Getxo is a town located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain. It is part of Greater Bilbao, and has about 80,000 inhabitants, Getxo is mostly an affluent residential area, as well as being the third largest municipality of Biscay. Getxo was a parish, originally an area, including a large beach at the mouth of the Estuary of Bilbao. The parish council met at the church of Getxoko Andra Mari or Santa María de Getxo, the towns coat of arms has an oak with two cauldrons chained to its branches and the motto Kaltea Dagianak Bizarra Lepoan. With industrialisation in the 19th century, some parts of Getxo evolved into residential areas for the bourgeois class. A residential area called Neguri came into being, near Areeta / Las Arenas, on the other side of the road to Bilbao, there grew a working-class district called Erromo, similar to the one that grew near Neguri, Neguri Langile. Finally, in the 20th century, urban development reached the areas of Getxoko Andra Mari.
Getxo, as well as the area known as Uribe-Kosta. While in the early 80s the town had only 50,000 inhabitants, the surrounding towns of Leioa and Sopelana have seen multiplied their population in the same period. Getxo was hit by the Basque Conflict several times, with the town being the location of many ETA attacks, the deadliest of these was an ambush in October 1978 when three civil guards were killed and the most recent the car bomb attack on May 19,2008. Many activists of the organisation have been born in Getxo, such as Arkaitz Goikoetxea and it is located 14 km north of Bilbao, in the province and historical Territory of Biscay, in the community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain. It has a surface of 11.64 km² and it borders in the north with Sopelana, in the east with Berango and Lejona, in the south with Portugalete and in the west with the Bay of the Cove. The municipality officially encompasses the neighborhoods of Las Arenas, Romo, but for the inhabitants of Getxo there is a more thorough division, Las Arenas, Las Mercedes, Santa Ana, Zugazarte y Antiguo Golf.
Algorta, Algorta centre, María Cristina, Arrigunaga, Villamonte, La Humedad, Fadura, Usategui, Portu Zaharra / Puerto Viejo and Bidezábal. Aiboa Santa María de Guecho / Getxoko Andra Mari, Malakate, Punta Galea, Avenida del Ángel, Las Arenas and Neguri arose in the late nineteenth century as residential areas for the Basque industrial bourgeoisie. Neguri neighborhood is characterized by the palaces in which lived the elite of the bourgeoisie, the name of Neguri was coined by Resurrección María de Azkue, since previously it was called Aretxetaurre. Neguri comes from the merger of two Basque words and uri, Neguko hiri, the city designed, as has been noted. The neighborhood of Algorta is the district of largest population of Getxo, the greatest expansion was in the 70s when middle-class families decided to find a more comfortable place to live rather than in the neighborhoods of the left bank of the Nervion
Leioa is a municipality in Biscay, Basque Country, in northern Spain. It is located south of Getxo and Bergando delimitating east and south with Erandio, today it is part of the Bilbao conurbation. Its population stands at approximately 30.400. Leioa has a sufrace of 8,36 km2, the Udondo river establishes eastern limit of the municipality. It has its origins in 1526, before that year it was part of the anteiglesia de Erandio and it was a village with no more than 8000 people until the 1960s, when development came its way, as Bilbao expanded. Its population experienced an increase in the 1970s, and a more moderate growth afterwards. Is become a part of metropolitan Bilbao, Zuazu, Santsoena y Lertuche. Tellería, Basáñez, Negurigane y Aldekoane, Elejalde, Ikea Mendi, Mendibile y Santimami. Pinueta, Los Chopos, Txorierri, Aketxe e Ibaiondo, the University of the Basque Country has most faculties within this municipality. May 29, “San Máximo” festivity in Lamiako, june 24, “San Juan Bautista” festivity in Elexalde.
