Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
San Stefano (neighborhood)
San Stefano is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. The area was known for a landmark hotel-casino, demolished in the late 1990s; that hotel was replaced by the San Stefano Grand Plaza, a hotel-apartment-shopping mall complex that includes a Four Seasons luxury hotel, opened in 2007 and apartments, housed in the tallest building in Alexandria. Neighborhoods in Alexandria
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, held Roman citizenship; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he lived anywhere other than Alexandria, he died there around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman nomen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68; the astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The ninth-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".
Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena.
Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria; the Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe, he estimated the Sun was at an average dis
Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus in around 64 BC, his family had been involved in politics since at least the reign of Mithridates V. Strabo was related to Dorylaeus on his mother's side. Several other family members, including his paternal grandfather had served Mithridates VI during the Mithridatic Wars; as the war drew to a close, Strabo's grandfather had turned several Pontic fortresses over to the Romans. Strabo wrote that "great promises were made in exchange for these services", as Persian culture endured in Amasia after Mithridates and Tigranes were defeated, scholars have speculated about how the family's support for Rome might have affected their position in the local community, whether they might have been granted Roman citizenship as a reward. Strabo's life was characterized by extensive travels, he journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome.
Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, stayed there and writing, until at least 31 BC. In 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae, after which point there is little record of his proceedings until AD 17, it is not known when Strabo's Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around AD 17 or 18; the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD 23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, said to have died "just recently". He worked on the Geography for many years and revised it not always consistently, it is an encyclopaedical chronicle and consists of political, social, geographic description of whole Europe: British Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Germania, The Alps, Greece.
The Geography is the only extant work providing information about both Greek and Roman peoples and countries during the reign of Augustus. On the presumption that "recently" means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died, he was influenced by Homer and Aristotle. The first of Strabo's major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is nearly lost. Meant to cover the history of the known world from the conquest of Greece by the Romans, Strabo quotes it himself and other classical authors mention that it existed, although the only surviving document is a fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his early life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels, his first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, who had taught the sons of the same Roman general who had taken over Pontus. Aristodemus was the head of two schools of rhetoric and grammar, one in Nysa and one in Rhodes, the former of the two cities possessing a distinct intellectual curiosity of Homeric literature and the interpretation of epics.
Strabo was an admirer of Homer's poetry a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, a respected tutor in Augustus's court. Despite Xenarchus's Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, a fact significant, considering Strabo's future contributions to the field; the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite. Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items: his philosophy, his knowledge, his contacts. Unlike the Aristotelian Xenarchus and Tyrannion who preceded him in teaching Strabo, Athenodorus was Stoic in mindset certainly the source of Strabo's diversion from the philosophy of his former mentors.
Moreover, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era. Although the Geographica was utilized in its contemporary antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire, it first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469. The first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice. Isaac Casaubon, classical scholar and editor of Greek texts, provided the first critical edition in 1587. Although Strabo cited the antique Greek astronomers Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, acknowledging their astronomical and mathematical efforts towards geography, he claimed that
Thomas Tegg was a British bookseller and publisher. Tegg was the son of a grocer, born at Wimbledon, Surrey, on 4 March 1776, was left an orphan at the age of five, he was sent to a boarding school at Galashiels in Selkirkshire. In 1785 he was bound apprentice to a bookseller at Dalkeith, he ran away, sold chapbooks at Berwick, spent time at Newcastle where he met the wood engraver Thomas Bewick. In Sheffield he obtained employment from Joseph Gales, the proprietor of the Sheffield Register, encountered Tom Paine and Charles Dibdin. Further wanderings took him to Ireland and Wales, after some years at King's Lynn in Norfolk, he moved to London in 1796. In London he obtained an engagement with William Lane, the proprietor of the Minerva Library, at 53 Leadenhall Street, he subsequently worked for John and Arthur Arch, the Quaker booksellers of Gracechurch Street, where he stayed until he began business on his own account. Tegg took a shop in partnership with Joseph Dalton Dewick in Aldersgate Street.
On 20 April 1800 he married, opened a shop in St. John Street, but lost money through the bad faith of a friend, he took out a country auction licence to try his fortune in the provinces. He started with a stock of shilling some thousands of the Monthly Visitor. With his wife acting as clerk, he travelled and bought up duplicates in private libraries, clearing his debts. Returning to London in 1805, he opened a shop at 111 Cheapside, he printed a series of pamphlets. They proved successful, he had up to two hundred titles, many of which sold four thousand copies. By 1840 he had published four thousand works on his own account; the Whole Life of Nelson, which he brought out just after the battle of Trafalgar in 1805, sold fifty thousand copies at 6d. and the Life of Mary Anne Clarke, thirteen thousand copies at 7s. 5d. Each. In 1824 he purchased the copyright of William Hone's Everyday Book and Table Book, republishing it in weekly parts, made a large profit, he gave Hone £500 to write The Year Book, which proved less successful.
