Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. Users can explore the globe by using a keyboard or mouse; the program can be downloaded on a smartphone or tablet, using a touch screen or stylus to navigate. Users may use the program to add their own data using Keyhole Markup Language and upload them through various sources, such as forums or blogs. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client. In addition to Earth navigation, Google Earth provides a series of other tools through the desktop application. Additional globes for the Moon and Mars are available, as well as a tool for viewing the night sky. A flight simulator game is included. Other features allow users to view photos from various places uploaded to Panoramio, information provided by Wikipedia on some locations, Street View imagery.
The web-based version of Google Earth includes Voyager, a feature that periodically adds in-program tours presented by scientists and documentarians. Google Earth has been viewed by some as a threat to privacy and national security, leading to the program being banned in multiple countries; some countries have requested that certain areas be obscured in Google's satellite images areas containing military facilities. The core technology behind Google Earth was developed at Intrinsic Graphics in the late 1990s. At the time, the company was developing 3D gaming software libraries; as a demo of their 3D software, they created a spinning globe that could be zoomed into, similar to the Powers of Ten film. The demo was popular, but the board of Intrinsic wanted to remain focused on gaming, so in 1999, they created Keyhole, Inc. headed by John Hanke. Keyhole developed a way to stream large databases of mapping data over the internet to client software, a key part of the technology, acquired patchworks of mapping data from governments and other sources.
The product, called "Keyhole EarthViewer", was sold on CDs for use in fields such as real estate, urban planning and intelligence. Despite making a number of capital deals with Nvidia and Sony, the small company was struggling to make payroll, employees were leaving. Fortunes for the company changed in early 2003 when CNN received a discount for the software in exchange for placing the Keyhole logo on-air whenever the map was used. Keyhole did not expect it would amount to more than brief 5 or 10 second prerecorded animation clips, but it was used extensively by Miles O'Brien live during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, allowing CNN and millions of viewers to follow the progress of the war in a way that had never been seen before. Public interest in the software exploded and Keyhole servers were not able to keep up with demand. Keyhole was soon contacted by the Central Intelligence Agency's venture capital firm, In-Q-Tel, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, for use with defense mapping databases, which gave Keyhole a much-needed cash infusion.
Intrinsic Graphics was sold in 2003 to Vicarious Visions after its gaming libraries did not sell well, its core group of engineers and management transitioned to Keyhole with Hanke remaining at the head. At the time, Google was finding that over 25% of its searches were of a geospatial character, including searches for maps and directions. In October 2004, Google acquired Keyhole as part of a strategy to better serve its users. Google Earth's imagery is displayed on a digital globe, which displays the planet's surface using a single composited image from a far distance. After zooming in far enough, the imagery transitions into different imagery of the same area with finer detail, which varies in date and time from one area to the next; the imagery is retrieved from satellites or aircraft. Before the launch of NASA and the USGS's Landsat 8 satellite, Google relied on imagery from Landsat 7, which suffered from a hardware malfunction that left diagonal gaps in images. In 2013, Google used datamining to remedy the issue, providing what was described as a successor to the Blue Marble image of Earth, with a single large image of the entire planet.
This was achieved by combining multiple sets of imagery taken from Landsat 7 to eliminate clouds and diagonal gaps, creating a single "mosaic" image. Google now uses Landsat 8 to provide imagery with greater frequency. Imagery is hosted on Google's servers, which are contacted by the application when opened, requiring an Internet connection. Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters. For much of the Earth, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission; this creates the impression of three-dimensional terrain where the imagery is only two-dimensional. Every image created from Google Earth using satellite data provided by Google Earth is a copyrighted map. Any derivative from Google Earth is made from copyrighted data which, under United States Copyright Law, may not be used except under the licenses Google provides. Google allows non-commercial personal use of the images as long as copyrights and attributions are preserved.
