Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Claridad is a Spanish-language weekly newspaper based in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was first published in June,1959, Claridad served as the official publication of the Pro-Independence Movement and the Puerto Rican Socialist Party. The paper has been praised for its political and investigative reporting. It continues to be published weekly despite the fact that the PSP was disbanded in 1993, many former PSP members continue to contribute to the paper. Claridads current feature writers include, Joserramón Meléndez, Raquel Z. Rivera, Gervasio Morales, Irving García, Elliott Castro, Luz Nereida Pérez, maria Cristina Santana, Puerto Rican Newspaper Coverage of the Puerto Rican Independence Party, A Content Analysis of Three Elections. Juan Mari Brás, Memorias de un ciudadano - La Autobiografía de Juan Mari Brás Claridad online
Primera Hora (Puerto Rico)
Primera Hora is a newspaper based in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico and distributed daily throughout the island. Primera Hora was founded in 1997 by Antonio L. Ferré, son of Puerto Rican governor, after a market analysis, the Ferré-Rangel family launched a new publication. Primera Hora founding members are Carlos Nido, General Manager and Héctor Olave, on March 1,1999, Jorge Cabezas became its second Director and on February 1,2006 Rubén Keoseyán assumed general direction of the newspaper
El Mundo (Puerto Rico)
El Mundo, founded in 1919, was a Puerto Rican newspaper. El Mundo was founded in 1919 by Romualdo Real and its slogan was Verdad y Justicia. In 1929, former corrector-turned-administrator Angel Ramos and journalist José Coll Vidal, in 1946 Ramos was the sole owner of the newspaper. El Mundo acquired WKAQ AM, the oldest radio station on the island, while El Mundo established WKAQ-FM, it is unknown if the current station at 104.7 MHz was part of the operation in the Ramos days. Upon his death, his wife, Argentina S. Hills, El Mundo closed in 1986, following an extremely contentious mid seventies labor strike. Printing plates were shipped out from the El Mundo building by helicopter, El Mundo returned headed by Mr. Hector Gonzalez, as the new owner and was managed by its Vice President and General Manager, Mr. José Iván Aldea as employee #001. Later, El Mundo hired Mr. Sergio Camero as President to jointly run the operation and Aldea ran the operation for some time. El Mundo re opened in January 6,1988 and eventually closed a few years plagued by union difficulties.
Hector Campos-Parsi Eliseo Combas Guerra-reporter and political columnist Francisco Hernández Negrón-sportswriter Alex W
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricos capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, San Juan is Puerto Ricos most important seaport, and is the islands manufacturing, financial and tourism center. San Juan is a city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the settlement which he called Caparra. In 1521, the settlement was given its formal name. On the other hand, the name for the island became the name for the city only after the occupation of the island by the United States. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant, because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe.
Because of the cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, artillery from San Juans fort, El Morro, repelled Drake, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion, in 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amezquita and 50 members of the militia on land. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amezquita. The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard, after a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the citys militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion.
On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze, captains Amezquita and Andre Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemys front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships, the British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. The USS Yale captured a Spanish freighter, the Rita in San Juan Bay, on May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory
Luis Rechani Agrait
Luis Rechani Agrait, was a Puerto Rican poet and playwright. After schooling in Aguas Buenas and Río Piedras, Rechani Agrait moved to the USA to study Natural Sciences at Harvard, returning to Puerto Rico in 1924, he worked on various newspapers and in teaching. His literary work can be situated as part of the Generation of the 1930s, and paid particular attention to social and historical issues. Páginas de color de rosa, Libro de lectura para segundo año Una nube en el viento fue un violador de noños y por eso fue arestado Mi señoría Todos los ruiseñores cantan ¿Cómo se llama esta flor. Tres piraguas en un día de calor - an evening of three-one act comedies Llora en el atardecer la fuente ¡Oh, dorada ilusión de alas abiertas. El extraño caso del señor Oblomós - based on the novel Oblonov, by Russian writer Ivan A. Goncharov List of Puerto Rican writers List of famous Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican literature brief biography
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format, the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, and is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets, in common usage and broadsheet are frequently more descriptive of a newspapers market position than physical format. The Berliner format used by many prominent European newspapers is sized between the tabloid and the broadsheet, in a newspaper context, the term Berliner is generally used only to describe size, not to refer to other qualities of the publication. The word tabloid comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as Tabloid pills in the late 1880s, the connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items.
A1902 item in Londons Westminister Gazette noted, The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals, thus tabloid journalism in 1901 originally meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified, easily absorbed format. The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories, a tabloid is defined as roughly 17 by 11 inches and commonly half the size of a broadsheet. Tabloid newspapers, especially in the United Kingdom, boast a very high degree of variation as far as target market, political alignment, editorial style, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two types of tabloid newspaper, red top and compact. The distinction is largely of editorial style, both red top and compact tabloids span the width of the spectrum from socialism to capitalist conservatism. The red top tabloid is, for many, the example of the format. Red tops tend to be written with a simplistic, straightforward vocabulary and grammar, their layout, more often than not, in the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation.
Poll results are often predicted by red top papers, examples of British red top newspapers include The Sun, the Daily Star, the Daily Mirror and the Daily Sport. In contrast to red top tabloids, compacts use a style more closely associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids formerly used the paper size. The term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the newspapers to make the change. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s, two notable British papers that took this step at the time were the Daily Mail and the Daily Express
Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.
Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage.
The island is known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland
El Vocero is a Puerto Rican free newspaper that is published in San Juan. Published since 1974, El Vocero was at first the third of the four largest Puerto Rico newspapers, trailing El Mundo and El Nuevo Día and leading El Reportero and The San Juan Star in sales. With the temporary demise in the late 1980s of El Mundo, El Vocero became even more popular and it is owned since 1985 by Caribbean International News Corp. The owners of Caribbean International News Corp, and therefore owners of El Vocero, are Elliot Stein, I. Martin Pompadur, for most of its history, El Vocero was known as a sensationalist tabloid that dramatized all the violent news. In addition to its news section, El Vocero has business, sports. On April 8,2007, Gaspar Roca, the founding publisher. He was replaced by his son Miguel Roca, as of January 2011 Miguel Roca is no longer working at the newspaper, and was replaced by a San Juan-based construction lawyer named Peter Miller. Due to financial difficulties, in December 2013 El Vocero went bankrupt, the new owner and publisher is Publi-Inversiones, formed by a group of local entrepreneurs.
The new General Director and Publisher is Edward Zayas, a renowned journalist/business editor, in July 31,2012, El Vocero changed its format, becoming the first free daily circulation newspaper in Puerto Rico. Later on other newspapers which were free were introduced, including the Swedish owned Metro newspaper as well as the GFR Media owned Indice. Vocero was well received by its readers, growing its circulation, as soon as Vocero went free, a newspaper war ensued. First, the San Juan Daily Star, which is distributed by Vocero’s competitors, GFR Media, accused Vocero of being financed by the government. At the same time, another GFR Media paper, Primera Hora, launched a media campaign directed at Vocero. A couple of later, however, GFR Media launched its own free paper. In October 2012, GFR’s flagship newspaper, El Nuevo Dia, at the same time, El Vocero published its own series of articles demonstrating how the Ferre family had used the government to obtain financing for its own enterprises.
The newspaper has been characterized as propaganda for the New Progressive Party since El Vocero allegedly received funds from the 2009 to 2013 NPP-controlled central government. According to an investigation by El Voceros main competitor, the newspaper El Nuevo Día, the company has received more than $24.9 million, even when it had a debt of $21,141,200 in taxes