August 24, “San Bartolomé” festivity in Basaez, de los Remedios” festivity in Ondiz. August 17, Fiestas de Santi Mami, september 29, Fiestas de San Miguel de Txopoeta. Two consecutive stations of Line 1 of the Metro Bilbao rapid transit system are located in Leioa, Leioa, LEIOA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia http, //www. leioa. eu/
EH Bildu is a far-left, Basque nationalist and pro-independence political coalition active in the Spanish autonomous communities of Basque Country and Navarre. On 3 July 2012 Laura Mintegi was chosen as candidate for Lehendakari in the 2012 Basque parliamentary election, Mintegi, a professor at the University of the Basque Country, formerly stood as a candidate for Herri Batasuna. Bildu was formed as a response to the March 2011 ruling by the Supreme Court of Spain that banned a new Basque party called Sortu from being registered. Bildu was banned by the Supreme Court as well, due to their ties to Batasuna. The decision to ban Bildu resulted in protests in Bilbao. However, on 5 May 2011, exactly the day the campaign started off. At the 2011 local elections Bildu received 26% of the vote in the Basque region, the party won seats in most of the councils of the Southern Basque Country, including San Sebastián, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Pamplona. In the election for the Basque Parliament that took place on 21 October 2012, the coalition party won 21 out of 75 seats with 25% of the popular vote.
No single party won a majority in this election, on the first position of that list was EHB member Josu Juaristi who was elected member of the European parliament. He joined the group of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left
Balmaseda is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country. The lands in which Balmaseda is located had been inhabited since centuries before its official foundation, in the eastern end of the municipality there is a Roman milestone which belonged to the Pisorica-Flaviobriga road, which connected the present-day cities of Castro Urdiales and Herrera de Pisuerga. This road is believed to have been in use at least since the 1st Century, even though the towns old bridge could have been built simultaneously, there are not any evidences of its existence until some centuries later. The territory in which today is located Balmaseda belonged to the valley of Mena, Lope Sánchez founded the village, probably on the same location of a previous settlement, in one of the banks of the river Kadagua, granting the village the fuero of Logroño. Among the reasons for the foundation of the village were its protected location between mountains and the existence of a road connecting to Castile and Biscay.
The village was incorporated to the lands of the Lord of Biscay when the Lord Lope Díaz II de Haro married the daughter of Alfonso IX, thus obtaining the territories of Balmaseda, in 1234, Lope confirmed the municipal charter establishing Balmaseda as a town. However, this first union with Biscay would not last much, in 1274 it was given back to Biscay to be once more handed back to Castile in 1288 after the murder of Lope Díaz III in Alfaro following the orders of Sancho IV. Diego López IV would once more reinstate Balmaseda into Biscay, in 1312, after the disputes between Biscay and Castile, Balmaseda was once more reintegrated into the kingdom. The town would be incorporated again in Biscay in 1388, as it was requested by the village itself, on 5 November 1808 the city was the theatre of the Battle of Valmaseda, part of the Peninsular War, between French and Spanish armies. The municipality of Balmaseda is located in mountainous territory, in southwestern Biscay and 30 kilometers away from the province capital city Bilbao.
Balmaseda is located in the comarca of Enkarterri and it borders Artzentales, in the west, with Sopuerta in the north, in the south Balmaseda borders with the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is surrounded by the Ordunte mountains, Canto, nature park of Valley of Karrantza with Pozalagua Cave situated not far from Balmaseda. The main river of the municipality is the river Kadagua, which forms the valley where the town is located. The river is joined by several minor streams as the Acebo, Tueros, the river Kadagua has had historical importance for the town and still today has an important symbolism, as it is present on the towns coat of arms. Balmaseda carries Medieval market in March and San Severino festival on 23 October, Balmaseda has Sociedad Deportiva Balmaseda Fútbol Club with home La Baluga camp stadium. Balmaseda is connected with the rest of the province of Enkarterri region, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic San Severino Marche, Italy Balmaceda, Chile Balmaceda, an alternate spelling found in Spanish surnames.
