Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Autonomous University of Baja California
The Autonomous University of Baja California is a public institution of higher education in the Mexican state of Baja California. UABC is one of the 43 state universities throughout Mexico as part of the country's state university system, its headquarters are located in the city of Mexicali. The UABC has three main campuses in the cities of Ensenada and Tijuana. UABC maintains five sub campuses in the cities of Rosarito, San Quintin, Valle Dorado in Ensenada, the suburban region of Valle de Las Palmas in Tijuana; the institution operates three Units of Basic Formation in the cities of San Felipe, Ciudad Morelos, Guadalupe Victoria. Under the Subsecretary of Higher Education, UABC belongs to the General Management of Higher Learning Institutions, a part of the nation's eight-tier public higher education system, which includes the General Coordination of Technological Universities, the General Management of Technological Higher Learning, the General Management of Higher Learning for Educators, the General Management of Professions, the Copyrights National Institute, the National Pedagogical University, the Coordination of Polytechnic Universities.
UABC follows Mexico's higher education format: tronco común, técnico superior, licenciatura and doctorado. The Autonomous University of Baja California was formed on February 28, 1957 by organic law declaration as the result of a movement initiated by a group of professionals, businesspersons and students; this law establishes the principles in which the university was conceived: as a public service institution, separating it from the state's administration but with full judicial capacity. It assigns the goal of promoting high school and higher education to create professionals, promote scientific research and extend the benefits of culture enrichment; the law establishes that in order to achieve such goals, the university is inspired under the principles of freedom of religion and freedom to explore, with the purposes of gathering the flowing scientific and social minds, without engaging in political, pro-militant activities. On August 2 of the same year, the Pro University State Committee was formed and in 1959, the first university president was elected.
A year the schools of Pedagogy, Marine Science, a high school were formed in Tijuana. Between 1961 and 1962, the Schools of Economics and Commerce and Administration were incorporated in Tijuana, as well as a high school in Tecate. In 1969, the School of Tourism was created. Between 1971 and 1979, the School of Medicine and Chemical Sciences were formed. In 1986, the School of Humanities was born and in 1989, the School of Engineering was built in Tecate. Between October 1980 and January 1981, UABC was the stage of a strike movement carried out by faculty and students in an effort to improve the democratic academic process and labor conditions within the university and the region; the movement had mixed results where protests turned to riots leading to the involvement of the government and police forces. Some students and faculty were forced to leave the university; the Tijuana Campus was formally established in 2003 as a result of aiming to expand and solidify the academic spectrum and reach the socioeconomic and cultural needs of the region.
Today UABC exerts a fair amount of academic influence in the regional and national scenery. It is one of the major universities in Mexico, it is composed of 5 sub-campuses and 3 Units of Basic Formation. Although the Autonomous University of Baja California is a public institution of higher education, it is not under the control of the state’s governmental administration, possesses the complete legal authority to carry out its core functions: instruction; as defined by the university's organic law, UABC is a public service institution, decentralized from the state's administration, endowed with full autonomy, judicial personality and its own assets. Administration of the UABC takes place in the form of a shared governance model where the entire institution is headed by a Governing Board, known as the Junta de Gobierno, as vested by the institution's own fundamental law. A University Council, known as the Consejo Universitario serves as the collegial authority responsible of enforcing all rules and regulations established to allow the organized functionality of all administrative, staff/faculty and student affairs.
A Board of Trustees, known as Patronato Universitario serves as the chief accountant of the institution overseeing expenditures and accountability of all resources and assets within the institution. Student Government affairs take place in what is known as Tribunal Universitario and oversees all issues affecting the student body, including decisions and actions taken by the university governing body. All administrative departments and operations in the UABC offices are under the final authority of the Rector and each campus operations are under the final authority of their Vice Rector, who reports to the Rector; the Governing Board is the final level of authority for all functions within the UABC. Article 19 of UABC's organic law establishes the chain of command as follow: I. Governing Board. University Council. Rector. Board of Trustees. Deans of Academic Departments and Institutions. Investigative and Technical Councils
The Paipai are an indigenous people of Mexico living in northern Baja California. Their traditional territory lies between the Kiliwa on the south and the Kumeyaay and Cocopa on the north, extending from San Vicente near the Pacific coast nearly to the Colorado River's delta in the east. Today they are concentrated at the multi-ethnic community of Santa Catarina in Baja California's Sierra de Juárez. Meigs suggested that the aboriginal populations associated with San Vicente and Santa Catarina missions were 780 and 1,000 individuals. Hicks estimated 1,800 for the aboriginal population of the Paipai, or a density of 0.3 persons per square kilometer. Owen argued that these estimates were too high; however some studies show that there are less than 200 speakers of the Paipai language left, because the new generations do not find it necessary to learn the Paipai language. The Paipai language was documented by Judith Joël, who have published texts and studies of phonology and syntax. Mauricio J. Mixco have published transcription of stories.