By contrast, images created with NASA's globe software World Wind use The Blue Marble, Landsat, or USGS imagery, each of, in the public domain. In version 5.0, Google introduced Historical Imagery. Clicking the clock icon in the toolbar opens a time slider, which marks the tim
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The Pacific Ranges are the southernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains portion of the Pacific Cordillera. Located within British Columbia, they run northwest from the lower stretches of the Fraser River to Bella Coola and Burke Channel, north of which are the Kitimat Ranges; the Coast Mountains lie between the Coast of British Columbia. The Pacific Ranges include four of the five major coastal icecaps in the southern Coast Mountains; these are the largest temperate-latitude icecaps in the world and fuel a number of major rivers. One of these contains Mount Waddington, the highest summit within British Columbia. Within this region is Hunlen Falls, among the highest in Canada, located in Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park. Other than logging and various hydroelectric developments, a large ski resort at Whistler, most of the land in the range is undeveloped. In the southern part of the range, mining was important at various times in the Lillooet, Bridge River and Squamish areas, large pulp and paper mills at Powell River, Port Mellon and Woodfibre.
The largest hydroelectric development in the Pacific Ranges is the Bridge River Power Project, though smaller hydro plants are on the Stave River-Alouette Lake system in Mission and Maple Ridge, the Daisy Lake-Squamish River division of the Cheakamus Powerhouse, another power dam and power plant at Clowhom. Although the range was extensively surveyed for possible rail routes, only that of the Pacific Great Eastern was built; the Pacific Ranges are part of the southern portion of the Coast Plutonic Complex and has been characterized by rapid rates of uplift over the past 4 million years, which has led to high rates of erosion. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is within the Pacific Ranges, a volcanic belt formed by the subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate along the Cascadia subduction zone; the belt is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada. The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite.
Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones and small isolated lava masses. Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition and changing ice configurations; the most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was from the Mount Meager massif 2,350 BP, Canada's most recent major catastrophic eruption. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt contains 2 extra volcanic fields, the Franklin Glacier Complex and the Silverthrone Caldera, which lie 140 and 190 km northwest of the main volcanic belt; the Cascadia subduction zone is a 680 mi long fault, running 50 mi off the west-coast of the Pacific Northwest from northern California to Vancouver Island. The plates move at a relative rate of over 0.4 inches per year at a somewhat oblique angle to the subduction zone. Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia.
Instead and the accretionary wedge have been uplifted to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains. A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers which cross the Cascade Range contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench. However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is being compressed, similar to a giant spring; when the stored energy is released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create large earthquakes, such as the 8.7–9.2 Mw Cascadia earthquake of 1700. Niut Range Pantheon Range Waddington Range Whitemantle Range Chilcotin Ranges Shulaps Range Dickson Range Camelsfoot Range Bendor Range Lillooet Ranges Cayoosh Range Cantilever Range Douglas Ranges Garibaldi Ranges North Shore Mountains Tantalus Range Clendinning Range the Camelsfoot Range running north along the west bank of the Fraser from Lillooet is sometimes considered to be part of the Chilcotin Ranges, but in other definitions is part of the Interior PlateauMany smaller ranges and subranges are not listed at present..
