Aragorn II, son of Arathorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, he is one of the main protagonists of The Lord of the Rings. Aragorn was a Ranger of the North, first introduced with the name Strider at Bree, as the Hobbits continued to call him throughout The Lord of the Rings, he was revealed to be the heir of Isildur and rightful claimant to the thrones of Arnor and Gondor. He was a confidant of Gandalf and an integral part of the quest to destroy the One Ring and defeat the Dark Lord Sauron. Aragorn led the Fellowship of the Ring following the loss of Gandalf in the Mines of Moria while fighting the Balrog; when the Fellowship was broken, he tracked the hobbits Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took with the help of Legolas the elf and Gimli the dwarf to Fangorn Forest. He fought in the battle at Helm's Deep and the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. After defeating Sauron's forces in Gondor, he led an army of Gondor and Rohan against the Black Gate of Mordor to distract Sauron's attention so that Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee could have a chance to destroy the One Ring.
At the end of The Lord of the Rings, Aragorn was crowned King Elessar Telcontar of Gondor. He married Elrond's daughter and assumed the Sceptre of Annúminas as King of Arnor, uniting the two kingdoms for the first time since the reign of Isildur; the son of Arathorn II and his wife Gilraen, Aragorn was born on 1'March', T. A. 2931. Through his ancestor Elendil Aragorn was a descendant of the first king of Númenor, Elros Tar-Minyatur; when Aragorn was two years old, his father was killed while pursuing orcs. Aragorn was afterwards fostered in Rivendell by Elrond. At the bidding of Elrond, his lineage was kept secret, as Elrond feared he would be killed like his father and grandfather if his true identity as Isildur's heir became known. Aragorn was renamed Estel to hide his existence from his servants, he was not told about his heritage until he came of age in 2951. Elrond revealed to Aragorn his true name and ancestry, delivered to him the shards of Elendil's sword Narsil, the Ring of Barahir, he withheld the Sceptre of Annúminas from him.
Aragorn met and fell in love with Arwen, Elrond's daughter, when she returned from Lórien, her mother's homeland. Aragorn thereafter assumed his role as the sixteenth Chieftain of the Dúnedain, the Rangers of the North, went into the wild, living with the remnants of his people, whose kingdom had been destroyed through civil and regional wars centuries before. Aragorn met Gandalf the Grey in 2956, they became close friends; the Rangers help to guard the Shire, inhabited by the agrarian Hobbits. In the areas around the Shire and Bree he became known as "Strider". From 2957 to 2980, Aragorn undertook great journeys, serving in the armies of King Thengel of Rohan and of Steward Ecthelion II of Gondor, his tasks helped to raise morale in the West and to counter the growing threat of Sauron and his allies, he acquired experience that he would put to use in the War of the Ring. Aragorn served his lords during that time under the name Thorongil. With a small squadron of ships from Gondor, he led an assault on Umbar in 2980, burning many of the Corsairs' ships and slaying their lord during the Battle of the Havens.
After the victory at Umbar, "Thorongil" left the field, to the dismay of his men, went East. Aragorn travelled through the Dwarves' mines of Moria and to Rhûn and Harad, where "the stars are strange". In 2980, he visited Lórien, there again met Arwen, he gave her an heirloom of his House, the Ring of Barahir, and, on the hill of Cerin Amroth, Arwen pledged her hand to him in marriage, renouncing her Elvish lineage and accepting mortality, the "Gift of Men". Elrond withheld from Aragorn permission to marry his daughter until such time as his foster son should be king of Gondor and Arnor reunited. To marry a mortal, Arwen would be required to choose mortality and thus separate the immortal Elrond from his daughter. Gandalf grew suspicious of the ring belonging to the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, discovered to be Sauron's One Ring. Gandalf asked Aragorn to track Gollum, who had possessed the Ring; this hunt led Aragorn across Rhovanion, he captured Gollum in the Dead Marshes northwest of Mordor and brought him captive to King Thranduil’s halls in Mirkwood, where Gandalf questioned him.