It is close to the Upland Yuman language spoken by the Yavapai and Havasupai of western Arizona. Aboriginal Paipai subsistence was based on hunting and gathering of natural animal and plants rather than on agriculture. Numerous plants were exploited as food resources, notably including agave, mesquite, prickly pear, pine nuts, juniper berries. Many other plants served as material for construction or craft products. Animals used for food included deer, bighorn sheep, woodrats, various other medium and small mammals, quail and shellfish. Crop growing and stock raising were introduced during the historic period. Information about the cultural practices of the precontact Paipai comes from a variety of sources; these include the accounts of the maritime expedition led by Sebastián Vizcaíno. Owen, Thomas B. Hinton, Frederic N. Hicks, Ralph C. Michelsen, Michael Wilken-Robertson, Julia Bendímez Patterson. Paipai traditional material culture included structures, equipment for hunting and warfare, processing equipment and cradles.
Kinship was based on patrilocal šimułs. It is not clear to; the existence of any formal community leaders was denied by some. Social recreations included a variety of games: shinny, kickball races, the ring-and-pin game, peon, spinning tops and cat's cradle. Music was produced by singing and by instruments that included flutes, gourd rattles, jinglers. Pets were kept. Traditional narratives are conventionally classed as myths, legends and oral histories; the oral literature recorded for the Paipai is rather limited but includes narratives that can be assigned to each of these categories. Paipai narratives such as the creation myth show their closest affinities with those of the Kumeyaay to the north; the Paipai first encountered Europeans when Sebastián Vizcaíno's expedition mapped the northwest coast of Baja California in 1602. More intensive and sustained contacts began in 1769 when the expedition to establish Spanish settlements in California, led by Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra, passed through the western portions.
The Dominican mission of San Vicente was founded near the coast in Paipai territory in 1780. It became a key center for the Spanish administration and military control of the region. In 1797 San Vicente was supplemented by an inland mission at Santa Catarina, near the boundary between Paipai and Kumeyaay territories. Mission Santa Catarina was destroyed in 1840 by hostile Indian forces including Paipai; the main modern settlement of Paipai is at Santa Catarina, a community they share with Kumeyaay and Kiliwa residents. Drucker, Philip. 1941. "Culture Element Distributions XVII: Yuman–Piman". Anthropological Records 6:91-230. University of California, Berkeley. Gifford, E. W. and Robert H. Lowie. 1928. "Notes on the Akwa'ala Indians of Lower California". University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 23:338-352. Berkeley. Hicks, Frederic N. 1959. "Archaeological Sites in the Jamau-Jaquijel Region, Baja California: A Preliminary Report". University of California, Los Angeles, Archaeological Survey Annual Report 1958-1959:59-66.
Hicks, Frederic N. 1963. Ecological Aspects of Aboriginal Culture in the Western Yuman Area. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles. Hinton, Thomas B. and Roger C. Owen. 1957. "Some Surviving Yuman Groups in Northern Baja California". América Indígena 17:87-102. Hohenthal, William D. Jr. 2001. Tipai Ethnographic Notes: A Baja California Indian Community at Mid Century. Edited by Thomas Blackburn. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, California. Joël, Judith. 1966. Paipai Phonology and Morphology. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles. Joël, Judith. 1976. "Some Paipai Accounts of Food Gathering". Journal of California Anthropology 3:59-71. Joël, Judith. 1998. "Another Look at the Paipai-Arizona Pai Divergence". In
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Manzanita is a common name for many species of the genus Arctostaphylos. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees present in the chaparral biome of western North America, where they occur from Southern British Columbia and Washington to Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas in the United States, throughout Mexico. Manzanitas can live in places with little water, they are characterized by smooth orange or red bark and twisting branches. There are 105 species and subspecies of manzanita, 95 of which are found in the Mediterranean climate and colder mountainous regions of California, ranging from ground-hugging coastal and mountain species to small trees up to 20 feet tall. Manzanitas carry berries in spring and summer; the berries and flowers of most species are edible. The word manzanita is the Spanish diminutive of manzana. A literal translation would be little apple; the name manzanita is sometimes used to refer to species in the related genus Arbutus, known by that name in the Canadian area of the tree's range, but is more known as madroño, or madrone in the United States.