Monarch Icefield Ha-Iltzuk Icefield Waddington Range Homathko Icefield Lillooet Icecap Pemberton Icecap Mount Waddington Monarch Mountain Mount Tiedemann Mount Munday Mount Queen Bess Mount Good Hope Mount Raleigh Monmouth Mountain Mount Tatlow Taseko Mountain Mount Silverthrone Mount Meager massif Mount Cayley massif Mount Garibaldi Wedge Mountain Garibaldi Provincial Park Golden Ears Provincial Park Cypress Provincial Park Mount Seymour Provincial Park Sasquatch Provincial Park Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park Birkenhead Lake Provincial Park Big Creek Provincial Park Spruce Lake Protected Area Ts'il?os Provincial Park Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area Tweedsmuir South Provincial ParkList is incomplete Some Protected areas, recreation areas and other non-park preservation areas are not listed. Fraser River Chilcotin River Bridge River Lillooet River Squamish River Homathko River Klinaklini River Bella Coola RiverMany unknown river
Pemberton, British Columbia
Pemberton is a village municipality north of Whistler in the Pemberton Valley of British Columbia in Canada, with a population of 2,574. Until the 1960s the village could be reached only by train, but that changed when Highway 99 was built through Whistler and Pemberton. Pemberton, British Columbia, Canada, is a small village located in the Coast Mountains, 100 miles north of Vancouver. Pemberton has a population of 2,574 people; until the early 1960s, when Highway 99 was built, Pemberton was accessible only by train and the population was under 200 people. The local economy is dependent on logging and tourism. Mt. Currie rises to the south, at 8,500 ft, can be seen throughout the Pemberton Valley; the climate of Pemberton is warm and dry in the summer and mild and wet in the winter. Pemberton is an ecologically complex and diverse zone, referred to as the Coast-Interior Transition zone. Moving from west to east in the direction of the prevailing winds and taking into consideration the elevation changes.
High summer temperatures and the pronounced water deficits during the growing season are the norm. In 1827, the Hudson's Bay Company's men first penetrated the valleys of the Birkenhead and Lillooet Rivers. Frances Ermantinger arrived by way of Seton Lake and Anderson Lake, James Murray Yale came three years having made the trip north from Fort Langley. In all likelihood both men were searching for a safe route for fur brigades from Kamloops and Fort Langley, for a route to bypass the lower Fraser River canyons. In 1846, Alexander Caulfield Anderson travelled through this country with the same purpose: to decide if company horses could make their way from the Fraser to present day Mount Currie and on, by way of Lillooet and Harrison Lakes, to Fort Langley. By as of the Oregon Treaty, the lower Columbia River, the main link with the Interior, was American, for that reason Governor Simpson considered a new route "most important." The men travelled on foot and by canoe from Kamloops to the south end of the lake named for the leader.
Seton Lake was named for an officer named Alexander Seton, a relative of A. C. Anderson. Seton served as lieutenant colonel on HMS Birkenhead; the exploration party continued by what Anderson described as a "very good trail," and camped overnight at the Birkenhead River. The next day, following the Birkenhead River, they reached Mount Currie area by late afternoon; the route was never used by the company, which chose to build the Brigade Trail from Hope via passes over the Coastal Range / Cascade Mountains to the east of the Fraser Canyon to reach Fort Kamloops. In 1858 the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush began and some 30,000 miners began the trek through traditional Lil'wat and upper St'at'imc territory to the goldfields at Lillooet known as Cayoosh Flat. Many miners who reached the goldfields in the summer of 1858 intended to stay the winter and this created an urgent problem for Governor Douglas of Vancouver Island; the miners needed food and that food had to be transported to regions above the lower canyons of the Fraser, where there were no roads.
Because he knew that twelve years earlier A. C. Anderson had traveled from Lillooet by a chain of lakes to Fort Langley, Governor James Douglas asked for a survey a route linking all lakes between the north end of Harrison Lake and the Fraser River; the total length of trail would be just over sixty-eight miles, the total length of all lakes nearly fifty-six miles. Five hundred miners eager to reach the gold-bearing Fraser River bars volunteered to build the trail, were charged $5 each for the privilege of doing so, in the form of a deposit to be refunded in exchange for goods upon completion, they established Port Douglas and constructed a trail called Douglas Portage to the north end of Lillooet Lake and called it Port Pemberton. This was the first public works project in the newly formed Crown Colony of British Columbia and is known as the Harrison-Lillooet Trail, the Lillooet Trail, the Lakes Route, or the Douglas Trail; the Pemberton Valley lies in the traditional territory of Lil'wat Nation who have lived on these lands for thousands of years.