In The Fellowship of the Ring, Aragorn joined Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's adopted heir, three of Frodo's friends at the Inn of the Prancing Pony in Bree. The four hobbits had set out from the Shire to bring the One Ring to Rivendell. Aragorn, going by the nickname "Strider", was aged 87, nearing the prime of life for one of royal Númenórean descent. With Aragorn's help the Hobbits reached Rivendell. There Frodo volunteered to destroy the Ring in the fires of Mount Doom, Aragorn was chosen as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring to accompany him, along with Gandalf, Legolas the elf, Gimli the dwarf, Boromir of Gondor, the hobbits Pippin and Frodo's faithful gardener Samwise Gamgee. Elven-smiths reforged the shards of Narsil into a new sword, setting into the design of the blade seven stars and a crescent moon, as well as many runes. Aragorn renamed the sword Andúril, it was said to have shone with the light of the
In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Turgon "the Wise" is an Elven king of the Noldor, second son of Fingolfin, brother to Fingon and Argon, ruler of the hidden city of Gondolin, his name is a Sindarinised form of his Quenya name Turukáno, which means something like "valiant lord". Although Turgon was against the departure of the Noldor from Aman, he did set out on the journey. After Fëanor and his sons departed using the only ships, he took his people across the dangerous Helcaraxë with his father Fingolfin, he settled at Vinyamar in Nevrast. There he became lord of both Noldor and Sindar. While he was journeying with his cousin Finrod Felagund along Sirion, Ulmo sent both of them a dream to look for a hidden place where they could be safe from the power of Morgoth. In the following year Ulmo appeared directly to Turgon and guided him to the vale of Tumladen in the Encircling Mountains, to which Turgon secretly moved, taking with him a third of the original followers of Fingolfin and many of the Sindar, deserting Nevrast, building the city of Gondolin.
The disappearance of so many of their brethren led many Elves to search for the "Hidden Kingdom" of Turgon. Turgon and his people remained isolated in Gondolin for many years, he had a daughter, Idril Celebrindal, who married Tuor after the man was guided to the secret entrance by dreams from Ulmo. Tuor's coming had long been prophesied by Ulmo, who had instructed Turgon to leave a suit of armour in Nevrast for a future messenger, which turned out to be Tuor. Tuor's warning of doom was rejected by Turgon, who trusted still in the secrecy of his kingdom, the vigilance of his allies, the Eagles, who prevented any spies of Morgoth from finding it. Turgon re-emerged with his host during the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, although the battle was still lost, his intervention prevented the rout from destroying the armies of the Noldor and their allies. Turgon died defending Gondolin when it was betrayed by his nephew Maeglin out of his desire for Idril, sacked by the hosts of Morgoth. Turgon wielded the sword Glamdring, found and carried by Gandalf.
Fall of Gondolin Quenta Silmarillion Tolkien, J. R. R. Christopher Tolkien, ed; the Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-25730-1 Tolkien, J. R. R. Christopher Tolkien, ed; the Children of Húrin, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-007-24622-6
In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Elves are one of the races that inhabit a fictional Earth called Middle-earth, set in the remote past, they appear in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings, but their complex history is described more in The Silmarillion. Tolkien had been writing about Elves; the modern English word elf derives from the Old English word ælf. Numerous types of elves appear in Germanic mythology, the West Germanic concept appears to have come to differ from the Scandinavian notion in the early Middle Ages, Anglo-Saxon concept diverged further under Celtic influence. Tolkien would make it clear in a letter that his Elves differ from those "of the better known lore", referring to Scandinavian mythology. By 1915 when Tolkien was writing his first elven poems, the words elf and gnome had many divergent and contradictory associations. Tolkien had been warned against using the term'fairy', which John Garth supposes may have been due to the word becoming used to indicate homosexuality, although despite this warning Tolkien continued to use it.
