The Loop, one of Chicago's 77 designated community areas, is the central business district in the downtown area of the city. It is home to Chicago's commercial core, City Hall, the seat of Cook County. Bounded on the north and west by the Chicago River, on the east by Lake Michigan, on the south by Roosevelt Road, it is the second largest commercial business district in the United States after Midtown Manhattan and contains the headquarters of many locally and globally important businesses as well as many of Chicago's most famous attractions. In what is now the Loop, on the south bank of the Chicago River near today's Michigan Avenue Bridge, the United States Army erected Fort Dearborn in 1803, the first settlement in the area sponsored by the United States. In the late nineteenth century cable car turnarounds and a prominent elevated railway encircled the area, giving the Loop its name. Around the same time some of the world's earliest skyscrapers were constructed in the area. In 1908, Chicago addresses were made uniform by naming the intersection of State Street and Madison Street in the Loop as the origin of the Chicago street grid.
Some believe the origin of the term Loop is derived from the cable car, those of two lines that shared a loop, constructed in 1882, bounded by Van Buren, Wabash and Lake. Other research has concluded that "the Loop" was not used as a proper noun until after the 1895–97 construction of the Union elevated railway loop. Fort Dearborn was established in the first American-backed settlement in the area; when Chicago was platted in 1830, it included what is now the Loop north of Madison Street and west of State Street. Except for the Fort Dearborn reservation and land reclaimed from Lake Michigan, the entirety of what is now the Loop was part of the Town of Chicago when it was incorporated in 1833 and the area was bustling by the end of the 1830s. Passenger lines reached seven Loop-area stations by the 1890s, with transfers from one to the other being a major business for taxi drivers prior to the advent of Amtrak in the 1970s and the majority of trains being concentrated at Chicago Union Station.
The construction of a streetcar loop in 1882 and the elevated railway loop in the 1890s gave the area its name and cemented its dominance in the city. Afterwards, suburbanization caused a decrease in the area's importance. Starting in the 1960s, the presence of an upscale shopping district caused the area's fortunes to increase; the area has long been a hub for architecture. The vast majority of the area was rebuilt quickly. In 1885 the Home Insurance Building considered the world's first skyscraper, was constructed, followed by the development of the Chicago school best exemplified by such buildings as the Rookery Building in 1888, the Monadnock Building in 1891, the Sullivan Center in 1899. From the 1890s to the 1940s, local aldermen "Bathhouse John" Coughlin and Michael "Hinky Dink" Kenna led the so-called "Gray Wolves" of Chicago, a notoriously corrupt group of aldermen, they hosted the First Ward Ball in the area at the Chicago Coliseum, an event that brought together various people of ill repute and by the time of its forced closure in 1909 raised over $50,000 a year for the aldermen.
Coughlin served from 1892 until his death in 1938. He was from the area and owned several bathhouses in it, although in his years he lived in the nearby Near South Side. Kenna served as alderman from 1897 to 1923, when he stepped down in favor of Coughlin when the number of aldermen per ward decreased from two to one, again from 1939 to 1943 upon Coughlin's death. Corruption in the area would continue throughout the 20th century. Subsequent aldermen John D'Arco Sr. and Fred Roti were accused of being fronts for the mob, the 1st ward was moved in 1992 from the Loop up north to its current position in West Town in an effort to stymie corruption, the Loop itself being dispersed across several wards. Loop architecture has been dominated by high-rises since early in its history. Notable buildings include the Home Insurance Building, considered the world's first skyscraper; some of the historic buildings in this district were instrumental in the development of towers. Chicago's street numbering system – dividing addresses into North, South and West quadrants originates in the Loop at the intersection of State Street and Madison Street.
