National War Memorial (South Australia)
The National War Memorial is a monument on the north edge of the city centre of Adelaide, South Australia, commemorating those who served in the First World War. Opened in 1931, the memorial is located on the corner of North Terrace and Kintore Avenue, adjacent to the grounds of Government House. Memorial services are held at the site throughout the year, with major services on both Anzac Day and Remembrance Day. First proposed in 1919, the memorial was funded by the Parliament of South Australia, making it the first Australian state war memorial to be confirmed after the war; the design of the memorial was selected through two architectural competitions. The first competition, in 1924, produced 26 designs—all of which were lost before judging could be completed after fire destroyed the building in which they were housed. A second competition, in 1926, produced 18 entries, out of which the design by the architectural firm Woods, Jory & Laybourne-Smith was selected as the winner; the design—effectively a frame for two scenes depicted through Rayner Hoff's marble reliefs and bronze statues—shows the prelude and the epilogue to war, depicting both the willingness of youth to answer the call of duty and the extent of the sacrifices which they made.
In this, the work is not displaying a material victory, but instead a victory of the spirit. At the insistence of W. F. J. McCann, president of the Returned Soldiers' League, bronze tablets were cast to line the walls of an inner shrine, on which are listed the names of all South Australians who died during the Great War. 35,000 South Australians served in the First World War. This number amounted to 8.5% of the South Australian population at the time, or 37.7% of men between the ages of 18 and 44. Of those who served, over 5,000 South Australians died. In response to these deaths, Archibald Peake, the premier of South Australia, asked the state parliament to fund a memorial commemorating the victory and the sacrifice of those who had fought and fallen; the motion was presented in March 1919, it received unanimous support in the House of Assembly and the Legislative Council. With the passing of this motion, the South Australian Government became the first in Australia to elect to build a memorial to the soldiers of the First World War.
It was decided by parliament that the new memorial should be referred to as the "National War Memorial" though it was to be a purely South Australian monument, in spite of the term being used to describe the memorial to the South African War of 1899–1902. There have been at least two perspectives offered as to. First, as Donald Richardson observed, the name may have been chosen to emphasise the government's intention that the memorial should commemorate all who served during the war, not just those who came from South Australia; the National War Memorial Committee was formed in order to bring the proposal to fruition, in February 1924 the committee announced an architectural competition to find the design of the new memorial. In the preamble to the conditions of entry, it was stated that the new memorial was to serve the purpose of "perpetually commemorating the Victory achieved in the Great War, 1914–1918, the Supreme and personal sacrifice of those who participated in that War, the National effort involved in such activities".
Entry was open to South Australians who were British subjects, those intending to submit designs were required to file a statement of intent prior to 29 February 1924. The competition closed on 30 September 1924, there was a one-guinea entry fee. Three assessors were nominated to judge the entries: the South Australian Architect-in-Chief, A. E. Simpson; the committee specified a budget of £25,000, the conditions of entry stated that the memorial was to be situated at the entrance to Government House on the corner of King William Street and North Terrace, placing it just behind the existing memorial to the South African War. This location was counter to previous suggestions: a 1919 survey of architects had proposed that the memorial should be built on Montefiore Hill, while in 1923 the plans for the memorial involved erecting it at the rear of Government House, rather than at the front; the committee left open the form that the memorial would take, beyond stating that the memorial was not to be "utilitarian in character", debate over the form led to the emergence of a number of suggestions, many of which were covered in the media of the day.