By the late 19th century, the term'fairy' had been taken up as a utopian theme, was used to critique social and religious values, a tradition which Tolkien along with T. H. White are seen to continue. One of the last of the Victorian Fairy-paintings, The Piper of Dreams by Estella Canziani, sold 250,000 copies and was well known within the trenches of World War I where Tolkien saw active service. Illustrated posters of Robert Louis Stevenson's poem Land of Nod had been sent out by a philanthropist to brighten servicemen's quarters, Faery was used in other contexts as an image of "Old England" to inspire patriotism. According to Marjorie Burns, Tolkien chose the term elf over fairy, but still retained some doubts. In his 1939 essay On Fairy-Stories, Tolkien wrote that "English words such as elf have long been influenced by French. Traditional Victorian dancing fairies and elves appear in much of Tolkien's early poetry, have influence upon his works in part due to the influence of a production of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham in 1910 and his familiarity with the work of Catholic mystic poet, Francis Thompson which Tolkien had acquired in 1914.
O! I hear the tiny horns Of enchanted leprechauns And the padded feet of many gnomes a-coming! As a philologist, Tolkien's interest in languages led him to invent several languages of his own as a pastime. In considering the nature of who might speak these languages, what stories they might tell, Tolkien again turned to the concept of elves. In his The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien develops a theme that the diminutive fairy-like race of Elves had once been a great and mighty people, that as Men took over the world, these Elves had "diminished" themselves; this theme was influenced by the god-like and human-sized Ljósálfar of Norse mythology, medieval works such as Sir Orfeo, the Welsh Mabinogion, Arthurian romances and the legends of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Some of the stories Tolkien wrote as elven history have been seen to be directly influenced by Celtic mythology. For example, "Flight of The Noldoli" is based on the Tuatha Dé Danann and Lebor Gabála Érenn, their migratory nature comes from early Irish/Celtic history.
John Garth sees that with the underground enslavement of the Noldoli to Melkor, Tolkien was rewriting Irish myth regarding the Tuatha Dé Danann into a Christian eschatology. The name Inwe, given by Tolkien to the eldest of the elves and his clan, is similar to the name found in Norse mythology as that of the god Ingwi-Freyr, a god, gifted the elf world Álfheimr. Terry Gunnell claims that the relationship between beautiful ships and the Elves is reminiscent of the god Njörðr and the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir, he retains the usage of the French derived term "fairy" for the same creatures. The larger Elves are inspired by Tolkien's personal Catholic theology—as representing the state of Men in Eden who have not yet "fallen", similar to humans but fairer and wiser, with greater spiritual powers, keener senses, a closer empathy with nature. Tolkien wrote of them: "They are made by man in his own likeness, they are immortal, their will is directly effective for the achievement of imagination and desire."In The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien includes both the more serious "medieval" type of elves such as Fëanor and Turgon alongside the frivolous, Jacobean type of elves such as the Solosimpi and Tinúviel.
Alongside the idea of the greater Elves, Tolkien developed the idea of children visiting Valinor, the island-homeland of the Elves in their sleep. Elves would visit children at night and comfort them if they had been chided or were upset; this theme, linking elves with children's dreams and nocturnal travelling was abandoned in Tolkien's writing. Along with Book of Lost Tales, Douglas Anderson shows that in The Hobbit, Tolkien again includes both the more serious'medieval' type of elves, such as Elrond and the Wood-elf king, frivolous elves, such as those at Rivendell. In 1937, having had his manuscript for The Silmarillion rejected by a publisher who disparaged all the "eye-splitting Celtic names" that Tolkien had given his Elves, Tolkien denied the names had a Celtic origin: Needless t
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works; the Shire refers to an area settled by Hobbits and removed from the goings-on in the rest of Middle-earth. It is located in the northwest of the continent, in the large region of Eriador and the Kingdom of Arnor. In the languages invented by Tolkien, its name in Westron was Sûza "Shire" or Sûzat "The Shire", while its name in Sindarin was i Drann. According to Tolkien, the Shire measured 40 leagues from the Far Downs in the west to the Brandywine Bridge in the east, 50 leagues from the northern moors to the marshes in the south; this is confirmed in an essay by Tolkien on translating The Lord of the Rings, where he describes the Shire as having an area of 18,000 square miles. The original territory of the Shire was bounded on the east by the Baranduin River, on the north by uplands rising to the old centre of Arnor, on the west by the White Downs, on the south by marshland south of the River Shirebourn.
