Big Ten Conference
The Big Ten Conference is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States, based in suburban Chicago, Illinois. Despite its name, the conference consists of 14 members, they compete in the NCAA Division I. The conference includes the flagship public university in each of 11 states stretching from New Jersey to Nebraska, as well as two additional public land grant schools and a private university; the Big Ten Conference was established in 1895 when Purdue University president James H. Smart and representatives from the University of Chicago, University of Illinois, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, University of Wisconsin gathered at Chicago's Palmer House Hotel to set policies aimed at regulating intercollegiate athletics. In 1905, the conference was incorporated as the "Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives"; the conference is one of the nation's oldest, predating the founding of the NCAA by a decade, was one of the first collegiate conferences to sponsor men's basketball.
Big Ten member institutions are predominantly major flagship research universities with large financial endowments and strong academic reputations. Large student enrollment is a hallmark of Big Ten Universities, as 13 of the 14 members feature enrollments of 20,000 or more students. Northwestern University, the only full member with a total enrollment of fewer than 30,000 students, is the lone private university among Big Ten membership. Collectively, Big Ten universities educate more than 520,000 total students and have 5.7 million living alumni. Big Ten universities engage in $9.3 billion in funded research each year. Though the Big Ten existed for nearly a century as an assemblage of universities located in the Midwest, the conference's geographic footprint now stretches east to the Atlantic Ocean. Big Ten universities are members of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, an academic consortium. In 2014–2015, members generated more than $10 billion in research expenditures. Despite the conference's name, the Big Ten has grown to fourteen members, with the following universities accepting invitations to join: Pennsylvania State University in 1990, the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 2011, both the University of Maryland and Rutgers University in 2014.
Johns Hopkins University was invited in 2012 to join the Big Ten as an associate member participating in men's lacrosse, in 2015, it was accepted as an associate member in women's lacrosse. Notre Dame joined the Big Ten on July 2017 as an associate member in men's ice hockey. Notes Notes The University of Chicago was a co-founder of the conference. Lake Forest College attended the original 1895 meeting that led to the formation of the conference, but never participated in athletics or any other activities. Full members Full members Sport Affiliate Other Conference Other Conference The Big Ten Conference sponsors championship competition in 14 men's and 14 women's NCAA sanctioned sports. Notes: * Notre Dame joined the Big Ten in the 2017–18 school year as an affiliate member in men's ice hockey, it continues to field its other sports in the ACC except in football where it will continue to compete as an independent. ° Johns Hopkins joined the Big Ten in 2014 as an affiliate member in men's lacrosse, with women's lacrosse to follow in 2016.
It continues to field its other sports in the NCAA Division III Centennial ConferenceMen's varsity sports not sponsored by the Big Ten Conference that are played by Big Ten schools: Notes: 1: Fencing is a coeducational team sport, although a few schools field only a women's team. Ohio State and Penn State, like most NCAA fencing schools, have coed teams. 2: Men's rowing, whether heavyweight or lightweight, is not governed by the NCAA, but instead by the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. Rutgers Men's Rowing was downgraded to Club status in 2008, but remains a member of the EARC. 3: Unlike rifle, pistol is not an NCAA-governed sport. It is coeducational. 4: Rifle is technically a men's sport, but men's, women's, coed teams all compete against each other. Ohio State fields a coed team. Women's varsity sports not sponsored by the Big Ten Conference that are played by Big Ten schools: Initiated and led by Purdue University President James Henry Smart, the presidents of University of Chicago, University of Illinois, University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin, Northwestern University, Purdue University and Lake Forest College met in Chicago on January 11, 1895 to discuss the regulation and control of intercollegiate athletics.
The eligibility of student-athletes was one of the main topics of discussion. The Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives was founded at a second meeting on February 8, 1896. Lake Forest was not at the 1896 meeting that established the conference and was replaced by the University of Michigan. At the time, the organization was more known as the Western Conference, consisting of Illinois, Wisconsin, Chicago and Northwestern; the first reference to the conference as the Big Nine was in 1899 after Indiana had joined. Nebraska first petitioned to join the league in 1900 and again in 1911, but was turned away both times. In April 1907, Michigan was voted out of the conference for failing to adhere to league rules. Ohio State was added to the conference in 1912; the first known references to the conference as the Big Ten were in December 1916, when Michigan sought to rejoin th
University of Northern Iowa
The University of Northern Iowa is a public university in Cedar Falls, Iowa. UNI offers more than 90 majors across the colleges of Business Administration, Humanities and Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences and graduate college; the fall 2018 enrollment is 11,212. More than 88 percent of its students are from the state of Iowa; the University of Northern Iowa was founded as a result of two influential forces of the nineteenth century. First, Iowa wanted to care for orphans of its Civil War veterans, secondly, Iowa needed a public teacher training institution. In 1876, when Iowa no longer needed an orphan home, legislators Edward G. Miller and H. C. Hemenway started the Iowa State Normal School; the school's first building was known as Central Hall. The building contained classrooms, common areas, a living facility for most of the students, it was a home to the college's first principal, James Cleland Gilchrist. The building was the heart and soul of the school, allowing students to study courses of two-year, three-year, four-year degrees.
