The Greater Cairo Area is the largest metropolitan area in Egypt and the largest urban area in Africa and the Middle East. It is the third largest urban area in the Muslim world after Jakarta and Karachi, the world's 16th largest metropolitan area, consisting of all cities in the Cairo Governorate as well as Giza, 6th of October, Sheikh Zayed City in the Giza Governorate and Shubra El Kheima and Obour in the Qalyubia Governorate, with a total population estimated at 20,500,000; the Greater Cairo Area and its surrounding region is classified as hot desert climate in Köppen-Geiger classification, as all of Egypt. Cairo and its surrounding region have similar day to day temperatures. 60% of all informal houses in Egypt are located in the Greater Cairo area. Cairo Giza Helwan Shubra El Kheima 6th of October Sheikh Zayed City Badr New Cairo New Heliopolis Obour El Shorouk Madinaty 10th of Ramadan List of radio stations in Greater Cairo Cairo Metro
A necropolis is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis meaning "city of the dead"; the term implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields. While the word is most used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis; the Giza Necropolis of ancient Egypt is one of the oldest and the most well-known necropolis in the world since the Great Pyramid of Giza was included in the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Aside from the pyramids, which were reserved for the burial of Pharaohs, the Egyptian necropoleis included mastabas, a typical royal tomb of the early Dynastic period. Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran; the oldest relief at Naqsh-i Rustam dates to c. 1000 BC.
Though it is damaged, it depicts a faint image of a man with unusual headgear and is thought to be Elamite in origin. The depiction is part of a larger image, most of, removed at the command of Bahram II. Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground; the tombs are known locally after the shape of the facades of the tombs. Sassanian kings added a series of rock reliefs below the tombs. In the Mycenean Greek period predating ancient Greece, burials could be performed inside the city. In Mycenae, for example, the royal tombs were located in a precinct within the city walls; this changed during the ancient Greek period when necropoleis lined the roads outside a city. There existed some degree of variation within the ancient Greek world however. Sparta was notable for continuing the practice of burial within the city; the Etruscans took the concept of a "city of the dead" quite literally. The typical tomb at the Banditaccia necropolis at Cerveteri consists of a tumulus which covers one or more rock-cut subterranean tombs.
These tombs were elaborately decorated like contemporary houses. The arrangement of the tumuli in a grid of streets gave it an appearance similar to the cities of the living; the art historian Nigel Spivey considers the name cemetery inadequate and argues that only the term necropolis can do justice to these sophisticated burial sites. Etruscan necropoleis were located on hills or slopes of hills. List of necropoleis Funerary art Catacombs
Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, the underworld. Ra was portrayed as shared characteristics with the sky god Horus. At times the two deities were merged as Ra-Horakhty, "Ra, Horus of the Two Horizons". In the New Kingdom, when the god Amun rose to prominence he was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra; the cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its center in Heliopolis and there was a formal burial ground for the sacrificed bulls north of the city. All forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra. In some accounts humans were created from Ra's tears and sweat, hence the Egyptians call themselves the "Cattle of Ra". In the myth of the Celestial Cow it is recounted how mankind plotted against Ra and how he sent his eye as the goddess Sekhmet to punish them.
To the ancient Egyptians, the sun represented light and growth. This made the sun deity important, as the sun was seen as the ruler of all that he created; the sun disk was seen as the eye of Ra. Ra was the father of Tefnut, whom he created by his own power. Shu was the god of the wind, Tefnut was the goddess of the rain. Sekhmet was created by the fire in Ra's eye, she was a violent lioness sent to slaughter the people who betrayed Ra, but when pacified she became the more benign goddess Hathor. Ra was thought to travel on the Atet, two solar barques called the Mandjet or morning boat and the Mesektet or evening boat; these boats took him on his journey through the literal underworld of Egypt. While Ra was on the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form; when Ra traveled in his sun boat, he was accompanied by various other deities including Sia and Hu, as well as Heka. Sometimes, members of the Ennead helped him on his journey, including Set, who overcame the serpent Apophis, Mehen, who defended against the monsters of the underworld.
