Cox Communications is an American owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and Home Automation services in the United States. It is the third-largest cable television provider in the United States, serving more than 6.2 million customers, including 2.9 million digital cable subscribers, 3.5 million Internet subscribers, 3.2 million digital telephone subscribers, making it the seventh-largest telephone carrier in the country. Cox is headquartered at 6205 Peachtree Dunwoody Rd in Sandy Springs, Georgia, U. S. in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Cox Enterprises expanded into the cable television industry in 1962 by purchasing a number of cable systems in Lewistown, Lock Haven and Tyrone, followed by systems in California and Washington; the subsidiary company, Cox Broadcasting Corporation, was not formed until 1964, when it was established as a public company traded on the New York Stock Exchange. It was taken private by Cox Enterprises in 1985. In 1993, Cox began offering telecommunication services to businesses it was the first multiple system cable operator to do so.
This grew into Cox Business, which now represents $1 billion in annual revenue. In 1995, Cox acquired the Times Mirror cable properties. In 1997, Cox became the first multiple system cable operator to offer phone services to customers following the 1996 Telecom Act. Two years in 1999, Cox acquired the cable television assets of Media General in Fairfax County and Fredericksburg, Virginia; the following year, Cox Communications acquired Multimedia Cablevision with assets in Kansas and North Carolina. In 2004, the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors found Cox Communications guilty of violating an agreement with the county which stated that all homes served by Cox within Fairfax County would be digital ready with the new fiber optic network by June 2003; when this term expired with less than 30% of the county having been completed, the Board of Supervisors decided to fine Cox $100 per day from the agreed completion date, until work was completed on January 2006. The Board forbade Cox from raising rates to recover the cost of the fine for a period of 10 years from the actual completion date.
The total fine was $93,000. By November 1, 2005, Cox announced the sale of all of its Texas, Missouri and North Carolina properties, as well as some systems in Arkansas, California and Oklahoma to Cebridge Communications; the sale closed in 2006 and those systems were transitioned by their new owner from Cox branding to Suddenlink Communications. On May 14, 2007, Cox announced that they had sold their investment in Discovery Communications for the Travel Channel, related assets, $1.3 billion. In 2007, DiversityInc magazine named Cox Communications #25 in its Top 50 Companies for Diversity. Cox climbed to the sixth position on Diversity Inc.'s 2008 list. In 2008, Cox was named #8 on the Top 10 Companies for African Americans. Two years on November 19, 2010, Cox began offering wireless services in Orange County, California. In February 2011, Cox Communications completed its Alternative Energy Project which included two fuel cell installations at each of the company's San Diego, CA and Rancho Santa Margarita, CA headquarters.
Two separate PureCell System 400 kilowatt installations will generate enough onsite power to reduce the company's dependence of the local power grid and decrease its carbon footprint. In September 2011, Cox Home Security was added to their suite of products listed on their website; this new service uses advanced technologies similar to the home security products offered by other MSOs such as Comcast. In August 2013, Cox launched a new television platform known as Contour, which features recommendations and a user profile system across multiple devices. In 2015, Cox licensed Comcast's Xfinity X1 platform. Cox stated that at least 1 million subscribers were on the X1-based Contour as of October 2017. In 2016, Cox Business reached 3 billion in annual revenue. Cox Business: Provides business level video and Internet services. Cox Media: Advertising sales Travel Media, Inc.: Travel Channel and TravelChannel.com. Cox Communications Virginia created the philanthropic Cox Charities to annually provide grants to nonprofits serving youth.