Potatoes have been grown in the Pemberton Valley since the earliest days. Joe Joseph says that the land he inherited from his grandmother grew the first potatoes in the valley and that before the Gold Rush, when she was six, his grandmother had traveled to the coast with relatives and there visited a Mount Currie woman who had moved away from the valley and was living somewhere in the Lower Mainland around Fort Langley; when Joe’s grandmother and her relatives were leaving to return to the Mt. Currie homes, the woman they had visited gave them a pail of “skinny, lady finger” potatoes, said to plant them all that year, but to save the whole crop the first year and plant that crop with coming of the second spring, she said, the Mount Currie people could eat some of the potatoes they would dig the next fall. The returning visitors followed directions because the cultivation of domestic potatoes fitted well into the gardening practices of native women who dug them with forked sticks, early miners making their way north to the Fraser River gold fields starred in astonishment at the potato fields of Joe’s ancestors.
Pemberton was named for Joseph Despard Pemberton, a surveyor for the Hudson's Bay Company and Surveyor-General for the Colony of Vancouver Island in the 1850s. Joseph Pemberton had laid out Victoria's town
Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water. Dealing with risk and the need for teamwork is a part of the experience; this activity as an adventure sport has become popular since the 1950s, if not earlier, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet to 14 feet rafts with double-bladed paddles or oars to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a person at the stern, or by the use of oars. Rafting on certain sections of rivers is considered an extreme sport, can be fatal, while other sections are not so extreme or difficult. Rafting is a competitive sport practiced around the world which culminates in a world rafting championship event between the participating nations; the International Rafting Federation referred to as the IRF, is the worldwide body which oversees all aspects of the sport. Whitewater rafting can be traced back to 1811 when the first recorded attempt to navigate the Snake River in Wyoming was planned.
With no training, experience, or proper equipment, the river was found to be too difficult and dangerous. Hence, it was given the nickname “Mad River.” The first commercial rafting trip took place. On June 9, 1940, Clyde Smith lead a successful trip through the Snake River Canyon. Otherwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting, they range from simple to dangerous and potential death or serious injuries. Class 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. Class 3: Small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering. Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, large volume, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering. Class 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous that they are unnavigable on a reliably safe basis.
Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes; the overall risk level on a rafting trip using proper precautions is low. Thousands of people safely enjoy rafting trips every year. Like most outdoor sports, rafting in general has become safer over the years. Expertise in the sport has increased, equipment has become more specialized and improved in quality; as a result, the difficulty rating of most river runs has changed. A classic example is the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, which had a reputation far exceeding its actual safety statistics. Today the Grand Canyon sees hundreds of safe rafting trips by both do it yourself rafters and commercial river concessionaires. Rafting companies require customers to sign waiver forms indicating understanding and acceptance of potential serious risks.
Both do-it-yourself and commercial rafting trips begin with safety presentations to educate rafting participants about problems that may arise. Depending on the area, safety regulations covering rafting, both for the general do-it-yourself public as well as commercial operators, may exist in legislation; these range from the mandatory wearing of lifejackets, carrying certain equipment such as whistles and throwable flotation devices, to certification of commercial outfitters and their employees. It is advisable to discuss safety measures with a commercial rafting operator before signing on for that type of trip; the required equipment needed is essential information to be considered. Risks in white water rafting stem from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained so; these would include ‘keeper hydraulics’, ‘strainers’, undercut rocks, of course dangerously high waterfalls. In safe areas, moving water can always present risks—such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment.
Irresponsible behavior related to rafting while intoxicated has contributed to many accidents. Typical rafting injuries include trauma from striking an object, traumatic stress from the interaction of the paddler’s positioning and equipment and the force of the water, overuse injuries, submersion/environmental injuries, non-environmental injuries due to undisclosed medical conditions. Studies have shown that injury rates in rafting are low, though they may be skewed due to a large number of unreported incidents. Fatalities are rare in both do-it-yourself rafting. Meta-analyses have calculated. Like all outdoor activities, rafting must balance its use of nature with the conservation of rivers as a natural resource and habitat; because of these issues, some rivers now have regulations restricting the annual seasons and daily operating times or numbers of rafters. Conflicts have arisen when co