A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks, which represent ownership claims on businesses. Examples of the latter include shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Stock exchanges list shares of common equity as well as other security types, e.g. corporate bonds and convertible bonds. Stocks are categorized in various ways. One way is by the country. For example, Nestlé and Novartis are domiciled in Switzerland, so they may be considered as part of the Swiss stock market, although their stock may be traded on exchanges in other countries, for example, as American depository receipts on U. S. stock markets. As of 2017, the size of the world stock market was about US$79.225 trillion. By country, the largest market was the United States, followed by the United Kingdom; these numbers increased in 2013. As of 2015, there are a total of 60 stock exchanges in the world with a total market capitalization of $69 trillion.
Of these, there are 16 exchanges with a market capitalization of $1 trillion or more, they account for 87% of global market capitalization. Apart from the Australian Securities Exchange, these 16 exchanges are based in one of three continents: North America and Asia. A stock exchange is an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell shares of stock and other securities. Many large companies have their stocks listed on a stock exchange; this makes the stock more liquid and thus more attractive to many investors. The exchange may act as a guarantor of settlement. Other stocks may be traded "over the counter", that is, through a dealer; some large companies will have their stock listed on more than one exchange in different countries, so as to attract international investors. Stock exchanges may cover other types of securities, such as fixed interest securities or derivatives which are more to be traded OTC. Trade in stock markets means the transfer of a security from a seller to a buyer.
This requires these two parties to agree on a price. Equities confer an ownership interest in a particular company. Participants in the stock market range from small individual stock investors to larger investors, who can be based anywhere in the world, may include banks, insurance companies, pension funds and hedge funds, their buy or sell orders may be executed on their behalf by a stock exchange trader. Some exchanges are physical locations where transactions are carried out on a trading floor, by a method known as open outcry; this method is used in some stock exchanges and commodity exchanges, involves traders shouting bid and offer prices. The other type of stock exchange has a network of computers. An example of such an exchange is the NASDAQ. A potential buyer bids a specific price for a stock, a potential seller asks a specific price for the same stock. Buying or selling at the market means you will accept any ask price or bid price for the stock; when the bid and ask prices match, a sale takes place, on a first-come, first-served basis if there are multiple bidders at a given price.
The purpose of a stock exchange is to facilitate the exchange of securities between buyers and sellers, thus providing a marketplace. The exchanges provide real-time trading information on the listed securities, facilitating price discovery; the New York Stock Exchange is a physical exchange, with a hybrid market for placing orders electronically from any location as well as on the trading floor. Orders executed on the trading floor enter by way of exchange members and flow down to a floor broker, who submits the order electronically to the floor trading post for the Designated Market Maker for that stock to trade the order; the DMM's job is to maintain a two-sided market, making orders to buy and sell the security when there are no other buyers or sellers. If a spread exists, no trade takes place – in this case the DMM may use their own resources to close the difference. Once a trade has been made, the details are reported on the "tape" and sent back to the brokerage firm, which notifies the investor who placed the order.
Computers play an important role for program trading. The NASDAQ is a virtual exchange; the process is similar to the New York Stock Exchange. One or more NASDAQ market makers will always provide a bid and ask price at which they will always purchase or sell'their' stock; the Paris Bourse, now part of Euronext, is an electronic stock exchange. It was automated in the late 1980s. Prior to the 1980s, it consisted of an open outcry exchange. Stockbrokers met on the trading floor of the Palais Brongniart. In 1986, the CATS trading system was introduced, the order matching process was automated. People trading stock will prefer to trade on the most popular exchange since this gives the largest number of potential counter parties and the best price. However, there have always been alternatives such as brokers trying to bring parties together to trade outside the exchange; some third markets that were popular are Instinet, Island and Archipelago. One advantage is that this avoids the commissions
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
A crystal ball known as an orbuculum, is a crystal or glass ball and common fortune telling object. It is associated with the performance of clairvoyance and scrying in particular. In the 1st century AD, Pliny the Elder describes use of crystal balls by soothsayers. By the 5th century AD, scrying was widespread within the Roman Empire and was condemned by the early medieval Christian Church as heretical. Dr. John Dee was a noted British mathematician, astrologer and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I, he devoted much of his life to alchemy and Hermetic philosophy, of which the use of crystal balls was included. Crystal gazing was a popular pastime in the Victorian era, was claimed to work best when the Sun is at its northernmost declination. Before the appearance of a vision, the ball was said to mist up from within; the art or process of "seeing" is known as "scrying", whereby images are claimed to be seen in crystals, or other media such as water, are interpreted as meaningful information. The "information" gleaned is used to make important decisions in one's life.