When his own publications began paying well he gave up auctions, which he had continued nightly at 111 Cheapside. In 1824 he made his final move, to 73 Cheapside. In 1825 he started the London Encyclopaedia, he bought remainders on a large scale. He was mentioned as a populariser of literature in Thomas Carlyle's petition on the copyright bill in April 1839. In 1835, being a common councilman of the ward of Cheap, he was nominated an alderman, but was not elected. In 1836 he was chosen Sheriff of London, he died on 21 April 1845, was buried at Wimbledon. He was believed to have been the original of Timothy Twigg in Thomas Hood's 1834 novel Tylney Hall, his first short book, The Complete Confectioner, reached a second edition. Tegg was author of: Memoirs of Sir F. Burdett, 1804. Tegg's Prime Song Book, bang up to the mark, 1810; the Rise and Termination of the O. P. War at Covent Garden, in Poetic Epistles, 1810. Chronology, or the Historical Companion: a register of events from the earliest period to the present time, 1811.
Book of Utility or Repository of useful Information, connected with the Moral and Physical Condition of Man, 1822. Remarks on the Speech of Serjeant Talfourd on the Laws relating to Copyright, 1837. Handbook for Emigrants, containing Information on Domestic, Mechanical and other subjects, 1839. Extension of Copyright proposed by Serjeant Talfourd, 1840. Treasury of Wit and Anecdote, 1842. A Present to an Apprentice, 2nd edition 1848, he edited the twelve numbers of The Magazine of Knowledge and Amusement, 1843–4. Tegg left three sons, including Thomas Tegg, a bookseller, who died on 15 September 1871 and William, who continued the business. "Tegg, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. A London Encyclopaedia, or Universal Dictionary of Science, Art and Practical Mechanics, London: Thomas Tegg, 1829, OCLC 3392197v.2 America to Arsenal, v.3 Arsenic to Belswagger, v.4 Benedict to Cadiz, v.5 Caffraria to Clepsydra, v.6 Clergy to Customs, v.7 Cutlery to Elasticity, v.8 Elasticity to Ezra, v.9 F to Garter, v.10 Gas to Halley, v.11 Halo to Indulgence, v.12 Ink to Lindsey, v.13 Line to Medici, v.14 Medicine to Mithridates, v.15 Mithridates to Nox, v.16 Nubia to Perambulator, v.17 Perception to Post, v.18 Potash to Rome v.19 Rome to Seduction, v.20 Seduction to Sphere A London Encyclopaedia...
@Google Books Vol.2 America to Arsenal, Vol.3 Arsenic to Bell, Vol.4 Benedict to Cadiz, Vol.5 Caffraria to Clepsydra, Vol.7 Cutlery to Elasticity, Vol.8 Elasticity to Ezra, Vol.9 F to Garter, Vol.11 Halo to Indulgence, Vol.12 Infanticide to Lindus, Vol.14 Medicine to Mithradates, Vol.15 Mithradates to Nox, Vol.16 Nubia to Perambulator, Vol.17 Perception to Post, Vol.18 Potash to Rome, Vol.19 Rome to Seduction, Vol.20 Seduction to Sphere, Vol.21 Spheroid to Tewkesbury, Vol.22 Thales to Zypaeus Vol.2 America to Arsenal, Vol.3 Arsenic to Bell, Vol.4 Benedict to Cadiz, Vol.5 Caffraria to Clepsydra, Vol.6 Clergy to Customs, Vol.7 Cutlery to Elasticity, Vol.8 Elasticity to Ezra, Vol.9 F to Garter, Vol.10 Gas to Halley, Vol.12 Ink to Lindsey, Vol.14 Medicine to Mithradates, Vol.15 Mithradates to Nox, Vol.17 Perception to Post, Vol.18 Potash to Rome Works by Thomas Tegg at Open Library Ian Maxted, "Thomas Tegg", The London Book Trades 1775-1800: a preliminary checklist of members, Exeter Working Paper
Tetrabiblos'four books' known in Greek as Apotelesmatiká "Effects", in Latin as Quadripartitum "Four Parts", is a text on the philosophy and practice of astrology, written in the 2nd century AD by the Alexandrian scholar Claudius Ptolemy. Ptolemy's Almagest was an authoritative text on astronomy for more than a thousand years, the Tetrabiblos, its companion volume, was influential in astrology, the study of the effects of astronomical cycles on earthly matters, but whilst the Almagest as an astronomical authority was superseded by acceptance of the heliocentric model of the Solar System, the Tetrabiblos remains an important theoretical work for astrology. Besides outlining the techniques of astrological practice, Ptolemy's philosophical defense of the subject as a natural, beneficial study helped secure theological tolerance towards astrology in Western Europe during the Medieval era; this allowed Ptolemaic teachings on astrology to be included in universities during the Renaissance, which brought an associated impact upon medical studies and literary works.