In 1965, a fire destroyed Central Hall, school faculty and Cedar Falls citizens donated over $5,000 to start building Gilchrist Hall. The school has been known under the following names: Iowa State Normal School, 1876–1909 Iowa State Teachers College, 1909–1961 State College of Iowa, 1961–1967 University of Northern Iowa, 1967–present University of Northern Iowa Colleges include: Business Education Humanities and Sciences Social and Behavioral Sciences Graduate College The class entering in fall 2018 had 1,766 freshmen enroll; the incoming class of 2016 marked the most diverse class in UNI's history with 11.2 percent minority students. Minority students now account for just over 10 percent of UNI's student body. UNI has implemented a Liberal Arts Core in order to provide a common liberal arts foundation for all undergraduate students. UNI provides an opportunity for the students to study in 25+ countries and select from over 40 programs; the mission of the Study Abroad Center at the University of Northern Iowa is to provide service and leadership in international education to UNI students, staff, the community and the State of Iowa.
The Culture and Intensive English Program is an intensive program in English for non-native speakers. It is designed to prepare students for academic work at the graduate degree level. University of Northern Iowa students are encouraged to participate in the Conversation Partner Program to help foreign students with their English ability and foster cross-cultural relationships while gaining mutual understanding; the university is the publisher of The North American Review, a celebrated literary magazine that began in Boston in 1815. Its past editors have included James Russell Lowell, Charles Eliot Norton, Henry Adams. In 1968, when the magazine was purchased by UNI, Robley Wilson was appointed editor, a position he continued in until his retirement in 2000; the current editors are Vince Gotera. The University of Northern Iowa Teaching and Research Greenhouse is a greenhouse complex incorporating botanical gardens for research and education, it is located on the campus of the University of Northern Iowa in Iowa.
The greenhouse contains plants from many ecotypes, including 250 tropical plants, an extensive collection of arid climate plants, the 1,200-square-foot Aquatic Learning Center. From 2014 through 2018 the UNI hosted the Midwest Summer Institute: Inclusion and Communication for All, a two-day conference on Facilitated communication sponsored by the Inclusion Connection and Syracuse University's Institute on Communication and Inclusion. In 2018, just before the fifth annual conference held on June 18-19, a group of over thirty "researchers and academics around the globe" signed a letter to the UNI asking the university to cancel the conference because the practice has been "thoroughly discredited over 25 years ago"; the letter stated that "overwhelming scientific evidence suggests that facilitated communication constitutes a serious violation of the individual and human rights of people with disabilities, robbing them of the opportunity to communicate independently with available innovative technologies."
Proponents of the method have defended the conference. The National Council Against Health Fraud released an article, critical of the school's support of Facilitated Communication and summarized the American Speech–Language–Hearing Associations draft position on Facilitated Communication as a harmful pseudoscience; the 2018 conference was held as scheduled, but the university withdrew its support shortly thereafter. On Oct 24, 2018, Provost Jim Wohlpart announced. Critics were pleased with this result but are skeptical of UNI's statement that the workshop was hosted by an outside agency, as UNI continues to employ "current staff members who trained with Douglas Biklen; the school's mascot is the Panther. They participate in the NCAA's Division I in the Missouri Valley Football Conference, the Missouri Valley Conference for most other sports, the Big 12 Conference for wrestling; the major arena on campus is the UNI-Dome the home of the football team. The Dome serves as a venue for many local concerts, high school football playoffs, trade shows, other events.