When Ra was in the underworld, he would visit all of his various forms. Apophis, the god of chaos, was an enormous serpent who attempted to stop the sun boat's journey every night by consuming it or by stopping it in its tracks with a hypnotic stare. During the evening, the Egyptians believed that Ra set in the form of a ram; the night boat would carry him through the underworld and back towards the east in preparation for his rebirth. These myths of Ra represented the sun rising as the rebirth of the sun by the sky goddess Nut; when Ra was in the underworld, he merged with the god of the dead. Ra was worshipped as the creator god among some ancient Egyptians followers of his cult at Heliopolis, it was believed that Ra wept, from his tears came man. These cult-followers believed that Ra was self-created, while followers of Ptah believed that Ra was created by Ptah. In a passage of the Book of the Dead, Ra cuts himself, his blood transforms into two intellectual personifications: Hu, or authority, Sia, or mind.
Ra is accredited with the creation of the seasons, months and animals. Ra was represented in a variety of forms; the most usual form was a man with the head of a falcon and a solar disk on top and a coiled serpent around the disk. Other common forms are a man with the head of a ram. Ra was pictured as a full-bodied ram, phoenix, serpent, cat, or lion, among others, he was most featured with a ram's head in the Underworld. In this form, Ra is described as being the "ram of the west" or "ram in charge of his harem. In some literature, Ra is described as an aging king with golden flesh, silver bones, hair of lapis lazuli; the chief cultic center of Ra was Iunu "the Place of Pillars" known to the Ptolemaic Kingdom as Heliopolis and today located in the suburbs of Cairo. He was identified with the local sun god Atum; as Atum or Atum-Ra, he was reckoned the first being and the originator of the Ennead, consisting of Shu and Tefnut and Nut, Set and Nephthys. The holiday of "The Receiving of Ra" was celebrated on May 26 in the Gregorian calendar.
Ra's local cult began to grow from the Second Dynasty, establishing him as a sun deity. By the Fourth Dynasty, pharaohs were seen as Ra's manifestations on earth, referred to as "Sons of Ra", his worship increased massively in the Fifth Dynasty, when Ra became a state deity and pharaohs had specially aligned pyramids and sun temples built in his honor. The rulers of the Fifth Dynasty told their followers that they were sons of Ra himself and the wife of the high priest of Heliopolis; these pharaohs spent most of Egypt's money on sun temples. The first Pyramid Texts began to arise, giving Ra more and more significance in the journey of the pharaoh through the Duat. During the Middle Kingdom, Ra was affiliated and combined with other chief deities Amun and Osiris. At the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the worship of Ra had become grander; the walls of tombs were dedicated to detailed texts that depicted Ra's journey through the underworld. Ra was said to carry the prayers and blessings of the living with the souls of the dead on the sun boat.
The idea that Ra aged with the sun bec
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
The Holy Family consists of the Child Jesus, the Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph. Veneration of the Holy Family was formally begun in the 17th century by Saint François de Laval, the first bishop of New France, who founded a Confraternity; the Feast of the Holy Family is a liturgical celebration in the Catholic Church in honor of Jesus, his mother, his legal father, Saint Joseph, as a family. The primary purpose of this feast is to present the Holy Family as a model for Christian families; the Feast is held on the Sunday between New Year's Day. The Gospels speak little of the life of the Holy Family in the years before Jesus’ public ministry. Matthew and Luke narrate the episodes from this period of Christ's life, namely his circumcision and Presentation, the flight to Egypt, the return to Nazareth, the Finding in the Temple. Joseph and Mary were observant Jews, as Luke narrates that they brought Jesus with them on the annual pilgrimage to Jerusalem with other Jewish families; the Feast of the Holy Family is a liturgical celebration in the Catholic Church in honor of Jesus of Nazareth, his mother, the Blessed Virgin Mary, his foster father, Saint Joseph, as a family.
