princess, which made her first visit in January 2006. At points in its lower reaches the river is nearly 3 kilometres wide, as such is the widest river in Tasmania; until the construction of several hydro-electric dams between 1934 and 1968, the river was prone to flooding. Now there are more than twenty dams and reservoirs used for the generation of hydro-electricity on the Derwent and its tributaries, including the Clyde, Jordan, Ouse and Styx rivers. Seven lakes have been formed by damming the Derwent and the Nive rivers for hydroelectric purposes and include the Meadowbank, Repulse, Wayatinah and King William lakes or lagoons; the Upper Derwent is affected by agricultural run-off from land clearing and forestry.
The Lower Derwent suffers from high levels of heavy metal contamination in sediments. The Tasmanian Government-backed Derwent Estuary Program has commented that the levels of mercury, lead and cadmium in the river exceed national guidelines. In 2015 the program recommended against consuming shellfish and cautioned against consuming fish in general. Nutrient levels in the Derwent between 2010 and 2015 increased in the upper estuary where there had been algal blooms. A large proportion of the heavy metal contamination has come from major industries that discharge into the river including the former Electrolytic Zinc and now Nyrstar smelter at Lutana established in 1916, a paper mill at Boyer which opened in 1941; the Derwent adjoins or flows through the Pittwater–Orielton Lagoon, Interlaken Lakeside Reserve and Goulds Lagoon, all wetlands of significance protected under the Ramsar Convention. In recent years, southern right whales started making appearance in the river during months in winter and spring when their migration takes place.
Some females started using calm waters of the river as a safe ground for giving birth to their calves and would stay over following weeks after disappearance of 200 years due to being wiped out by intense whaling activities. In the winter months of 2014, humpback whales and a minke whale have been recorded feeding in the Derwent River for the first time since the whaling days of the 1800s. Several bridges connect the western shore to the eastern shore of Hobart – in the greater Hobart area, these include the five lane Tasman Bridge, near the CBD, just north of the port; until 1964 the Derwent was crossed by the unique Hobart Bridge, a floating concrete structure just upstream from where the Tasman Bridge now stands. Travelling further north from the Bridgewater crossing, the next crossing point is New Norfolk Bridge north of the point where the Derwent reverts from seawater to fresh water, Bushy Park, Upper Meadowbank Lake, Lake Repulse Road and the most northerly crossing is at Derwent Bridge, before the river reaches its source of Lake St Clair.
At the Derwent Brid
Mount Olympus (Tasmania)
Mount Olympus is a mountain in the Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park in Tasmania, Australia. It is the 24th highest mountain in Tasmania at 1,472 metres above sea level and is situated about 8 kilometres South-East of Mount Gould and about 4 kilometres west of Lake St. Clair. In 1835 George Frankland named it Mount Olympus. Mount Olympus was painted by William Charles Piguenit, it was purchased by the Art Gallery of New South Wales in 1875 and was the Gallery's first oil painting acquisition, "the first Australian work purchased by public subscription", the first work acquired by the gallery of an Australian-born artist. Another of Piguenit's Olympus paintings is held by the National Library of Australia. Nothofagus gunnii was first collected by Ronald Campbell Gunn in 1847 from Olympus, it is "Australia's only cold climate winter-deciduous tree", is found in areas above 800 metres with rainfall of more than 1800mm, is one of the plants that indicates Gondwana. List of highest mountains of Tasmania List of mountains in Australia
Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of 225,000, it is the least populated Australian state capital city, second smallest if territories are taken into account. Founded in 1804 as a British penal colony, Hobart known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. Prior to British settlement, the Hobart area had been occupied for as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe; the descendants of these Aboriginal Tasmanians refer to themselves as'Palawa'. Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has expanded from the mouth of Sullivans Cove in a north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater. Penal transportation ended in the 1850s, after which the city experienced periods of growth and decline.
The early 20th century saw an economic boom on the back of mining and other primary industries, the loss of men who served in the world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration. Despite the rise in migration from Asia and other non-English speaking parts of the world, Hobart's population remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic, has the highest percentage of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities. In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462; the city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world, its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre kunanyi/Mount Wellington, much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land. It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.
The metropolitan area is referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city. The first European settlement began in 1803 as a military camp at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804, along with the military and convicts from the abandoned Port Phillip settlement, the camp at Risdon Cove was moved by Captain David Collins to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivans Cove; the city known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the British secretary of state for war and the colonies. The area's indigenous inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe. Violent conflict with the European settlers, the effects of diseases brought by them reduced the aboriginal population, replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition.
He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:... The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared. I was chiefly built or building. Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, the whole of Tasmania 36,505; the Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Ocean whaling and sealing trades. The settlement grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding. Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, was renamed Hobart from the beginning of 1881. Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent River in the state's south-east. Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian mudstone. Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent River. Both of these areas rest on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the south, in the Derwent estuary.
South of the Derwent estuary lies the Tasman Peninsula. The Eastern Shore extends from the Derwent valley area in a southerly direction hugging the Meehan Range in the east before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive; these flatter areas of the eastern shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Range into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdale. Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent estuary itself. Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate; the highest temperature recorded was 41.8 °C on 4 January 2013 and the lowest was −2.8 °C on 25 June 1972 and 11 July 1981. Annually, Hobart receives 40.8 clear days. Compared to other major Australian cities, Hobart has the fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day. However, during the summer it has the most