These included Dame Nellie Melba's proposal to build a carillon of bells. In the end a total of 28 architectural firms registered their intent to submit entries to the competition—a lower number than expected, but Richardson suggests this may have been due to work on proposals for the new Adelaide railway station. Out of those 28, a total of 26 firms submitted designs by the deadline. On 10 November 1924, before judging could be completed, the Richards Building in Currie Street was destroyed by fire, taking with it all 26 proposals. Although most of the judging had been completed before the fire, suggestions at the time that the committee could use what they had learned from the entrants to propose a new competition with greater clarit
Adelaide Aquatic Centre
The Adelaide Aquatic Centre is a complex of indoor heated swimming pools operated by the Adelaide City Council and located in the northernmost extent of the Adelaide Parklands in North Adelaide. It is located in the square of parkland bordered by Jeffcott Street, Barton Terrace West, Prospect Road and Fitzroy Terrace. There is a car park to the west whose entrance is off Jeffcott Street, but the entrance to the centre itself faces north, towards Fitzroy Terrace; the centre opened on 20 December 1969. The centre features a 50-metre Olympic-sized swimming pool and a smaller adjacent pool used for aqua aerobics, canoe polo, underwater hockey and water polo; these two pools are surrounded on three sides by raised seating for competition spectators. The wet areas include an octopus-themed'Octopool' for children's swimming lessons and recreational use, two leisure pools, two water slides, two spas, a dry sauna and a steam room. At extra cost, the centre offers a crèche and a health club equipped with cardio machines, pin-loaded weight machines and free weights.
There are shops providing swimming equipment and food, an outdoor barbecue area. There are separate prices for families, single adults and concession card holders. To the different areas of the centre, including the pools, sauna and gym. Adelaide Aquatic Centre offers membership for full access to the centre. Since 2005, peak representative bodies such as Diving Australia, Swimming Australia and the Aquatic Sports Coalition of SA have criticised the condition of facilities at the centre. There was a plan that in the period April to July 2011 the centre's roof would be replaced as the first stage in upgrading the centre. Adelaide City Council has allocated $6 million for a leisure centre conversion for the aquatic centre, but requires additional funding from the state or federal governments to go ahead; the Council is to undertake a detailed study on how best to proceed in further upgrading the centre in coming years, to shift its focus from swimming competitions to a family oriented leisure pool facility, along the lines of an indoor waterpark.
Isabella Ure Elder was a British philanthropist who took a particular interest in education of women, in the welfare of the people of Govan, site of her husband's shipbuilding yard. Isabella Ure was born on 15 March 1828 in Glasgow's Gorbals, the only surviving daughter of solicitor Alexander Ure and his wife Mary Ross, she had John Francis. Her education is unknown. In 1857 Isabella married John Elder, a partner in marine engineers Randolph, Elder & Co. In 1860 the thriving business acquired a shipyard at Govan, in 1868 became known as John Elder & Co. By the time John Elder died. Isabella was now the sole owner of the business and ran it for nine months until it was transferred to a partnership led by her brother; as a wealthy widow with no children, she now had time on her hands and began touring the continent for extended periods while becoming a major philanthropist in her home city. During her widowhood Isabella lived at 6 Claremont Terrace, close to the University of Glasgow in which she took a keen interest.
In 1873 she gave £5000 to support the Chair of Civil Engineering and in 1883 she provided £12500 to endow the John Elder Chair of Naval Architecture. The Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College benefited; when Queen Margaret College, the first college in Scotland to offer higher education to women, was founded she purchased North Park House in Glasgow's West End and gave it to the College rent free. She agreed to fund its medical school in 1890. Although taught by university staff, women could not yet qualify for a degree; when the University Commissioners announced in 1892 that women would be accepted in universities, QMC became part of the University of Glasgow. It saw its first graduations in medicine in 1894 and in arts in 1895. Isabella remained concerned that if women were taught separately they would receive sub-standard teaching, only agreed to North Park House being handed over to the University on condition that the teaching provided to women was equal to that of men, she was disappointed in the standard of lecturing and refused to give the Principal more money in 1899 unless the original agreement was kept.
Isabella undertook several philanthropic projects in Govan. In 1883 she purchased 37 acres near Elder's Fairfield Shipyard and created Elder Park, named in honour of her husband and her father-in-law, David, it opened in 1885 and for many years she paid for an annual display of fireworks there. In 1885, she set up a School for Domestic Economy where young women learned how to cook and perform other household tasks on a limited budget. In 1901, she provided the Elder Free Library and a villa for the Cottage Nurses Training Home and in 1903 she built and paid the running expenses for the Elder Cottage Hospital which she financed until her death. Isabella died at her home in Glasgow on 18 November 1905 of heart failure and bronchitis, her death certificate was signed by Dr Marion Gilchrist, the first woman to graduate in medicine in Glasgow, on 22 November she was buried in the family tomb in Glasgow Necropolis. Her will left more than £125000 for charitable purposes including the Ure Elder Fund for Indigent Widows of Govan and Glasgow.