The primary purpose of this feast is to present the Holy Family as a model for Christian families. Since the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar, the feast is celebrated on the Sunday within the Octave of Christmas, that is, the Sunday between Christmas Day and New Year's Day, or if both Christmas Day and the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God are Sundays, on 30 December, it is a holy day of obligation. The feast was instituted by Pope Leo XIII in 1893 and set on the Sunday within the Octave of the Epiphany; the 1962 Roman Missal, whose use is still authorized, follows the General Roman Calendar of 1960, which has the celebration on that date. The Holy Family is a popular theme in Christian art. An oil painting by the Dutch Joos van Cleve, dated to about 1512, is on display at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Michelangelo's tempera rendition hangs in the Uffizi in Italy. A Holy Family by Giulio Romano is on view at the Getty Center in California; the members of the Holy Family are the patrons of the Congregation of Holy Cross.
The Holy Cross Sisters are dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, the Holy Cross Brothers to St. Joseph, the Priests of Holy Cross to the Sacred Heart; the Sons of the Holy Family is another religious congregation devoted to the Holy Family. The Cathedral of the Holy Family of Nazareth is the see of the Diocese of Tulsa in Oklahoma. A pious practice among Catholics is to write "J. M. J." at the top of letters and personal notes as a reference to Jesus and Joseph as the Holy Family. Brothers of Jesus Chronology of Jesus Finding in the Temple Flight into Egypt Holy Kinship Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth Remarks of Benedict XVI on the Feast of the Holy Family Pope Francis. "Homily on the Feast of the Holy Family", Vatican Radio, December 27, 2015
Helwan University is a public university based in Helwan, part of Greater Cairo. It comprises 21 faculties as well as 50 research centers and productive units which connect the university with the problems of the Egyptian society, it is known for its engineering and business study courses. Notable are its Faculties of Engineering, the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, with specialized departments dealing with foreign trade, international relations, business information systems. Faculty of Medicine is the newest faculty of them all, the university hospital is at Badr City. Helwan university has a Faculty of Nursing, its Faculty of Pharmacy is known to be the first clinical pharmacy in Egypt. Helwan University is a member of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Universities, it was established on July 1975 by Act No. 70 of 1975 over 350 acres of land. It is the youngest of 3 major governmental universities in Cairo. However, it goes back to the 19th century during the reign of Muhammad Ali of Egypt who established “The Operations School”.
The fields of that school were the basis of many institutes. The university possesses all the factors of diversity, it is considered to be a unique model among Egyptian Universities as it encompasses Arts, Fine arts, Applied arts, Art education, Music education and Physical Education Faculties. Being within the heart of an industrial community, Helwan University is considered a unique model among Egyptian universities in general. Although Helwan University is the most recent of 3 major governmental universities in Cairo, it encompasses some of the oldest and most faculties in Egypt and Middle East; the Faculty of Applied Arts for example, was established in 1839, while the Faculty of Fine Arts and Art Education were established in 1908 and 1936 respectively. Helwan University have a number of faculties with special innovative nature, Such as Faculty of Music Education, Faculty of Physical education, it encompass 13 other faculties, three of which, are outside the main Campus, which are: Faculty of Engineering at El Matareya, Cairo.
Faculty of Fine Arts at Zamalek district. This campus hosts a joint Master's Program between Germany and Egypt, named INEMA; the Master's program consists of six attendance phases, three are held at Zamalek Campus in Cairo, three take place at the Pädagogische Hochschule in Ludwigsburg, Germany. The shared Master's program was first established in 2010. Faculty of Physical Education at Giza. College of Fine Arts Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Engineering College of Commerce and Business Administration Faculty of Computer and Information Faculty of Tourism and Hotels Faculty of Applied Arts Industrial Education College of Home Economics Faculty of Art Education College of Music Education Faculty of Physical Education Bahram Faculty of Physical Education in the island Faculty of Law College of Literature Faculty of Education Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Social Work Faculty of Science College of Nursing Faculty of Medicine National Intellectual Property Institute Faculty of BIS Faculty of FMI According to Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, Helwan University is ranked 2300th in the world and 11th in Egypt.
In QS ranking 2018 Helwan University was rated 51-60 in The Arab Region. In addition to the Central Library there are specialist libraries in the various faculties. Education in Egypt List of universities in Egypt Nagui Asaad Official website
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.