When the technique of scrying is used with crystals, or any transparent body, it is known as crystallomancy or crystal gazing. Crystal balls are popular props used in mentalism acts by stage magicians; such routines, in which the performer answers audience questions by means of various ruses, are known as crystal gazing acts. One of the most famous performers of the 20th century, Claude Alexander, was billed as "Alexander the Crystal Seer". A crystal ball is a bi-convex spherical lens with a uniform radius of curvature, although without its edges and center material truncated as in a conventional lens construction, thus the principles of optics may be applied to analyze its imaging characteristics. As a lens, a transparent sphere of any material with refractive index greater than one bends rays of light to a focal point. An image is formed with significant coma, field curvature, other optical aberrations inherent to spherical lenses; the refractive index of typical materials used for crystal balls, produces a central focal point just outside the surface of the sphere, on the side diametrically opposite to where the rays entered.
For materials with refractive index greater than 2, the focus will be located inside the sphere. In this case the image is not directly accessible, while the closest accessible point is on its surface directly opposite the source of light. However, few materials have a refractive index this high. For a refractive index of 2, the image forms on the surface of the sphere, the image may be viewed on an translucent object or diffusing coating on the imaging side of the sphere. Since a crystal ball has no edges like a conventional lens, the image-forming properties are omnidirectional; this effect is exploited in the Campbell–Stokes recorder, a scientific instrument which records the brightness of sunlight by burning the surface of a paper card bent around the sphere. The device, itself fixed, records the apparent motion and intensity of the sun across the sky, burning an image of the sun's motion across the card; the omnidirectional burning glass effect can occur with a crystal ball, brought into full sunlight.
The image of the sun formed by a large crystal ball will burn a hand, holding it, can ignite dark-coloured flammable material placed near it. Ball lenses such as are used to couple fiber optics are identical to crystal balls, but in tiny form 1mm to 10mm in diameter. A crystal ball lies in the Sceptre of Scotland, said to have been possessed by pagan druids. Philadelphia's University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology displays the third largest crystal ball as the central object in its Chinese Rotunda. Weighing 49 pounds, the sphere is made of quartz crystal from Burma and was shaped through years of constant rotation in a semi-cylindrical container filled with emery, garnet powder, water; the ornamental treasure was purportedly made for the Empress Dowager Cixi during the Qing dynasty in the 19th century, but no evidence as to its actual origins exists. In 1988, the crystal ball and an ancient Egyptian statuette which depicted the god Osiris were stolen from the Penn Museum but were recovered three years with no damage done to either object.
Campbell–Stokes recorder Crystal skull Gazing ball Palantír Salvator Mundi, da Vinci's "Savior of the World" painting depicting Christ holding a crystal ball Seer stone Andrew Lang, Crystal visions and civilised, The Making of Religion, Chapter V, Green, C°, New York and Bombay, 1900, pp. 83–104. A Translation of Grimm's Fairy Tale No. 197 The Crystal Ball A Translation of Grimm's Saga No. 119 Crystal Ball Gazing Geoffrey Munn, The Sphere of Magical Thinking: The Enchanting History of Crystal Balls. 2018 Media related to crystal balls at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of crystal ball at Wiktionary
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Bloomberg L. P. is a held financial, software and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1981, with the help of Thomas Secunda, Duncan MacMillan, Charles Zegar, a 30% ownership investment by Merrill Lynch. Bloomberg L. P. provides financial software tools such as an analytics and equity trading platform, data services, news to financial companies and organizations through the Bloomberg Terminal, its core revenue-generating product. Bloomberg L. P. includes a wire service, a global television network, radio stations, subscription-only newsletters, two magazines: Bloomberg Businessweek and Bloomberg Markets. In 2014, Bloomberg L. P. launched Bloomberg Politics, a multiplatform media property that merged the company's political news teams, has recruited two veteran political journalists, Mark Halperin and John Heilemann, to run it. In 1981, Salomon Brothers was acquired, Michael Bloomberg, a general partner, was given a $10 million partnership settlement.
Bloomberg, having designed in-house computerized financial systems for Salomon, used his $10 million severance cheque to start Innovative Market Systems. Bloomberg developed and built his own computerized system to provide real-time market data, financial calculations and other financial analytics to Wall Street firms. In 1983, Merrill Lynch invested $30 million in IMS to help finance the development of "the Bloomberg" terminal computer system and by 1984, IMS was selling machines to all of Merrill Lynch's clients. In 1986, the company was renamed Bloomberg L. P. and 5,000 terminals had been installed in subscribers' offices. Within a few years, ancillary products including Bloomberg Tradebook, the Bloomberg Messaging Service, the Bloomberg newswire were launched. Bloomberg launched its news services division in 1990. Bloomberg.com was first established on September 29, 1993, as a financial portal with information on markets, currency conversion and events, Bloomberg Terminal subscriptions. In late 1996, Bloomberg bought back one-third of Merrill Lynch's 30 percent stake in the company for $200 million, valuing the company at $9 billion.