This area abounds in shopping opportunities, including the Loop Retail Historic District, although it competes with the more upscale Magnificent Mile area to the north. It includes Chicago's former Marshall Field's department store location in the Marshall Field and Company Building. Chicago's Downtown Theatre District is found within this area, along with numerous restaurants and hotels. Chicago has a famous skyline which features many of the tallest buildings in the world as well as the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District. Chicago's skyline is spaced out throughout the downtown area; the Willis Tower known as the Sears Tower, the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, stands in the western Loop in the heart of the city's f
Oregon is a city in and the county seat of Ogle County, United States. The population was 3,721 at the 2010 census; the land Oregon, Illinois was founded on was held by the Potawatomi and Winnebago Indian tribes. In fact settlers discovered that the area contained a large number of Indian mounds, most 10–12 feet in diameter. Ogle County was a New England settlement; the original founders of Oregon and Rochelle consisted of settlers from New England. These people were "Yankees", to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s, they were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s. Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal; when they arrived in what is now Bureau County there was nothing but a virgin forest and wild prairie, the New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes. They brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism.
They were members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian. Culturally Bureau County, like much of northern Illinois would be culturally continuous with early New England culture, for most of its history; the first European to visit the land was pioneer John Phelps. Phelps first returned in 1833 hoping to find a suitable site to settle. Phelps found a forest and river-fed valley. Other pioneers followed Phelps to this site, Phelps helped create the first church, grocery store, blacksmith shop, post office in Oregon. By December 4, 1838, due in large part to the efforts of Phelps and his brothers B. T. Phelps and G. W. Phelps, the land was claimed and certified by the Ogle County clerk as Oregon City. In 1839, Oregon City was renamed Florence after a visitor compared the scenic beauty of the Rock River to the Italian city of the same name. Florence was used for only about three years when the city opted to revert to its original name, sans the word "city", in 1843. By 1847 the town had a general store, ferry, 44 households and a population of 225.
The population continued to grow through the 1850s and 1860s, a fact demonstrated by the increasing number of churches in those decades and the building of a railroad in 1871. Industry followed the railroad and Oregon became home to an oatmeal mill, furniture factory, chair factory, flour mill and a foundry, Paragon Foundry, which operated until the 1960s; the city of Oregon was first organized under an act of the Illinois General Assembly, approved on April 1, 1869. By the 1870s the town of Oregon and nearby area was home to around 2,000 people. James Gale was elected the city's first mayor on March 21, 1870 and four other men, Christian Lehman, W. W. Bennett, George M. Dwight and George P. Jacobs, were chosen as aldermen. On March 29, 1873 the city was reorganized because of an act of the Illinois legislature which allowed the municipalities to incorporate as cities and villages. In 1920, the Oregon City Hall was constructed on the perimeter of the city's commercial district and it has been the center of city government since.
The Ogle County Courthouse was built in 1891 on the corner of Fourth Street. Between 1908-11, on a site just north of the city, sculptor Lorado Taft erected a 50-foot tall statue he had designed and named The Eternal Indian. Located on a bluff overlooking the Rock River valley, the sculpture is now known as the Black Hawk Statue, named after Black Hawk, a chief of the Sauk Indian tribe that once inhabited the area; the city of Oregon annexed nearby Daysville, Illinois, in 1993. According to the 2010 census, Oregon has a total area of 2.028 square miles, of which 1.96 square miles is land and 0.068 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,721 citizens, 1,630 households, 941 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,998.5 people per square mile. There were 1,789 housing units at an average density of 880.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White.9% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population. There were 1,630 households out of which 22.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were husband-wife families, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.3% were nonfamily households. 36.3 % of householders lived alone, 20.1 % of which were 16.1 % male. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 79.6% over the age of 18, with 19.6% aged 65 years or older. The median age was 43.5 years. The median income for a household in the city was $47,971 and the median income for a family was $60,625. Males employed full-time had a median income of $49,958 versus $29,792 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,832.11.9% of all residents lived below the poverty level, including 11.6% of families with related children under the age of 18. Of families with a female householder with related children under 18 years and no husband present, 34.4% lived below the poverty line.
