Odin Mine is a disused lead mine in the Peak District National Park, situated at grid reference SK133835. It lies on a site of 25 hectares near the village of England, it is the oldest documented mine in Derbyshire and is thought to be one of the oldest lead mines in England. The mine is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and has biological and geological significance within the Castleton Site of Special Scientific Interest; the origins of Odin Mine are unclear. Trevor D. Ford states "It was worked in Roman times, again in the Dark Ages and in Norman times". However, there is no historical evidence to back this up; the use of the name “Odin” is cited as evidence that the mine was named by the Danes after their chief god. This is backed up by evidence that prior to the 19th century the mine was called Oden in mining records, more in common with the traditional Danish spelling; the first mention of the mine in official records was in 1280 when a poacher John of Bellhag was put on trial for hunting at Bactor Wood in Castleton and at the entrance to Odin Mine.
In the early days before explosives, the rock was weakened by fire setting: this involved heating the rock overnight by leaving fires lit and cooling the rock with water the next morning causing the rock to shatter. The Romans had great need for lead for the plumbing systems in their dwellings, they mined the ore galena extensively during their time in Britain, so it is possible that Odin Mine does have Roman origins. The mine is not mentioned again in documents until 1663. In the early 18th century Richard Bagshawe to become High Sheriff of Derbyshire, had a considerable stake in the mine; the Bagshawe family retained their interests at Odin until the 1850s. The mine was worked continuously throughout the 18th century with annual ore extraction varying between 100 and 800 tonnes per annum. In April 1706 a rich vein of lead was struck: 41 men and eight women were working at the site and the mine reached 500 metres into the hillside beneath Mam Tor. Drainage problems in the mine meant that a proposal to build a low-level sough was put forward in 1772 but this was not completed for many years not until the 1840s.
It was driven up from Hollowford Brook at Trickett Bridge in Castleton to the workings. The mine produced extensive spoil and this was used by the Manchester and Sheffield Turnpike company in 1802 when constructing a new road between the two places; the spoil contained fluorspar and barite, extracted in years when their value became known. There was a gap in production between 1848 and 1852 and the Bagshawe family withdrew their interests from the mine in September 1856, handing over ownership to Robert How Ashton of Losehill Hall. Lead production at the mine stopped in 1869, although some working took place in 1908 and 1909 when considerable amounts of fluorspar and barite were excavated from the Mam Engine Shaft; the veins of lead in the Castleton area formed 280 million years ago when a fault in the local Carboniferous limestone allowed mineralising fluids to flow into fissures in the rock, pushed up by great pressure from beneath the Earth's surface. Lead and sulphate combined to form the lead ore galena.
In its heyday, the mine was a complex system of levels and shafts that extended for 1500 metres into the Edale shales beneath the nearby Mam Tor. In the early days the mining was open cast, forming a gorge in the hillside with the water diverted by a leat to the north to keep the workings dry; the miners followed the vein of lead underground. The vein is exposed on the surface in a small limestone outcrop at the entrance to the mine and continues underground just south of due west in the limestone under the Edale shales of Mam Tor; the 1769 plans of the mine show that there were several branch veins leading from the main lead workings. There are several small pipe caverns contained within the mine. There is no evidence that Blue John was mined at Odin although the adjacent Treak Cliff Cavern mines the rock in areas not open to visitors; the site of Odin Mine is owned by the National Trust. It consists of a limestone gorge, the original early workings before they went underground to follow the veins of ore.
It looks like a natural limestone ravine with the workings now disguised by natural vegetation. To the left of the gorge is the two-metre-wide Odin Cave, which goes about 10 metres underground; the remaining spoil heaps are a protected archaeological site and support a wide variety of plants including Birdsfoot Trefoil, Wild thyme and the Common spotted orchid. Some plants called metallophytes can tolerate the high levels of metal in the soil: these include Spring Sandwort and Alpine Scurvy-grass. A gritstone crushing wheel, 1.75 metres in diameter with its iron tyre and circular iron track, used to crush the ore, can still be seen at the site. The crusher was built in 1823 at a cost of £40. Derbyshire lead mining history Odin Mine, Trevor D. Ford and J. H. Rieuwerts, Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society Lead Mining in the Peak District, Trevor D. Ford and J. H. Rieuwerts, ISBN 0-901428-25-6 Rocks & Scenery of the Peak District, Trevor D. Ford, ISBN 1-84306-026-4 Information board at the mine site.
Derbyshire Guide page on Odin Mine Showcaves.com on Odin MineFootnotes
Natural rubber called India rubber or caoutchouc, as produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Thailand and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Rubber is harvested in the form of the latex from the rubber tree or others; the latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup; the coagulated lumps are processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, is waterproof; the major commercial source of natural rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree, a member of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
This species is preferred. A properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber a major source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. Dandelion milk contains latex; the latex exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content varies greatly. In Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In 2013, by inhibiting one key enzyme and using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology in Germany developed a cultivar, suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility. Many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as as the Pará; some of them require more elaborate processing to produce anything like usable rubber, most are more difficult to tap.
