International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The modern seven-level,250, 000-square-foot museum is located at 555 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, in Washington, D. C. features 15 theaters and 15 galleries. The Newseums Berlin Wall Gallery includes the largest display of sections of the Berlin Wall outside of Germany, the Todays Front Pages Gallery presents daily front pages from more than 80 international newspapers. Other galleries present topics including the First Amendment, world press freedom, news history, the September 11 attacks, and the history of the Internet, TV, and radio. It opened at its first location in Rosslyn, Virginia, on April 18,1997 and its mission is to promote and defend free expression and the five freedoms of the First Amendment, speech, press and petition. The new Newseum has become one of Washingtons most popular destinations, attracting more than 815,000 visitors a year, the adult admission fee is $24.95 plus tax. Despite such high admission fees, however, it has seen years of financial losses, in 2013, the museum lost more than $4 million on revenue of $63 million.
In 2000, Freedom Forum decided to move the Newseum from its location in Arlington, across the Potomac River to downtown Washington, the original Newseum was closed on March 3,2002, to allow its staff to concentrate on building the new, larger museum. The new museum, built at a cost of $450 million, Tim Russert, a Newseum trustee, The Newseum made a pretty good impression in Arlington, but at your new location on Pennsylvania Avenue, you will make an indelible mark. The newest Newseum on Pennsylvania Avenue shares a prime block adjacent to the Canadian Embassy and it features the 45 words of the First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, etched into a four story tall stone panel facing Pennsylvania Avenue. One feature carried over from the prior Arlington site was the Journalists Memorial and it is updated and rededicated every year. The museum website is updated daily with images and PDF versions of newspaper front pages from around the world, images are replaced daily, but an archive of front pages from notable events since 2001 is available.
Hard copies of selected front pages, including one from every U. S. state and Washington, D. C. are displayed in galleries within the museum, unlike its original museum in Arlington, the new Newseum charges admission fees to the general public. Jerry Frieheim, a 1956 graduate of the University of Missouri School of Journalism, was the first executive director of the Newseum and claims to have coined the name. Charles E. Smith Jewish Day School students are admitted to the Newseum free of charge, as Smiths son, the structural engineer for this project was Leslie E. Robertson Associates. A curving glass memorial to slain journalists is located above the ground floor, showcase environments throughout the museum are climate controlled by four microclimate control devices. These units provide a flow of humidified air to the cases through a system of distribution pipes, aBCs This Week began broadcasting from a new studio in the Newseum on April 20,2008, with George Stephanopoulos as host. ABC moved This Week back to its Washington, D. C.
bureau in June 2013 citing the networks infrequent use of the Newseum studio compared to the cost of operating and maintaining a studio there. The studio was home to Al Jazeera Americas Washington, D. C. bureau which had editing facilities
A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages. The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of material. The first broadsheet newspaper was the Dutch Courante uyt Italien, other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner and tabloid/compact formats. Many broadsheets measure approximately 29 1⁄2 by 23 1⁄2 inches per full broadsheet spread and New Zealand broadsheets always have a paper size of A1 per spread. South African broadsheet newspapers have a spread sheet size of 820 by 578 mm or 32.3 by 22.8 in. Others measure 22 inches or 560 millimetres vertically, in the United States, the traditional dimensions for the front page half of a broadsheet are 15 inches wide by 22 3⁄4 inches long. However, in efforts to save newsprint costs many U. S. newspapers have downsized to 12 inches wide by 22 3⁄4 inches long for a folded page. Many rate cards and specification cards refer to the size with dimensions representing the front page half of a broadsheet size, rather than the full.
Some quote actual page size and others quote the area size. The two versions of the broadsheet are, Full broadsheet – The full broadsheet typically is folded vertically in half so that it forms four pages, the four pages are called a spread. Half broadsheet – The half broadsheet is usually a page that is not folded vertically and just includes a front. In uncommon instances, an entire newspaper can be a two-page half broadsheet or four-page full broadsheet, totally self-contained advertising circulars inserted in a newspaper in the same format are referred to as broadsheets. Broadsheets typically are folded horizontally in half to accommodate newsstand display space, the horizontal fold however does not affect the page numbers and the content remains vertical. The most important newspaper stories are placed above the fold and this contrasts with tabloids which typically do not have a horizontal fold. The broadsheet has since emerged as the most popular format for the dissemination of printed news, broadsheets developed after the British in 1712 placed a tax on newspapers based on the number of their pages.
The original purpose of the broadsheet, or broadside, was for the purpose of posting royal proclamations, eventually the people began using the broadsheet as a source for political activism by reprinting speeches, ballads or narrative songs originally performed by bards. With the early mechanization of the 19th century came an increase in production of printed materials including the broadside as well as the penny dreadful. In this period all over Europe began to print their issues on broadsheets
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital, the center of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the part of the country. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 910 m above sea level, the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2, 200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila, to the south there are more hills and mountains. Libertador holds many of the government buildings and is the Capital District, the Distrito Capital had a population of 2,013,366 as of 2011, while the Metropolitan District of Caracas was estimated at 3,273,863 as of 2013. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an population of 5,243,301. Businesses that are located in the city include service companies, banks and it has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas, PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela.
Caracas is Venezuelas cultural capital, with restaurants, museums. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas, in 2015, Venezuela and its capital, had the highest per capita murder rates in the world, with 119 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Most murders and other violent crimes go unsolved, at the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, fajardos settlement did not last long. It was destroyed by natives of the led by Terepaima. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives, on 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas. The foundation −1567 – I take possession of land in the name of God. In 1577 Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empires Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel, during the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was frequently raided by pirates.
With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was relatively immune to such attacks, encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation. As the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, in 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led a revolution aimed at independence
El Nacional (Caracas)
El Nacional is a Venezuelan publishing company under the name C. A. Editorial El Nacional, most widely known for its El Nacional newspaper and it has traditionally had a center-left ideology, but has recently moved to the center. The paper supported the candidacy of Hugo Chavez in 1998, current editor and proprietor Miguel Henrique Otero founded the Movimiento 2D opposition movement, which supports the opposition electoral coalition Mesa de la Unidad Democrática. The newspapers first director was poet Antonio Arráiz, in the newspaper have contributed many of the most recognized Venezuelan writers. Arturo Úslar Pietri, one of the most important intellectuals of the country and its director, former editors include José Ramón Medina and Miguel Otero Silva. In 1961 an advertising boycott in opposition to the papers leftist views nearly forced the paper into bankruptcy, the newspaper received criticism by the governments under the AD and COPEI parties for it had tended to support the political beliefs of the moderate left and the middle class.
Official website Todays El Nacional front page at the Newseum website