Native Americans in Northern California made a tisane from manzanita leaves to treat poison oak rash. The leaves contain chemicals with a mildly disinfectant quality, can be used for mild urinary tract infections; the berries are a good food, as they can be stored. Once stored and dried, the berries can be ground into a coarse meal; the berries can be eaten ripe or green for a sour taste. They are good used as a thickener or sweetener in other dishes. Fresh berries and branch tips can be soaked in water to make a cider. Native Americans used. Manzanitas are useful as ornamental plants in gardens in the western United States and similar climate zones, they are evergreen drought-tolerant, have picturesque bark and attractive flowers and berries, come in many sizes and growth patterns. Arctostaphylos columbiana, for example, is hardy enough to be used for highway landscaping in western Oregon and Washington. Arctostaphylos'Emerald Carpet', A. uva-ursi, other low-growing manzanitas are valuable evergreen groundcovers for dry slopes.
Larger varieties, such as Arctostaphylos.'Dr. Hurd,' can be grown as individual specimens, pruned to emphasize the striking pattern and colors of the branches, they prefer light, well-drained soil, although the low-growing ground covers will tolerate heavier soils. Manzanita branches are popular as decoration, due to their unique shape and strength when dried. Florists sometimes use them as centerpieces at wedding receptions and other events adding hanging votive candles, beaded gems and small flowers to them; the wood is notoriously hard to cure due to cracking against the grain, giving it few uses as lumber. The slow growth rate and many branchings further decrease the sizes available; some furniture and art employ whole round branches, which reduces cracking and preserves the deep red color. The dead wood decays and can last for many years, on and off the plant. Sunlight smooths and bleaches manzanita to light grey or white, rendering it superficially akin to animal bones; because of this and the stunted growth of many species, manzanita is collected in its more unusual shapes, giving it the nickname mountain driftwood.
Manzanita wood is used as perches for parrots and other large pet birds. The branches of the larger species are long-lasting for this purpose; some aquarium keepers use sandblasted manzanita as driftwood in planted aquaria because of its attractive forked growth and its chemical neutrality. If properly cleaned and cured, it holds up well over extended periods of submersion; the wood is resistant to the leaching of tannins into the water column, a problem found with other aquarium driftwoods. When used as driftwood, manzanita must be either weighted down for several weeks or soaked first to counteract the wood's natural buoyancy when it has been dried and cured; the green wood does not float. Manzanita wood, when dry, is excellent for burning in a campfire, fireplace, or stove, it burns at a high temperature for long periods. However, caution should be exercised, because the high temperatures can damage thin-walled barbecues, crack cast iron stoves or cause chimney fires. During World War II, Manzanita root burls were used as an expedient native material to make smoking pipes due to its relation and similar fire-resistant properties to then-unavailable imported briar.