The organizations must have education programs that focus on science and technology, literacy and other areas. In the 2016-2017 program, 15 nonprofits received a total of $150,000, they were: An Achievable Dream ForKids Horizons Hampton Roads REACH The Salvation Army - Hampton Roads Area Command The UP Center Virginia Peninsula Foodbank Educacion Para Nuestro Futuro Main Street Child Development Center Hopecam Fairfax Futures Literary Council of Northern Virginia Boys and Girls Clubs of Southwest Virginia Child Health Investment Partnership of Roanoke Valley Total Action for ProgressOther state branches of Cox Communications donate money annually through a Community Investment Grant program. The money goes to 501 organizations; the organizations will differ from state to state, year to year, but also have a focus on education, social issues, the arts. These programs can be found in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Iowa, the Southea
Charter Communications, Inc. is an American telecommunications and mass media company that offers its services to consumers and businesses under the branding of Spectrum. Providing services to over 26 million customers in 41 states, it is the second-largest cable operator in the United States by subscribers, just behind Comcast, third largest pay TV operator behind Comcast and AT&T, it is the fifth largest telephone provider based upon residential subscriber line count. In late 2012, with the naming of longtime Cablevision executive Thomas Rutledge as their CEO, the company relocated its corporate headquarters from St. Louis, Missouri, to Stamford, although many operations still remain based out of St. Louis. On May 18, 2016, Charter completed its acquisition of Time Warner Cable and its sister company Bright House Networks, making it the third-largest pay television service in the United States. Charter ranked No. 74 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
Charter Communications was founded in 1993 by Barry Babcock, Jerald Kent and Howard Wood, former executives at Cencom Cable Television in St. Louis, Missouri, it was incorporated in the state of Missouri in 1993. In 1995, Charter paid about $300 million for a controlling interest in Crown Media Holdings and acquired Cable South. In 1997, Charter and EarthLink joined forces to deliver high-speed Internet access through cable modems to Charter's customers in Los Angeles and Riverside, California. In 1998, Paul Allen bought a controlling interest; the company paid $2.8 billion to acquire Dallas-based cable company Marcus Cable. Charter Communications had 1 million customers in 1998. In November 1999, the company went public. At the time, it had 3.9 million customers. Charter completed more than 10 major acquisitions in 1999 when it: Added 68,000 subscribers in Southern California with the purchase of four cable systems from American Cable Entertainment of Stamford, Connecticut. Acquired 400,000 InterMedia Partners subscribers in the Southeast.
As part of the deal Charter would turn over about 140,000 of its subscribers to TCI in cable system swap. Merged with Marcus Cable Acquired cable systems serving 460,000 subscribers from Rifkin Acquisition Partners and InterLink Communications. Acquired 173,000 subscribers in central Massachusetts, from New Jersey–based Greater Media Inc. Acquired Renaissance Media Group, a New York partnership serving 130,000 customers near New Orleans, western Mississippi, Jackson, Tennessee. Acquired New Jersey-based Helicon Cable Communications; the systems served about 171,000 customers in eight states in the Northeast. Acquired Avalon Cable TV, adding 260,000 subscribers in Michigan and Massachusetts. Acquired Vista Broadband Communications in Smyrna, adding 30,000 more customers. Acquired Falcon Cable TV of Los Angeles. Falcon was the eighth-largest cable operator in the United States with about one million subscribers in 27 states in non-urban areas. Acquired Fanch Communications Inc. of Denver. Fanch had 547,000 subscribers in West Virginia, Michigan, Kentucky and Wisconsin.
Charter began swapping customers with other systems to improve the geographic clustering of its systems. In December 1999, it signed a letter of intent with AT&T Corporation to swap 1.3 million cable subscribers in St. Louis as well as in Alabama and Missouri. In 2000, Charter Communications bought select AT&T cable markets, including Reno and the City of St. Louis. In 2001, MSN and Charter signed an agreement to offer MSN content and services to Charter's broadband customers. In the same year, Charter received awards, including the Outstanding Corporate Growth Award from the Association for Corporate Growth, the R. E. "Ted" Turner Innovator of the Year Award from the Southern Cable Telecommunications Association, the Fast 50 Award for Growth from the St. Louis Regional Chamber and Growth Association. In 2008, Charter stock failed to meet NASDAQ standards and was given warning to comply by October 13 or request an extension. In 2008, it acquired the cable-television franchise and service for the Cerritos and Ventura, areas from Wave Broadband.
In February 2009, Charter Communications announced that it planned to file for Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code on or before April 1, 2009. The action would allow Charter to pay its debt obligations, cancel its obligations to shareholders. Private equity firm Apollo Management expected to own most of Charter's shares after the bankruptcy. Charter filed for a prearranged bankruptcy on March 28, 2009; the company expected the financial restructuring to reduce its debt by $8 billion, as well as adding $3 billion of new investment, refinancing other debt. On November 30, 2009, its bankruptcy plan was approved, which extinguished its stock and cut $8 billion in debt; that day, Charter emerged from bankruptcy despite many of its creditors' objections over its bankruptcy plan. On September 14, 2010, Charter Class A common stock was re-listed on NASDAQ under the symbol "CHTR". In 2011, Paul Allen stepped down as chairman and from the board of directors' seat, but at the time remained the largest single shareholder.