The historical importance of the Tetrabiblos is seen by the many ancient and Renaissance commentaries that have been published about it. It was copied, commented on, paraphrased and translated into many languages; the latest critical Greek edition, by Wolfgang Hübner, was published by Teubner in 1998. Ptolemy is referred to as "the most famous of Greek astrologers" and "a pro-astrological authority of the highest magnitude"; as a source of reference his Tetrabiblos is described as having "enjoyed the authority of a Bible among the astrological writers of a thousand years or more". Compiled in Alexandria in the 2nd century, the work gathered commentaries about it from its first publication, it was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, is described as "by far the most influential source of medieval Islamic astrology". With the translation of the Tetrabiblos into Latin in the 12th century, "Ptolemaic astrology" became integrated by Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas into medieval Christian doctrine.
This theological acceptance encouraged the teaching of Ptolemaic astrology in universities linked to medical studies. This, in turn, brought attention in literary works, such as Dante's, which helped shape the moral and cosmological paradigm of Western Europe during the Medieval era; the Tetrabiblos was responsible for laying down the basic precepts of Renaissance astrology, was a necessary textbook in some of the finest universities of Renaissance and early modern Europe. Ptolemaic astrology continued to be taught at European universities into the 17th century, but by the mid-17th century the study struggled to maintain its position as one of the respected Liberal sciences. At this time, the contents of the Tetrabiblos started to draw stigmatisation as part of "a diabolical art of divination". One 17th-century critic was to write of its subject: "no superstitious art is more fitted to forward the aims of the devil than the astrology of Ptolemy"; the intellectual standing of astrology collapsed at the end of the 17th century, but the historical impact of the Tetrabiblos upon world culture continues to engage the attention of scholars of classical philosophy and the history of sciences in antiquity.
It maintains its position as an influential textbook for practitioners of modern western astrology, English translations of the text were published by astrologers in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The early 20th-century Humanist astrologer Dane Rudhyar reported that the astrology of his era "originated entirely in the work of the Alexandrian astrologer, Claudius Ptolemy". 21st-century astrological textbooks have described the Tetrabiblos as being "without a doubt, indispensable for any serious student of astrology". The work's enduring significance is attributed to several factors: Ptolemy's reputation as one of the greatest philosophers and scientists of the ancient world, the text's astrological importance as one of the oldest complete manuals on that subject, the unprecedented order and quality of Ptolemy's astrological explanations; the "outstanding mark of Ptolemy’s astrology" is described as "informed by the philosophical and scientific spirit of his age". Ptolemy wrote at a time when "physics" was defined by philosophy, his account of stellar effects was expressed in terms of the four Aristotelian qualities set against the philosophical notion of universal unity and cosmic harmony.
His objective was to explain the rationale of astrology in such terms, so the work is notable for its dismissal of astrological practices which lack a direct astronomical basis: As for the nonsense on which many waste their labour and of which not a plausible account can be given, this we shall dismiss in favour of the primary natural causes. The book opens with an explanation of the philosophical framework of astrology which aims to answer the arguments of critics who questioned the subject's validity. Of this, Lynn Thorndike, in his History of Magic and Experimental Science, writes: "Only the opponents of astrology appear to have remained ignorant of the Tetrabiblos, continuing to make criticisms of the art which do not apply to Ptolemy's presentation of it or, answered by him". Ptolemy was not responsible for originating the astrological techniques he presented in the Tetrabiblos, his contribution was to arrange the material systematically, in order to demonstrate that astrology is based upon logical, hierar
Mahatet El Raml
Mahatet El Raml is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. It features a large public square containing the main station of the Alexandria tramways, it is one of the main centers for tourism and entertainment in the city. One of the defining features of Mahatet El Raml is the specialization of vendors along certain streets; these vendors attract tourists, helped by the presence of several hotels, including international chains such as Sofitel and entertainment venues. The Alexandria Opera House and Alexandria Creativity Center, venues for traditional and non-traditional performing arts are located in the neighborhood. Neighborhoods in Alexandria