In 2008, facing losses during the financial crisis, Merrill Lynch agreed to sell its remaining 20 percent stake in the company back to Bloomberg Inc. majority-owned by Michael Bloomberg, for a reported $4.43 billion, valuing Bloomberg L. P. at $22.5 billion. Bloomberg L. P. has remained a private company since its founding. To run for the position of Mayor of New York against Democrat Mark Green in 2001, Bloomberg gave up his position of CEO and appointed Lex Fenwick as CEO in his stead. Peter Grauer is the chairman. In 2008, Fenwick became the CEO of a new venture capital division. Daniel Doctoroff, former deputy mayor in the Bloomberg administration, serves as president and CEO. In September 2014, it was announced that Michael Bloomberg would be taking the reins of his eponymous market data company from Doctoroff, chief executive of Bloomberg for the past six years after his term as deputy mayor. In September 2014, Bloomberg sold its Bloomberg Sports analysis division to the data analysis firm STATS LLC for a fee rumored to be between $15 million and $20 million.
Since its founding, Bloomberg L. P. has made several acquisitions including the radio station WNEW, BusinessWeek magazine, research company New Energy Finance, the Bureau of National Affairs and the financial software company Bloomberg PolarLake. On July 9, 2014, Bloomberg L. P. acquired RTS Realtime Systems, a global provider of low-latency connectivity and trading support services. In 1992, Bloomberg L. P. purchased New York Radio station WNEW for $13.5 million. The station was converted into an all-news format, known as Bloomberg Radio, the call letters were changed to WBBR. Bloomberg L. P. bought a weekly business magazine, BusinessWeek, from McGraw-Hill in 2009. The company acquired the magazine—which was suffering from declining advertising revenue and limited circulation numbers—to attract general business to its media audience composed of terminal subscribers. Following the acquisition, BusinessWeek was renamed Bloomberg Businessweek. Joel Weber edits the magazine. In 2010, Bloomberg L. P. acquired Eagle Eye Publishing, a Fairfax, Virginia-based company that publishes data about procurement by the Federal Government.
This acquisition became part of Bloomberg Government, launched in early 2011. In 2009, Bloomberg L. P. purchased New Energy Finance, a data company focused on energy investment and carbon markets research based in the United Kingdom. New Energy Finance was created by Michael Liebreich in 2004, to provide news and analysis on carbon and clean energy markets. Bloomberg L. P. acquired the company to become an industry resource for information to support low-carbon energy solutions. It was renamed to BNEF for short. Liebreich continued to lead the company, serving as the chief executive officer until 2014, when he stepped down as CEO but remained involved as Chairman of the Advisory Board. Bloomberg L. P. purchased Arlington, Virginia-based Bureau of National Affairs in August 2011, for $990 million to bolster its existing Bloomberg Government and Bloomberg Law services. BNA publishes specialized online and print news and information for professionals in business and government; the company produces more than 350 news publications in topic areas that include corporate law and business, employee benefits and labor law, environment and safety, health care, human resources, intellectual property and tax and acco
Institutional Investor (magazine)
Institutional Investor magazine is a monthly periodical published by Euromoney Institutional Investor. It was founded in 1967 by Gilbert E. Kaplan. A separate international edition of the magazine was established in 1976 for readers in Europe and Asia. Capital Cities Communications purchased the magazine in 1984; the Walt Disney Company bought Capital Cities in 1996 and sold the magazine to Euromoney a year later. Institutional Investor has offices in New York City and Hong Kong. Institutional Investor publishes global research and issues rankings throughout the year that serve as industry benchmarks. Top-line results are published in the magazine while the full details are available on institutionalinvestor.com. The rankings include: Executive Teams The All-America Executive Team The All-Europe Executive Team The All-Asia Executive Team The All-Japan Executive Team The Latin America Executive TeamResearch Teams The All-America Research Team The All-Europe Research Team The All-Asia Research Team The All-Japan Research Team The All-China Research Team The Latin America Research Team The All-Brazil Research Team The All-India Research Team The All-America Fixed-Income Research Team The All-America Research Team Rising Stars The All-Europe Fixed-Income Research Team America’s Top Corporate Access Providers Asia’s Top Corporate Access Providers The Emerging EMEA Research Team Europe’s Top Corporate Access Providers Japan’s Top Corporate Access Providers Institutional Investor’s Alpha is a quarterly magazine that focuses on the global hedge fund industry.
It was launched in 2003 under the original title, Alpha, to cover the fast-growing hedge fund industry. Throughout the year, the magazine conducts and releases proprietary research and rankings that serve as benchmarks for the hedge fund industry, it was established in 2009, as a successor to the magazine Alpha. Institutional Investor publishes 11 finance research journals under the brand Institutional Investor Journals; the Journal of Portfolio Management was launched in 1974 by Peter L. Bernstein and is edited by Frank J. Fabozzi. Official website