In that year, Charter signed a multi-year deal with TiVo to deliver content via its platform. Thomas M. Rutledge was appointed as a director and president and chief executive officer effective February 13, 2012; the same year, Charter prices $1.25 billion senior debt, offering to pay down short- and long-term debt. On February 8, 2013, Charter announced an agreement to acquire some former Bresnan Communications systems from Cablevision in a transaction worth US$1.63 billion. The deal brought Charte
Univision is an American Spanish-language free-to-air television network, owned by Univision Communications. It is the country's largest provider of Spanish-language content, followed by American competitor Telemundo; the network's programming is aimed at Hispanic Americans and includes telenovelas and other drama series, sitcoms and variety series, news programming, imported Spanish-language feature films. Univision is headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, has its major studios, production facilities, business operations based in Doral, Florida. Univision is available on pay television providers throughout most of the United States, with local stations in over 60 markets with large Latin American communities. Most of these stations air full local newscasts and other local programming in addition to network shows. Chief operating officer Randy Falco has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva in April 2010. In March 2018, it was announced Falco would be retiring and stepping down as CEO.
Univision's roots can be traced back to 1955, when Raúl Cortez started KCOR-TV, an independent station in San Antonio, the nation's first Spanish-only TV outlet. The station was not profitable during its early years, in 1961, Cortez sold KCOR-TV – now known as KWEX-TV – to a group headed by Mexican entertainment mogul Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, owner of Mexico-based Telesistema Mexicano. Cortez's son-in-law Emilio Nicolás Sr. who helped produce variety programs for the station, held a 20% stake and remained as KWEX general manager for three decades. The new owners helped to turn around the station's fortunes by investing in programming, most of it sourced from Telesistema Mexicano. On September 29, 1962, Azcárraga and his partners launched a second Spanish-language station, KMEX-TV, in Los Angeles. KWEX and KMEX formed the nucleus of the Azcárraga-owned Spanish International Network, created in late 1962. SIN was the first television network in the United States to broadcast its programming in a language other than English.
From 1963 until 1987, SIN was managed from offices in New York by Rene Anselmo, an American who had worked for Azcárraga in Mexico City for eight years as head of Telesistema's programming export subsidiary. Having supervised the launch of KMEX, Anselmo spearheaded SIN's expansion, first into the New York City area, when it founded WXTV in Paterson, New Jersey, next in Fresno, by acquiring WLTV in Miami in 1971; that year, Azcárraga and his partners incorporated these five stations as the Spanish International Communications Corporation, with Anselmo named as president. Over the next 15 years, SIN and SICC would create other top-rated Spanish-language television stations throughout the United States; the Mexican ownership interest in SIN and SICC transferred posthumously from Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta to his son, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, in 1972. On July 4, 1976, the network began distributing its national feed via satellite, delivered as a superstation-type feed of San Antonio's KWEX-TV, before switching to a direct programming feed of SIN, allowing cable television providers to carry the network on their systems at little cost.
Between the mid-1970s and late-1980s, SIN began affiliating with startup Spanish-language stations in markets such as Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston, as well as with independent stations that broadcast in English. In Chicago, SIN moved its programming from WCIU-TV to new full-time affiliate WSNS-TV in July 1985. After WSNS was sold to Telemundo in 1988, what had become Univision moved its programming back to WCIU-TV, which agreed to air Univision programming on weekday evenings and weekends. In 1994, the network purchased English-language independent WGBO-TV after WCIU-TV turned down Univision's request to become a full-time affiliate in favor of maintaining its longtime multi-ethnic programming format. WGBO-TV became an Univision-owned station on December 31, 1994; the initial logo under the Univision name Spanish International Network, used from 1987 to 1989. Televisa still uses this logo today. 1987 became a pivotal year for the Spanish International Network and its owned-and-operated station group.
The Federal Communications Commission and SIN's competitors had long questioned whether the relationship between SIN and the Azcárraga family was impermissibly tight. Both the FCC and other Spanish-language broadcasters had long suspected that Televisa was using Nicolas to skirt FCC rules prohibiting foreign ownership of broadcast media; the FCC and the U. S. Justice Department encouraged a sale of the network to a properly constituted domestic organization. Spanish International Communications began discussions with various prospective buyers, culminating in Hallmark Cards, private equity firm First Chicago Venture
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th
John Howard Carpenter is an American filmmaker and screenwriter. Although Carpenter has worked with various movie genres, he is associated most with horror and science fiction films of the 1970s and 1980s. Most films of Carpenter's career were commercial and critical failures, with the notable exceptions of Halloween, The Fog, Escape from New York, Starman. However, many of Carpenter's films from the 1970s and the 1980s have come to be considered as cult classics, he has been acknowledged as an influential filmmaker; the cult classics that Carpenter has directed include Dark Star, Assault on Precinct 13, The Thing, Big Trouble in Little China, Prince of Darkness, They Live, In the Mouth of Madness. He returned to the Halloween franchise as both composer and executive producer for the horror sequel Halloween. Carpenter co-composed most of his films' music, he won a Saturn Award for Best Music for the film Vampires. Carpenter has released three studio albums, titled Lost Themes, Lost Themes II, Anthology: Movie Themes 1974–1998.