In 1898, sculptor Lorado Taft founded the Eagle's Nest Art Colony on a bluff overlooking the Rock River, north of Oregon. Taft and his art colony began to exert an influence on the city of Oregon an
Batavia is a city in DuPage and Kane Counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. A suburb of Chicago, it is the oldest city in Kane County. During the latter part of the 19th century, home to six American-style windmill manufacturing companies, became known as "The Windmill City." Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, a federal government-sponsored high-energy physics laboratory, where both the bottom quark and the top quark were first detected, is located in the city. Batavia is part of a vernacular region known as the Tri-City area, along with St. Charles and Geneva, all western suburbs of similar size and relative socioeconomic condition; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 26,045, estimated to have increased to 26,391 by July 2016. Batavia was first settled in 1833 by his family. Called Big Woods for the wild growth throughout the settlement, the town was renamed by local judge and former Congressman Isaac Wilson in 1840 after his former home of Batavia, New York; because Judge Wilson owned the majority of the town, he was given permission to rename the city.
Batavia's settlement was delayed one year by the Black Hawk War, in which Abraham Lincoln was a citizen soldier, Zachary Taylor and Jefferson Davis were Army officers. Although there is no direct evidence that Lincoln, Taylor, or Davis visited the future site of Batavia, there are writings by Lincoln that refer to "Head of the Big Woods,", Batavia's original name from its first settler, Christopher Payne; the city was incorporated on July 27, 1872. After the death of her husband, Mary Todd Lincoln was an involuntary resident of the Batavia Institute on May 20, 1875. At the time the institute was known as a sanitarium for women. Mrs. Lincoln was released four months on September 11, 1875. In the late 19th century, Batavia was a major manufacturer of the Conestoga wagons used in the country's westward expansion. Into the early 20th century, most of the windmill operated waterpumps in use throughout America's farms were made at one of the three windmill manufacturing companies in Batavia. Many of the original limestone buildings that were part of these factories are still in use today as government and commercial offices and storefronts.
The Aurora Elgin and Chicago Railway constructed a power plant in southern Batavia and added a branch to the city in 1902. The Campana Factory was built in 1936 to manufacture cosmetics for The Campana Company, most notably Italian Balm, the nation's best-selling hand lotion at the time. Batavia is located at 41°50′56″N 88°18′30″W. According to the 2010 census, Batavia has a total area of 9.707 square miles, of which 9.64 square miles is land and 0.067 square miles is water. Batavia Avenue Main Street Randall Road Washington Street/River Street Wilson Street As of the 2000 U. S. census, there were 23,866 people, 8,494 households, 6,268 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,638.4 people per square mile. There were 8,806 housing units at an average density of 973.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.21% White, 2.42% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.35% Asian, none Pacific Islander, 1.53% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.27% of the population.
There were 8,494 households out of which 41.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.27. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.3% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. Males had a median income of $55,913 versus $35,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $38,576. About 2.5% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.1% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2008 U.
S. Census Bureau estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $90,680, the median income for a family was $103,445, the median home value was $329,800. Aldi, Inc. the U. S. subsidiary of Aldi Süd, has its headquarters in Batavia. Fermilab is located just outside the town borders and serves as employment for many of the town's residents. According to the City's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Batavia is an award-winning community. In 2007, BusinessWeek ranked Batavia #21 on a national list of the 50 best places in America to raise kids. In 2009, Batavia was ranked #56 on CNN Money's Best Small Towns in the nation. In 2011, Batavia was voted by RelocateAmerica as one of the Top 100 Places to Live in America. In 2013, Batavia won the Best Street Award from the Illinois Chapter of the Congress of New Urbanism for the City's Streetscape redevelopment of River Street; the River Street design was awarded the Lieutenant Governor's Award for Excellence in Downtown Revitalization at the Illinois Main Street Conference in 2013.