Labeled as "Mission Briar", it was harvested for the remainder of the war, stopping soon after when supplies of imported briar once again became available. Some manzanita species are among the rarest plants in the world. Arctostaphylos hookeri ravenii, an endemic species, is the most endangered and restricted plant in the mainland United States. In 1987 only one specimen remained, at a secret location in the Presidio of San Francisco National Historic Landmark District in San Francisco, California; this plant has since been cloned. Arctostaphylos franciscana, a species native to San Francisco, had not been seen growing wild since 1947 until it was spotted growing in the Presidio of San Francisco in October 2009. Caltrans transplanted this specimen on 23 January 2010 to make way for the Doyle Drive Replacement Project. Transplanting costs were funded in part by Federal Highways Administration, The Presidio of San Francisco, private donors. "Arctostaphylos hookeri, subspecies franciscana", a scrubby, thin-twigged bush, riddled with the webs of miniature spiders, resides in a corner of
San Diego Museum of Man
The San Diego Museum of Man is a museum of anthropology located in Balboa Park, San Diego and housed in the historic landmark buildings of the California Quadrangle. The museum traces its origins to the Panama-California Exposition, which opened in 1915 on the occasion of the inauguration of the Panama Canal; the central exhibit of the exposition, "The Story of Man through the Ages", was assembled under the direction of noted archaeologist Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett of the School of American Archaeology. Hewett organized expeditions to gather pre-Columbian pottery from the American Southwest and to Guatemala for objects and reproductions of Maya civilization monuments. Numerous other materials were gathered from expeditions sent by anthropologist Aleš Hrdlička of the Smithsonian Institution, who gathered casts and specimens from Africa, Siberia and Southeast Asia. Osteological remains and trepanated crania from Peruvian sites were obtained; as the Exposition drew to a close, a group of citizens led by George Marston formed the San Diego Museum Association to retain the collection and convert it into a permanent museum, with Dr. Hewett as the first director.
Notable additions to the museum's collection after the Exposition included the Jessop Weapons Collection and a rare collection of artifacts from the ancient Egyptian city of Amarna, donated by Ellen Browning Scripps and the Egyptian Exploration Society. Between 1935 and 1936, the museum's name changed to the Palace of Science in order to correspond with other exhibit buildings participating in the California-Pacific International Exposition. During this exposition, the museum housed several special exhibitions from a variety of sources, such as the Monte Alban exhibit, which featured many artifacts on loan from the Mexican government; the name was changed to "Museum of Man" in 1942 to emphasize the museum's concentration on anthropology. "San Diego" was added in 1978. The museum was converted into a hospital during World War II, its exhibits and collections were temporarily moved into storage. Following the war, the museum began to focus its collections on the peoples of the Western Americas.
The museum's collections grew from the 1980s through the early 1990s, today contains nearly two million individual objects. The museum is housed in four original buildings from the 1915 Exposition; those include the California Quadrangle, designed for the Exposition by American architect Bertram G. Goodhue, the California Tower, one of the most prominent landmarks in San Diego; the Quadrangle and Tower are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The exterior sculpture on the building was created by the Piccirilli Brothers; the main museum, including exhibits and gift shop, is housed in the ornate California Building with its landmark tower. The tower, closed to the public for nearly 80 years, reopened on January 1, 2015, in time for the 2015 centennial of the Panama-California Exposition; the tower contains a quarterly-hour chimes which can be heard all over Balboa Park. The museum occupies three other original 1915 buildings. Administrative offices and an auditorium are housed in the Gill Administration Building adjacent to the Museum on the west.
Known as the Balboa Park Administration Building, it was built in 1911 and designed by architect Irving Gill. It was the first building. On the opposite side of the California Quadrangle, housed in what was the Fine Arts Building, is Evernham Hall, a banquet room, used for temporary exhibits. Adjacent is the Saint Francis Chapel, a non-denominational Spanish-style chapel available for private events such as weddings; the museum's cultural resources and permanent exhibits focus on the pre-Columbian history of the western Americas, with materials drawn from Native American cultures of the Southern California region, Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Maya. The museum holds one of the most important collections of Ancient Egyptian antiquities in the United States, which includes burial masks and seven painted wooden coffins; the most extraordinary of these is an rare Ptolemaic child's coffin — only six others are known to exist worldwide. Total holdings include more than 100,000 documented ethnographic items, more than 300,000 archaeological items, more than 25,000 photographic images.
Admissions and Gift Shop BEERology: This special exhibit features 10,000 years of beer history and brewing practices among the Ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Amazonian headhunters, other cultures throughout the world. The exhibit explores ancient and modern beer types and brewing practices, as well as their influential connections to agriculture and social meaning-making. Highlights include the solid gold beer cup of an Incan king; the exhibit includes a full, hand-crafted bar, which provides the space for regular beer tasting events and other private functions. This exhibit will be open through 2018. Maya: Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth: displays several huge Maya monuments, or stelae, in the Rotunda Gallery; these are casts of the original monuments in a site in Guatemala. The casts were made for the 1915 Panama-California Exposition and have been on display since, except during World War II, when the Navy took control of most of Balboa Park and turned the Museum into a hospital. Today these casts are studied by researchers tracing the history of the Maya through their