Carpenter was born January 16, 1948 in Carthage, New York, the son of Milton Jean and Howard Ralph Carpenter, a music professor. He and his family relocated to Bowling Green, Kentucky during 1953, he was interested in films from an early age the westerns of Howard Hawks and John Ford, as well as 1950s low-budget horror films, such as The Thing from Another World and high budget science fiction like Forbidden Planet and began filming horror short films with 8 mm film before starting high school. He attended Western Kentucky University, where his father chaired the music department transferred to the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts during 1968, but quit to make his first feature film. In a beginning film course at USC Cinema during 1969, Carpenter wrote and directed an 8-minute short film, Captain Voyeur; the film was rediscovered in the USC archives in 2011 and proved interesting because it revealed elements that would appear in his film, Halloween. The next year he collaborated with producer John Longenecker as co-writer, film editor, music composer for The Resurrection of Broncho Billy, which won an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film.
The short film was enlarged to 35mm, sixty prints were made, the film was released theatrically by Universal Studios for two years in the United States and Canada. Carpenter's first major film as director, Dark Star, was a science fiction comedy that he cowrote with Dan O'Bannon; the film cost only $60,000 and was difficult to make as both Carpenter and O'Bannon completed the film by multitasking, with Carpenter doing the musical score as well as the writing and directing, while O'Bannon acted in the film and did the special effects. Carpenter received praise for his ability to make low-budget films. Carpenter's next film was Assault on Precinct 13, a low-budget thriller influenced by the films of Howard Hawks Rio Bravo; as with Dark Star, Carpenter was responsible for many aspects of the film's creation. He not only wrote and scored it, but edited the film using the pseudonym "John T. Chance". Carpenter has said that he considers Assault on Precinct 13 to have been his first real film because it was the first film that he filmed on a schedule.
The film was the first time Carpenter worked with Debra Hill, who played prominently in the making of some of Carpenter's most important films. Carpenter assembled a main cast that consisted of experienced but obscure actors; the two main actors were Austin Stoker, who had appeared in science fiction and blaxploitation films, Darwin Joston, who had worked for television and had once been Carpenter's next-door neighbor. The film received a critical reassessment in the United States, where it is now regarded as one of the best exploitation films of the 1970s. Carpenter both wrote and directed the Lauren Hutton thriller Someone's Watching Me!. This television film is the tale of a single, working woman who, soon after arriving in L. A. discovers. Eyes of Laura Mars, a 1978 thriller featuring Faye Dunaway and Tommy Lee Jones and directed by Irvin Kershner, was adapted from a spec script titled Eyes, written by John Carpenter, would become Carpenter's first major studio film of his career. Halloween helped develop the slasher genre.
An idea suggested by producer Irwin Yablans, who thought of a film about babysitters being menaced by a stalker, Carpenter took the idea and another suggestion from Yablans that it occur during Halloween and developed a story. Carpenter said of the basic concept: "Halloween night, it has never been the theme in a film. My idea was to do an old haunted house film." The film was written by Carpenter and Debra Hill with Carpenter admitting that the music was inspired by both Dario Argento's Suspiria and William Friedkin's The Exorcist. Carpenter again worked with a small budget, $300,000; the film grossed more than $65 million making it one of the most successful independent films of all time. Carpenter has described Halloween as: "True crass exploitation. I decided to make a
Alex Kurtzman is an American film and television writer and director. He is best known for co-writing the scripts to Transformers, Star Trek, Star Trek Into Darkness, The Amazing Spider-Man 2 with his writing and producing partner Roberto Orci, directing and co-writing The Mummy. Kurtzman was born and raised to a secular Jewish family in Los Angeles, where he met his high school friend and longtime collaborator Roberto Orci, he attended Wesleyan University. Kurtzman first teamed with Orci on television on the syndicated series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, for the television unit of Pacific Renaissance Pictures operating out of Universal International. After they produced several storylines to cope with the absence of lead actor Kevin Sorbo following a stroke that Sorbo had suffered during the fourth season and Orci, both aged 24, were placed in charge of the show, they moved into films. The film earned $162 million at the worldwide box office, on a budget of $126 million, enough of a success that they were brought to write Bay's Transformers, which earned $710 million.