In 2013, the City of Batavia was designated as a Bike Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists. Only six communities in Illinois are designated Bike Friendly Communities. In 2013, Batavia's collection of historic windmills was designated as an Histor
Metra is a commuter railroad in the Chicago metropolitan area. The railroad operates 242 stations on 11 different rail lines, it is the fourth busiest commuter rail system in the United States by ridership and the largest and busiest commuter rail system outside the New York City metropolitan area. There were 83.4 million passenger rides in 2014, up 1.3% from the previous year. The estimated busiest day for Metra ridership occurred on November 4, 2016—the day of the Chicago Cubs 2016 World Series victory rally. Using Chicago's rail infrastructure, much of which dates to the 1850s, the Illinois General Assembly established the parent Regional Transportation Authority to consolidate all public transit operations in the Chicago area, including commuter rail; the RTA's creation was a result of the anticipated failure of commuter service operated and owned by various private railroad companies in the 1970s. In 1984, RTA formed a commuter rail division to focus on rail operations, which branded itself as Metra in 1985.
Freight rail companies still operate some Metra routes under contracted service agreements. Metra owns all rolling stock and is responsible for all stations along with the respective municipalities. Since its inception, Metra has directed more than $5 billion into the commuter rail system of the Chicago metropolitan area. Since its founding in the 19th century, Chicago has been a major Midwestern hub in the North American rail network, it has more trackage radiating in more directions than any other city in North America. Railroads set up their headquarters in the city and Chicago became a center for building freight cars, passenger cars and diesel locomotives. By the 1930s Chicago had the world's largest public transportation system, but commuter rail services started to decline. By the mid-1970s, the commuter lines faced an uncertain future; the Burlington Northern, Milwaukee Road and North Western and Illinois Central were losing money and were using passenger cars dating as far back as the 1920s.
To provide stability to the commuter rail system, the Illinois General Assembly formed the Regional Transportation Authority in 1974. Its purpose was to plan the Chicago region's public transportation. In the beginning the Regional Transportation Authority commuter train fleet consisted of second-hand equipment, until 1976 when the first order of new EMD F40PH locomotives arrived; that F40PH fleet is still in service today. The companies that had long provided commuter rail in the Chicago area continued to operate their lines under contract to the RTA. Less than a decade the Regional Transportation Authority was suffering from ongoing financial problems. Additionally, two rail providers, the Rock Island Line and the Milwaukee Road, went bankrupt, forcing the RTA to create the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation to operate their lines directly in 1982. In 1983 the Illinois Legislature reorganized the agency; that reorganization left the Regional Transportation Authority in charge of day-to-day operations of all bus, heavy rail and commuter rail services throughout the Chicago metropolitan area.
It was responsible for directing fare and service levels, setting up budgets, finding sources for capital investment and planning. A new Commuter Rail Division was created to handle commuter rail operations; the board of the RTA Commuter Rail Division first met in 1984. In an effort to simplify the operation of commuter rail in the Chicago area, in July 1985 it adopted a unified brand for the entire system–Metra, or Metropolitan Rail; the newly reorganized Metra service helped to bring a single identity to the many infrastructure components serviced by the Regional Transportation Authority's commuter rail system. However, the system is still known as the Commuter Rail Division of the RTA. Today, Metra's operating arm, the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation, operates seven Metra owned routes. Four other routes continue to be operated by Union BNSF under contract to Metra. Service throughout the network is provided under the Metra name. Metra owns all rolling stock, controls fares and staffing levels, is responsible for most of the stations.
However, the freight carriers who operate routes under contract use their own employees and control the right-of-way for those routes. In the late 20th and early 21st century Metra experienced record ridership and expanded its services. In 1996 Metra organized its first new line, the North Central Service, running from Union Station to Antioch. By 2006 it added new intermediate stops to that same route, extended the Union Pacific / West Line from Geneva to Elburn and extended SouthWest Service from Orland Park to Manhattan. In 2012 it boasted 95.8% average on-time performance. It posted its fourth highest volume in its history despite decreases in employment opportunities in downtown Chicago. Metra continued to improve passenger service. Over the past three decades, Metra has invested more than $5 billion into its infrastructure; that investment has been used to purchase new rolling stock, build new stations, renovate tracks, modernize signal systems and upgrade support facilities. In addition to core improvements on the Union Pacific Northwest and Union Pacific West routes, planning advanced on two new Metra routes, SouthEast Service and the Suburban Transit Access Route.