The University of Glasgow awarded Isabella an honorary degree in 1901. Its publication, The Baillie, described her as "a true woman, a wise benefactress of the public and of learning." In December 2015, the University named a building after her. She is commemorated on the University's Memorial Quincentennial Gates and in a memorial window in Bute Hall, titled The Pursuit of Ideal Education, where she is pictured alongside Janet Anne Galloway and Jessie Campbell. In 1906 a statue of Isabella, in bronze on a granite base, was unveiled by Sir John Anthony, Provost of Govan, in Elder Park surrounded by a memorial garden, she is shown wearing her academic gown. The sculptor was Glasgow graduate Archibald Macfarlane Shannan and the £2000 cost was raised by public subscription, much of it from the ordinary people of Govan who held her in high regard, it was the first statue of a woman in the city and is still one of only four statues in Glasgow commemorating specific named women, rather than allegorical figures.
Isabella's statue is Category A Listed and the monument and memorial gardens were restored in 2010. Coincidentally, another Elder Park exists in Australia; the life and work of Isabella Elder was examined as part of the Govan’s Hidden Histories project, she has her own Facebook Page. Her biography was written by Joan McAlpine in 1997
Adelaide Festival Centre
Adelaide Festival Centre, Australia's first multi-purpose arts centre, was built in 1973 and opened three months before the Sydney Opera House. The Festival Centre is located 50 metres north of the corner of North Terrace and King William Street, lying near the banks of the River Torrens and adjacent to Elder Park, it is distinguished by its two white geometric dome roofs and lies on a 45-degree angle to the city's grid. It is the home of South Australia's performing arts. Adelaide Festival Centre replaced the City Baths; the Festival Centre is managed by a statutory authority under the Adelaide Festival Centre Trust Act 1971, responsible for encouraging and facilitating artistic and performing arts activities, as well as maintaining and improving the building and facilities of the Adelaide Festival Centre complex. The Festival Centre hosts the annual Adelaide French Festival in January, Adelaide Cabaret Festival in June, OzAsia Festival in September/October, the biennial DreamBIG Children's Festival in May, the biennial Adelaide Guitar Festival in July.
Adelaide Festival Centre was built in three parts from April 1970 to 1980. The main building, the Festival Theatre, was completed within its budget of $10 million. In comparison, the Sydney Opera House completed in 1973, cost $102 million. South of Adelaide Festival Centre, the Festival Plaza was completed in March 1977, comprising a then-controversial environmental sculpture by West German artist Otto Hajek; the sculpture was conceived as iconic City Sign. The lego-like forms and colourful paint work across the plaza were designed to conceal an air-conditioning vent at the same time as provide a playful place to congregate. However, Adelaide's citizens never warmed to the idea, the sculpture suffered poor maintenance, it remained one of Adelaide's most under-utilised public spaces until its demolition in 2018. Adelaide Festival Centre's outdoor spaces served as host to a collection of outdoor sculptures, including the prominent stainless steel Environmental Sculpture, by Bert Flugelman; the city baths and mint building occupied this site earlier.
In the 1960s, the Adelaide Festival of the Arts started to outgrow the city's existing venues, there was a push to build a'Festival Hall'. The proposed site was the Carclew Building in North Adelaide, purchased from the Boynton family by the Adelaide City Council for the purposes of building a Festival Hall. Liberal Premier Steele Hall lobbied the Federal Government for Tax Concessions for a public appeal for the Festival Hall, unsuccessful, until Prime Minister John Gorton called Hall from a prawn boat on the Gulf of Carpentaria and offered him either Tax Concessions or $100,000. Hall accepted the $100,000. While on a trip to London, Steele Hall visited the Royal Festival Hall on the banks of the River Thames and decided that the banks of the River Torrens was the ideal choice for the home of the Adelaide Festival of the Arts and the cultural heart of the city. During this time, the State Government changed but the drive for a new centre continued with fervour; when Don Dunstan became Premier he expanded the idea of a'Festival Hall' into a'Festival Centre' incorporating multiple smaller venues.