BALMASEDA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Durango is a city and municipality of the historical territory and province of Biscay, located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the city of Durangaldea, one of the comarcas of Biscay. Because of its activities and population, Durango is considered one of the most important cities in Biscay after the ones that compose the conurbation of Greater Bilbao. The town is crossed by three rivers, the Ibaizabal river is the main river, and lies in the middle of its wide valley, with the scenic Urkiola mountain range and natural park to the south. The most important peak is the majestic Anboto, in addition, inside the town stand out two mountains, Pagasarri mountain and Neberondo. There are many differing opinions about the origin of the name Durango, Basque linguist Alfonso Irigoyen has suggested its origin to be in the name Duranco, probably used in the early Middle Ages. Other authors suggest the name to be a derivation of Urazango or a form of Padurango. In the confirmation of the towns fuero it is referred to as Tavira de Durango, Tavira was probably the name of the settlement.
Until the 16th century, the town was known as Uribarri de Durango and it has been postulated by the Royal Basque Academy of the Language that the name Durango stems from the Latin name Turanicus, possibly a Roman fundus like many others in the Basque Country. The impending threat of an intervention conducted by King Alfonso VIII against the Navarrese led King Sancho VI to found other fortified towns, such as San Sebastián. Between 1199 and 1201, King Alfonso VIII of Castile finally occupied the lordship of Durango and its hinterland, Durango went on to form part of the Crown of Castile, but former laws and institutions were upheld by the Castilian king. In the 15th century, Durango got engaged in the wider War of the Bands, with various conflicts involving the Ibarguen and Unzueta families. During this period, tower houses belonging to different clans were erected, such as the ones of Arandoño, Etxebarria, Lariz and she swore the fueros), and favourable trade conditions. According to the records, both monarchs took shelter in the Lariz Tower.
In 1517 Durango was devastated by an epidemic of plague that caused many deaths amongst the inhabitants. Some years after the epidemic, in 1544, heavy flooding inundated a good part of the town, just the opposite, in 1554 the town was ravaged by fire, burning all wooden buildings to the ground, i. e. virtually all the buildings were burnt down. In 1597 another plague epidemic spread across the town, the Town Hall is recorded to have been built in the 16th century. During the 17th century, the town of Durango had to face up to the enormous human, following heavy human losses suffered in battles and an episode of cholera epidemic, the town ended up virtually ruined
Portugalete is a town lying to the west of Bilbao in the province of Biscay in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The town has 47,756 inhabitants and is part of Bilbaos metropolitan area and it is located at the mouth of the Estuary of Bilbao, on the left bank. Its land area is only 3.21 km², resulting in a density of 15,908.4 persons/km². In 1300 Portugalete became the main port for Bilbao. The city has the Vizcaya Bridge, a transporter bridge, the car ferry is suspended from a frame by wires attached to wheels on tracks above the cabin and moves from one side of the River Nervión to the other via a traction system. This bridge was declared a World Heritage Site on 13 July 2006, the festivals officially last four days, from 14 to 17 August, the main festivities occurring on 15 and 16 August, San Roque Day. The people sing the song La Diana Portugaluja outside the Town Hall in the morning of 15 August to mark the eve of San Roque Day. Monuments in Portugalete include the 15th century Basílica of Santa María, Salazars Tower, official website PORTUGALETE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Autonomous communities of Spain
Spain is not a federation, but a highly decentralized unitary state. Some scholars have referred to the system as a federal system in all. There are 17 autonomous communities and two cities that are collectively known as autonomies. The two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet used this right and this unique framework of territorial administration is known as the State of Autonomies. The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a country made up of different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown by the 16th century, the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy.
These territories exhibited a variety of customs, laws. From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime, leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries. This culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces and these were the Basque Country and Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism, therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1913 and it was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonias mediaeval institution of government, was restored. During General Francos dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the unity of the Spanish nation, peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy, the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. In the end, the constitution and ratified in 1979, found a balance in recognizing the existence of nationalities and regions in Spain, within the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation. The starting point in the organization of Spain was the second article of the constitution. In order to exercise this right, the established a open process whereby the nationalities