Metra has been marred by allegations and investigations of corruption. In April 2002, board member
Campton Hills, Illinois
Campton Hills is a village in Kane County, Illinois and is a far western suburb of Chicago. The population of the village is 11,131 per the 2010 US Census; the village was established on May 14, 2007, by incorporating 20.3 square miles of Campton and Plato townships, including the unincorporated community of Wasco. The incorporation followed an April 17 referendum in which 55 percent of voters approved incorporation. Several areas on the village's boundaries disconnected within the first year of incorporation, taking advantage of less restrictive requirements imposed by state statute during that period; as of August 2009, the village comprises 17.16 square miles. The village is served by three school districts; the majority is served by St. Charles Community Unit School District 303 while the northern end is served by Central Community Unit School District 301. Kaneland Community Unit School District 302 serves the far southwest portion of the village; the first president and one of the founders of the village was Patsy Smith.
Due to confusion over the requirements of Illinois election laws, an opposition group filed nominating petitions for a primary election to be held in February 2015. Over the objections of Smith and her supporters, a Kane County judge affirmed the requirement for a primary. Forced to run as a write-in candidate in the general election, Smith lost in her bid for re-election to Harry Blecker, an incumbent village trustee who had appeared on the primary ballot as a candidate for village president. Campton Hills is bordered by Saint Charles to the east, Lily Lake to the west, Elburn to the south and Elgin to the north. According to the 2010 census, Campton Hills has a total area of 16.992 square miles, of which 16.91 square miles is land and 0.082 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,131 people, 3,492 occupied households, of those 90.4% are family households. The racial makeup of the village was 96.8% White, 0.3% African American, 0.4% Chippewa American Indian, 1.5% Asian, 1.0% both White and Asian.
No person from the 2010 census was from a race not listed above. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3% of the population; the average household size was 3.19 and the average family size was 3.36 individuals. All age groups are represented including those 85 and older; the age group between 25 and 34 years old is under-represented at 4.4%. The median income for a household in the village was $128,633, the median income for a family was $137,539; the per capita income for the village was $47,398. Those in poverty between the ages of 18 to 64 years was 4.7%. In July 2012, the village released a comprehensive plan detailing future outlooks and developmental goals. Topics included village history, demographics, an outline of principles and strategies, proposals for further commercial and community development; as of March 2013, Campton Hills has an established open space initiative. Official website
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Union Pacific / West Line
The Union Pacific West Line is a Metra commuter rail line operated by Union Pacific Railroad in Chicago and its western suburbs. Metra does not refer to its lines by particular colors, but the timetable accents for the Union Pacific/West line are "Kate Shelley Rose" pink, honoring an Iowa woman who saved a Chicago & North Western Railway train from disaster in 1881. In April 2013 the public timetable shows 30 trains leaving Chicago each weekday, of which 22 run to Elburn. Of the 8 trains on weekdays that do not run through to Elburn, 4 terminate at Elmhurst, 2 at Geneva, 1 at West Chicago, 1 at La Fox. All weekend trains run through to Elburn; until 2006, all Metra trains on this line terminated at Geneva. The line runs as part of the Union Pacific Railroad's Geneva Subdivision The line runs from the Ogilvie Transportation Center in downtown Chicago through the western suburbs to Elburn; this is the oldest railway route in Chicago, the route of the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad along Kinzie street.
Until the late 1940s the line had a branch to Illinois. It diverged from the main line at West Chicago and had stations at Elgin, Belvidere, Rockford and other communities. Metra Union Pacific/West service schedule Media related to Metra Union Pacific/West Line at Wikimedia Commons