After the original settlement, hobbits expanded to the east into Buckland between the Baranduin and the Old Forest, to the west into the Westmarch between the White Downs and the Tower Hills. The Shire was divided into four Farthings; the outlying lands of Buckland and the Westmarch were formally added after the War of the Ring, although Buckland had been settled by Hobbits long before the war. Within the Farthings there are some smaller unofficial clan homelands: the Tooks nearly all live in or near Tuckborough in Tookland, for instance. A Hobbit surname indicates where the family came from: Samwise Gamgee's last name derives from Gamwich, where the family originated. Buckland was named for the Oldbucks; the Shire is described as a small but beautiful and fruitful land, beloved by its inhabitants. The Hobbits were not industrialised; the landscape included small pockets of forest. Various supplies were produced in the Shire, including cereals, fruit and pipe-weed; the original parts of the Shire were subdivided into four Farthings.
The Three-Farthing Stone marked the tripoint where the borders of the Eastfarthing and Southfarthing of the Shire came together, by the East Road. Iceland, as Tolkien knew, was traditionally divided in Farthings, or "fourth parts", as the Shire is. In addition, the county of Yorkshire was divided into *þridings, meaning "thirds," from < Old Norse þriðjung-r third part. It is claimed. Buckland, across the Baranduin River to the east, the Westmarch, between the Far Downs and the Tower Hills to the west, were not part of the original grant to the hobbits by King Argeleb II of Arthedain; these were formally given to the hobbits as the East and West Marches of the Shire by King Elessar after the War of the Ring, in S. R. 1462. Buckland had been long settled by then: Gorhendad Oldbuck led hobbits from the East Farthing across the river in T. A. 2340, Buckland became "sort of a colony of the Shire". There is no mention of settlement in the Westmarch until Elessar's gift; the Northfarthing was the least populous part of the Shire.
It was where most of the Shire's barley crop was grown, the only farthing where heavy snow was frequent. The historic Battle of Greenfields was fought here. Bindbole Wood was one of the larger forests of the Shire, it was misspelled "Bindbale Wood" in the first Ballantine paperback edition, the misspelling has been carried forward in many commentaries, including Foster's The Complete Guide to Middle-earth and Fonstad's The Atlas of Middle-earth. The village of Hardbottle was the home of the Bracegirdle family, to whom Lobelia Sackville-Baggins belonged. Tolkien's unfinished index to The Lord of the Rings places Hardbottle in the Southfarthing, but in Tolkien's more extensive entry in his guide for translators, it is located explicitly in "the North Farthing". Long Cleeve was the home of a sept of the Took clan, descendants of Bandobras "Bullroarer" Took known as the North-Tooks, who settled here after the Battle of Greenfields; the western part of the Shire. It extended from the Three-Farthing Stone west to the Far Downs, included the White Downs.
The Hobbit, the first well-known work set in Middle-earth and closes in Bag End, The Lord of the Rings closes there. Bag End as a starting-point for adventure is referenced as'the door where it began' in the song The Road Goes Ever On; the windows and front door of Bag End were a typical feature of hobbit-architecture. Its tunnels and rooms typically, were all built on one level. However, only lavish smials like Bag End had many rooms and cellars, with high-quality fixtures and furniture, its front door and the porthole-like windows opened onto Bag End's lawns and gardens, the Party Field, the distant countryside beyond. The main entrance sat on the end of a gated path at the end of a lane leading from the Hill Road. Just downhill on the south side of Bag End lay Bagshot Row, a street running in front of a row of smaller holes dug into fill created from the excavation of Bag End. Bilbo added a potato garden to the western slope when Hamfast "Gaffer" Gamgee, of Number 3, Bagshot Row became his full-time gardener in T.
Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
Fingolfin is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, appearing in The Silmarillion. Fingolfin was a High King of the Noldor in Beleriand, second eldest son of Finwë, full brother of Finarfin, half-brother of Fëanor, the eldest of Finwë's sons, he founded the House of Fingolfin. His wife was Anairë and his children were Fingon, Turgon and Argon. Fingolfin was said to be the strongest, most steadfast, most valiant of Finwë's sons, his name in Quenya—one of Tolkien's fictional languages—was Nolofinwë, or "wise Finwë". This was his father-name. Fingolfin was born to Finwë's second wife, after Míriel died, as was Finarfin. While they lived in Aman, there was always strife between the sons of Indis and the son of Míriel due to Melkor's treachery. However, Fingolfin would seek to forge a better relationship with Fëanor at every chance. After Fëanor threatened him with swords and was banished from Tirion, Fingolfin forgave him and tried to mend their relationship; this occurred soon before destruction of the Two Trees and the Darkening of Valinor.
After this event and Fëanor's decision to leave Aman, Fingolfin chose to follow him into exile, so as not to abandon his people. Fingolfin led the largest host of the Noldor when they fled Aman for Middle-earth though he thought this unwise, his followers participated in the Kinslaying at the Havens, but only because they arrived after the battle was underway not knowing that Fëanor was the aggressor. He was the one who took them across the ice of the Helcaraxë, an epic and arduous journey that lasted months or years, they arrived in Middle-earth at the first rising of the Moon, sounded their trumpets. Soon after, at the first rising of the Sun, he came to the gates of Angband and smote upon them, but Melkor—now known as Morgoth—stayed hidden inside. Fingolfin and the Noldor came to the northern shores of Lake Mithrim, from which the Fëanorian part of the host had withdrawn, his son Fingon rescued Maedhros, son of Fëanor, who in gratitude waived his claim to kingship: thus, Fingolfin became High-King of the Noldor.
He ruled from Hithlum, by the northern shores of Lake Mithrim. After defeating the Orcs in the Dagor Aglareb, Fingolfin maintained the Siege of Angband for nearly 400 years, but the Siege was ended by Morgoth's sudden assaults in the Dagor Bragollach, the Battle of Sudden Flame, many peoples of Beleriand fled. When Fingolfin learned of this, received false report that his allies had been routed on all fronts, he became filled with wrath and despair, he took his horse Rochallor and sword Ringil, rode alone to Angband. All enemies fled from him, fearing his anger, mistaking him in his fury for Oromë, the Vala patron of hunters, he challenged Morgoth to single combat. Though Morgoth feared Fingolfin, he had to accept the challenge—or face shame in the eyes of his servants. Seven times Fingolfin wounded Morgoth and seven times Morgoth cried in pain, seven times the host of Morgoth wailed in anguish, but he could not be slain for he was one of the Valar. Whenever Morgoth attacked, Fingolfin would evade, avoiding Morgoth's weapon Grond, the hammer of the underworld, as it would crack the ground so violently smoke and fire darted from the craters.
However, Fingolfin grew weary and stumbled on a crater. Morgoth pinned Fingolfin with his foot, killed him, but not before he, with his last act of defiance, hewed at Morgoth's foot. Morgoth, from thence forward, always walked with a limp. An enraged Morgoth sought to desecrate the body of the valiant king but Thorondor, Lord of Eagles flew down and raked Morgoth's eyes, carried Fingolfin's body away to be placed on a cliff overlooking Gondolin, his son Turgon built a cairn over the remains of his father. Fingolfin is among those major characters whom Tolkien, who used to illustrate his writings, supplied with a distinct heraldic device; the song "Time Stands Still" of the German power-metal band Blind Guardian tells the story of the fight between Morgoth and Fingolfin. The song "Do Not Ask Me To Praise Him" by Aire and Saruman on their album "A Elberet Giltoniel" is a lament for Fingolfin by his minstrel some time after that last battle:'... do not ask me to praise him, the day won't be brighter for a candle...'.
Dagor-nuin-Giliath House of Finwë Quenta Silmarillion Fingolfin Leads the Host Across the Helcaraxë as illustrated by Ted Nasmith