Some produce other desirable materials, for example chicle from Manilkara species. Others that have been commercially exploited, or at least showed promise as rubber sources, include the rubber fig, Panama rubber tree, various spurges, the related Scorzonera tau-saghyz, various Taraxacum species, including common dandelion and Russian dandelion, most for its hypoallergenic properties, guayule; the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the indigenous cultures of Mesoamerica; the earliest archeological evidence of the use of natural latex from the Hevea tree comes from the Olmec culture, in which rubber was first used for making balls for the Mesoamerican ballgame. Rubber was used by the Maya and Aztec cultures – in addition to making balls Aztecs used rubber for other purposes such as making containers and to make textiles waterproof by impregnating them with the latex sap.
The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America. Charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736. In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie that described many of rubber's properties; this has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber. In England, Joseph Priestley, in 1770, observed that a piece of the material was good for rubbing off pencil marks on paper, hence the name "rubber", it made its way around England. In 1764 François Fresnau discovered. Giovanni Fabbroni is credited with the discovery of naphtha as a rubber solvent in 1779. South America remained the main source of latex rubber used during much of the 19th century; the rubber trade was controlled by business interests but no laws expressly prohibited the export of seeds or plants. In 1876, Henry Wickham smuggled 70,000 Pará rubber tree seeds from Brazil and delivered them to Kew Gardens, England. Only 2,400 of these germinated.
Seedlings were sent to India, British Ceylon, Dutch East Indies and British Malaya. Malaya was to become the biggest producer of rubber. In the early 1900s, the Congo Free State in Africa was a significant source of natural rubber latex gathered by forced labor. King Leopold II's colonial state brutally enforced production quotas. Tactics to enforce the rubber quotas included removing the hands of victims to prove they had been killed. Soldiers came back from raids with baskets full of chopped-off hands. Villages that resisted were razed to encourage better compliance locally. See Atrocities in the Congo Free State for more information on the rubber trade in the Congo Free State in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Liberia and Nigeria started production. In India, commercial cultivation was introduced by British planters, although the experimental efforts to grow rubber on a commercial scale were initiated as early as 1873 at the Calcutta Botanical Gardens; the first commercial Hevea plantations were established at Thattekadu in Kerala in 1902.
In years the plantation expanded to Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. India today is the
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls; because carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell carbon has four bonds to make, is only stable if all 4 of these bonds are used. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons. Most hydrocarbons found on Earth occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form limitless chains; as defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen; the formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2. The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n +2.
Those with one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are found as either linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property. Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers; as given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, branched hydrocarbons can be chiral. Chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms; those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n; those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n−2. Aromatic hydrocarbons known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring. Hydrocarbons can be gases, waxes or low melting solids or polymers; because of differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula remains different between hydrocarbons.
This inherent ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation, allows hydrocarbons to form more complex molecules, such as cyclohexane, in rarer cases, arenes such as benzene. This ability comes from the fact that the bond character between carbon atoms is non-polar, in that the distribution of electrons between the two elements is somewhat due to the same electronegativity values of the elements, does not result in the formation of an electrophile. With catenation comes the loss of the total amount of bonded hydrocarbons and an increase in the amount of energy required for bond cleavage due to strain exerted upon the molecule. In simple chemistry, as per valence bond theory, the carbon atom must follow the 4-hydrogen rule, which states that the maximum number of atoms available to bond with carbon is equal to the number of electrons that are attracted into the outer shell of carbon. In terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding.
Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic like lipids. Some hydrocarbons are abundant in the solar system. Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Hydrocarbons are abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations; the predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt. Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, due to chlorofluorocarbons' impact on the ozone layer. Methane and ethane are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. Propane is however liquefied, exists in'propane bottles' as a liquid. Butane is so liquefied that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters. Pentane is a colorless liquid at room temperature used in chemistry and industry as a powerful nearly odorless solvent of waxes and high molecular weight organic compounds, including greases.
Hexane is a used non-polar, non-aromatic solvent, as well as a significant fraction of common gasoline. The C6 through C10 alkanes and isomeric cycloalkanes are the top components of gasoline, jet fuel and specialized industrial solvent mixtures. With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures, deeper color. At the opposite extreme from methane lie the heavy tars that remain as the lowest fraction in a crude oil refining retort, they are collected and utilized as roofing comp
A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs in pure form. A rock may consist of a single mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases. Compounds that occur only in living beings are excluded, but some minerals are biogenic and/or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry. Moreover, living beings synthesize inorganic minerals that occur in rocks. In geology and mineralogy, the term "mineral" is reserved for mineral species: crystalline compounds with a well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure. Minerals without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids. If a chemical compound may occur with different crystal structures, each structure is considered different mineral species. Thus, for example and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide; the International Mineralogical Association is the world's premier standard body for the definition and nomenclature of mineral species.