Though The Island and Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen were not well received by critics, the three films earned a combined $1.7 billion. They co-created the Fox TV series Fringe in 2008 along with J. J. Abrams. After the pilot, Kurtzman served as consulting producer on the show for the remainder of its run, they co-wrote the 2009 film Star Trek. In 2011, Forbes magazine described Orci and Kurtzman as "Hollywood's Secret Weapons" as, over the course of the previous six years, their films had grossed a combined total of over $3 billion at the box office; the partnership wrote People Like Us known as Welcome to People, Kurtzman's directorial debut. He collaborates with a knit group of film professionals which include J. J. Abrams, Damon Lindelof, Adam Horowitz, Roberto Orci, Edward Kitsis, Andre Nemec, Josh Appelbaum, Jeff Pinkner, Bryan Burk. In April 2014, both Orci and Kurtzman confirmed to Variety that they would no longer work together on film projects. In 2002, Kurtzman married the daughter of lawyer Nick Counter.
Alex Kurtzman on IMDb
Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the Declaration of Independence of the United States on July 4, 1776. The Continental Congress declared that the thirteen American colonies were no longer subject to the monarch of Britain and were now united and independent states; the Congress had voted to declare independence two days earlier, on July 2, but it was not declared until July 4. Independence Day is associated with fireworks, barbecues, fairs, concerts, baseball games, family reunions, political speeches and ceremonies, in addition to various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the National Day of the United States. During the American Revolution, the legal separation of the Thirteen Colonies from Great Britain in 1776 occurred on July 2, when the Second Continental Congress voted to approve a resolution of independence, proposed in June by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia declaring the United States independent from Great Britain's rule.
After voting for independence, Congress turned its attention to the Declaration of Independence, a statement explaining this decision, prepared by a Committee of Five, with Thomas Jefferson as its principal author. Congress debated and revised the wording of the Declaration approving it two days on July 4. A day earlier, John Adams had written to his wife Abigail: The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival, it ought to be commemorated by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, sports, bells and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forever more. Adams's prediction was off by two days. From the outset, Americans celebrated independence on July 4, the date shown on the much-publicized Declaration of Independence, rather than on July 2, the date the resolution of independence was approved in a closed session of Congress.
Historians have long disputed whether members of Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4 though Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin all wrote that they had signed it on that day. Most historians have concluded that the Declaration was signed nearly a month after its adoption, on August 2, 1776, not on July 4 as is believed. Coincidentally, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, the only signers of the Declaration of Independence to serve as Presidents of the United States, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration. Although not a signer of the Declaration of Independence, James Monroe, another Founding Father, elected as President died on July 4, 1831, he was the third President. Calvin Coolidge, the 30th President, was born on July 4, 1872. S. President to have been born on Independence Day. In 1777, thirteen gunshots were fired in salute, once at morning and once again as evening fell, on July 4 in Bristol, Rhode Island. An article in July 18, 1777 issue of The Virginia Gazette noted a celebration in Philadelphia in a manner a modern American would find familiar: an official dinner for the Continental Congress, toasts, 13-gun salutes, prayers, parades, troop reviews, fireworks.
Ships in port were decked with red and blue bunting. In 1778, from his headquarters at Ross Hall, near New Brunswick, New Jersey, General George Washington marked July 4 with a double ration of rum for his soldiers and an artillery salute. Across the Atlantic Ocean, ambassadors John Adams and Benjamin Franklin held a dinner for their fellow Americans in Paris, France. In 1779, July 4 fell on a Sunday; the holiday was celebrated on Monday, July 5. In 1781, the Massachusetts General Court became the first state legislature to recognize July 4 as a state celebration. In 1783, North Carolina held a celebration with a challenging music program assembled by Johann Friedrich Peter entitled The Psalm of Joy; the town claims to be the first public July 4 event, as it was documented by the Moravian Church, there are no government records of any earlier celebrations. In 1870, the U. S. Congress made Independence Day an unpaid holiday for federal employees. In 1938, Congress changed Independence Day to a paid federal holiday.
Independence Day is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays. Similar to other summer-themed events, Independence Day celebrations take place outdoors. According to 5 U. S. C. § 6103, Independence Day is a federal holiday, so all non-essential federal institutions are closed on that day. Many politicians make it a point on this day to appear at a public event to praise the nation's heritage, history and people. Families celebrate Independence Day by hosting or attending a picnic or barbecue. Decorations are colored red and blue, the colors of the American flag. Parades are held in the morning, before family get-togethers, while fireworks displays occur in the evening after dark at such places as parks, fairgrounds, or town squares; the night before the Fourth was once the focal point of celebrations, marked by raucous gatherings incorporating bonfires as their centerpiece. In New E