The Lord Mayor of Adelaide, Robert Porter, supported by Labor Premier and arts advocate Don Dunstan, launched a public appeal to raise funds to build a Festival Hall and establish Adelaide as a significant city in the art world. Most of Adelaide shared the appeal raised its target within a week, it was soon over-subscribed and the surplus was set aside to create a collection of artworks to grace the new State icon. Australia's first multi-purpose arts centre was designed from the inside out by architect John Morphett. Work began in Elder Park on 2 June 1973 the Festival Theatre opened. Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam opened the venue at a gala performance of Act Two, Scene 1 of Beethoven's opera Fidelio and Beethoven's Choral Symphony; the Playhouse, Space Theatre and Amphitheatre soon followed and Australia's first multi-functional performing arts complex was complete. The flourishing Festival Centre became a role model for many other performance venues as they strove to emulate its functionality and versatility.
Since it has become a place that South Australians regard with pride and a strong sense of ownership. 40 years it still maintains its status as a national arts icon. As well as managing the theatres and surrounding areas of the complex, the Festival Centre is one of Australia's most active arts centres and presents a wide range of arts activities and performances for the community. Adelaide Festival Centre has two locations: the primary performance and administrative hub on King William Road, Her Majesty's Theatre located on Grote Street; these two locations house six different venues: the Festival Theatre, Dunstan Playhouse, Space Theatre, Her Majesty's Theatre, Artspace Gallery and the QBE Galleries. The Festival Centre houses function spaces including the Banquet Room; the Festival Theatre is the largest proscenium arch theatre in Adelaide, seating close to 2000 people. It was designed as both a lyric theatre and concert hall, is used not only for theatrical productions and large concerts, but for graduation ceremonies and many other community functions.
Its huge backstage area makes the stage area one of the largest in the southern hemisphere and a favourite of companies with large sets. It houses the Silver Jubilee Organ, a'hovering' pipe organ built and donated to mark the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II; the Dunstan Playhouse, located in the Drama Centre b
Hurtle Square is a public square in Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the centre of the south-eastern quarter of the city, surrounds the intersection of Halifax and Pulteney Streets, its north edge is bounded by Carrington Street. The square was named by the Street Naming Committee after James Hurtle Fisher, South Australia's first Resident Commissioner
Wellington Square, North Adelaide
Wellington Square is a public square in the Adelaide suburb of North Adelaide, South Australia, in the City of Adelaide. It is at the centre of the largest of the three grids which comprise North Adelaide; the square was named on 23 May 1837 after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Irish born field marshal and statesman, victor at Waterloo, credited with securing the passage of the South Australia Foundation Act through the British House of Lords. Colonel William Light, first Surveyor-General of South Australia and a member of the Street Naming Committee, had served under Wellington as a junior staff officer. Light's 1837 plan of Adelaide included Wellington Square
Light Square known as Wauwi is one of five squares in the City of Adelaide. Located in the centre of the north-western quarter of the Adelaide city centre, the Square is named after the city's planner, Colonel William Light. Light Square was included by Colonel Light on the 1836 survey'Plan of Adelaide'; the square was named after Colonel Light by the street naming committee in 1837When Colonel Light died on 5 October 1839 he was buried in Light Square and a monument consisting of a red granite obelisk topped with a surveyor's theodolite was used to mark the grave. The Square is divided into a number of sections separated by roads. Waymouth Street forms the Southern boundary of the Square. Currie Street divides the southern two-thirds of the square from the northern third. Morphett Street encircles the square. In the largest southern section, there is a bronze statue of Catherine Helen Spence in the southwest corner of this southern section, an artistic structure on the western edge. There is another artistic structure in the middle of the northern third of the Square.
"Knot" by Bert Flugelman