As of November 2018, the IMA recognizes 5,413 official mineral species. Out of more than 5,500 proposed or traditional ones; the chemical composition of a named mineral species may vary somewhat by the inclusion of small amounts of impurities. Specific varieties of a species sometimes have official names of their own. For example, amethyst is a purple variety of the mineral species quartz; some mineral species can have variable proportions of two or more chemical elements that occupy equivalent positions in the mineral's structure. Sometimes a mineral with variable composition is split into separate species, more or less arbitrarily, forming a mineral group. Besides the essential chemical composition and crystal structure, the description of a mineral species includes its common physical properties such as habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, specific gravity, fluorescence, radioactivity, as well as its taste or smell and its reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents.
Silicate minerals comprise 90% of the Earth's crust. Other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. One definition of a mineral encompasses the following criteria: Formed by a natural process. Stable or metastable at room temperature. In the simplest sense, this means. Classical examples of exceptions to this rule include native mercury, which crystallizes at −39 °C, water ice, solid only below 0 °C. Modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy. Represented by a chemical formula. Minerals are chemical compounds, as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula. Many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution. For example, the olivine group is described by the variable formula 2SiO4, a solid solution of two end-member species, magnesium-rich forsterite and iron-rich fayalite, which are described by a fixed chemical formula. Mineral species themselves could have a variable composition, such as the sulfide mackinawite, 9S8, a ferrous sulfide, but has a significant nickel impurity, reflected in its formula.
Ordered atomic arrangement. This means crystalline. An ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been several recent proposals to classify amorphous substances as minerals; the formal definition of a mineral approved by the IMA in 1995: "A mineral is an element or chemical compound, crystalline and, formed as a result of geological processes." Abiogenic. Biogenic substances are explicitly excluded by the IMA: "Biogenic substances are chemical compounds produced by biological processes without a geological component and are not regarded as minerals. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound the product can be accepted as a mineral."The first three general characteristics are less debated than the last two. Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science. Recent changes have included the addition of an organic class, in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.
The organic class includes a rare group of minerals with hydrocarbons. The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names adopted in 2009 a hierarchical scheme for the naming and classification of mineral groups and group names and established seven commissions and four working groups to review and classify minerals into an official listing of their published names. According to these new r
Coorong National Park
The Coorong National Park is a protected area located in South Australia about 156 kilometres southeast of Adelaide and that predominantly covers a lagoon ecosystem known as the Coorong and the Younghusband Peninsula on the Coorong's southern side. Its name is thought to be a corruption of the local Aboriginal people's word kurangh, meaning "long neck"; the name is thought to be from the Aboriginal word Coorang, "sand dune", a reference to the sand dunes that form the Younghusband Peninsula. The western end of the Coorong lagoon is at the Murray Mouth near Hindmarsh Island and the Sir Richard Peninsula, it extends about 130 kilometres southeast; the national park area includes the Coorong itself, Younghusband Peninsula which separates the Coorong from Encounter Bay in the Southern Ocean. The Coorong has been cut off from Lake Alexandrina by the construction of the Goolwa Barrages from Goolwa to Pelican Point during the late 1930s; the national park was formed in 1967 as a sanctuary for many species of birds and fish.
It attracts many migratory species. It provides refuge for these animals during some of Australia's regular droughts; the 467 square kilometres supports coastal dune systems and coastal vegetation. One of the unique aspects of the Coorong is the interaction of water along its length, with sea water and Murray River water meeting rainfall and groundwater; the freshwater supports the fauna of the area while the sea water is the habitat for much of the birdlife. The waters of the Coorong are a popular venue for commercial fishers; the popular'Coorong Mullet' and'school mulloway' are the main species. The region was the setting of the popular 1977 film Storm Boy; the Coorong National Park was proclaimed on 9 November 1967 under the National Parks Act 1966 in respect to land in sections 17 and 60 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Glyde and section 6 in the Hundred of Santo. At the commencement of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 on 27 April 1972, the national park consisted of land in sections 17, 59 and 60 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Glyde and sections 6, 43 and 52 in the Hundred of Santo.
The Coorong Game Reserve, purchased by the Government of South Australia in 1968 was abolished on 14 January 1993 and its lands was added to the national park. The game reserve occupied part of the Coorong lagoon to the immediate west of Salt Creek and had an area of 68.4 square kilometres as of May 1982. The wetlands within the part of the national park containing the Coorong Lagoon form a complex of freshwater and hypersaline waterbodies with an unique diversity of habitats for plants and animals; the coastal lagoons are considered critically endangered due to the loss of freshwater flows, local extinction of characteristic submerged plants and subsequent loss of habitat diversity. The Coorong National Park has been recognised by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area, it has supported the chestnut teal, Australian shelduck, sharp-tailed sandpiper, red-necked stint, banded stilt, red-necked avocet, pied oystercatcher and red-capped plover. Australasian bitterns have been recorded.
It has supported significant numbers of orange-bellied parrots, fairy terns and hooded plovers, although their usage of the site has declined from reduced freshwater inflows. In February 2013, a lifeboat from MS Oliva, that foundered in the south Atlantic, washed up on a beach in the Coorong. Images of Oliva with the lifeboat rails empty can be seen at the Tristan da Cunha website of the grounding and recovery. Protected areas of South Australia List of islands within the Murray River in South Australia Andrew Grimwade Coorong National Park official webpage Page on protected planet website Media related to Coorong National Park at Wikimedia Commons