In 2006, the University opened a new arena, the McLeod Center, to serve as the home for several athletic programs, including volleyball and men's and women's basketball. UNI Athletics has enjoyed great suc
Chester is a city in Delaware County, United States. With a population of 33,972 at the 2010 census it is the largest city in Delaware County. Incorporated in 1682, Chester is the oldest city in Pennsylvania and is located on the western bank of the Delaware River between the cities of Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware; the Indian tribe that owned the land where Chester now stands were the Okehockings, removed by order of William Penn in 1702 to other lands in Chester County. The original Indian name of Chester was Mecoponaca; the first European settlers in the area were members of the New Sweden colony. The settlement that became Chester was first called "Finlandia" and "Upland" after the Swedish province of Uppland; the New Sweden settlers built Fort Mecoponacka in 1641 to defend the settlement. In 1644, the present site of Chester was a tobacco plantation operated by the New Sweden colonists. By 1682, Upland was the most populous town of the new Province of Pennsylvania. On October 27, the ship Welcome arrived bearing William Penn on his first visit to the province.
Penn renamed the settlement for the English city of Chester. Chester County stretched from the Delaware River to the Susquehanna River from its founding in 1682 until 1729 when Lancaster County was formed from the western part. Chester served as the county seat for Chester County from 1682 to 1788. In 1724 the Chester Courthouse was built to support the legal needs of the county. Chester played only a small role in the American Revolutionary War. Throughout 1776 and 1777, there were significant forces stationed in nearby Marcus Hook. In April 1776, nearly 1,000 men were stationed in Chester under Colonel Samuel Miles in preparation for the defense of Philadelphia. However, Colonel Miles led the troops to New York City in July 1776 when it became clear that the British Fleet was threatening New York rather than Philaldelphia. In 1777, the Continental Army led by George Washington passed through Chester on the way to meet the British Army led by General Howe at the Battle of Brandywine. John Armstrong was ordered to take command of the militia stationed at Chester.
The Continental Army fled back to Chester after defeat at the Battle of Brandywine. A portion of the British force occupied Chester as they chased the Continental Army fleeing to Philadelphia. In 1788, the Chester County seat was moved from Chester to West Chester. In 1789, Delaware County was formed from the eastern part of Chester County, Chester became the new county seat. On March 5, 1795, the borough of Chester, governed under the charter granted by Penn in 1701 was incorporated by the Pennsylvania Assembly. In the 1700s and 1800s, Chester was a hub for business due to easy access to the Delaware River for the transport of raw materials and finished goods by ship. By the mid-1800s, many textile mills and factories were built along Chester Creek including the Upland Mills by John Price Crozer and the Powhattan Mills by David Reese Esrey and Hugh Shaw. During the War of 1812, a group of volunteers from Chester called the Mifflin Guards was raised and led by Dr. Samuel Anderson; the troops were sent to Fort DuPont to defend the Delaware River from the threatened attack of British Admiral George Cockburn but did not see any action.
In 1851, the Delaware County seat was moved from Chester to the borough of Media. On February 14, 1866, Chester was incorporated as a city and the first mayor elected was John Larkin, Jr.. In 1871, the Delaware River Iron Ship Building and Engine Works was opened by John Roach through the purchase of the Reaney, Son & Archbold shipyard; the first steel ships of the U. S. Navy were built at the Roach shipyard. For the first 15 years of operation, it was the largest and most productive shipyard in the United States. More tonnage of ships were built at the Roach shipyard than its next two competitors combined. Roach built other businesses to supply materials for his shipbuilding including the Chester Rolling Mill in 1873 to supply metal hull plates and beams, the Chester Pipe and Tube Company in 1877 for the manufacture of iron pipes and boiler tubes, the Standard Steel Casting Company in 1883 to supply steel ingots. Roach built the Combination Steel and Iron Company in 1880 to supply steel rails and other products for businesses beyond the Roach shipyard.
He lost control of the company after his shipbuilding enterprise entered receivership in 1885. World War I brought Chester its first massive growth. People migrated to Chester for 63 % of which were in manufacturing. Between 1910 and 1920, Chester's population increased from 38,000 to 58,000 due to the influx of southern and eastern Europeans and southern U. S. blacks. The Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. was opened in 1917 to build ships for the United States until its closure in 1990. The idled Roach shipyard was purchased in 1917 by W. Averell Harriman to build merchant ships during World War I, renamed the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation; the shipyard closed permanently in 1923. Like many boomtowns, Chester was unprepared for the social changes that came along with rapid growth; as southern blacks migrated to Pennsylvania as part of the Great Migration, racial violence broke out, racially segregated neighborhoods expanded and economic discrimination emerged. A four-day race riot that resulted in 7 deaths broke out in the city in July 1917 and the separation of blacks and whites in Chester's neighborhoods and workplaces became more defined.
Chester was known as a freewheeling destination for vices such as drugs, numbers rackets and prostitution. Chester was known as Greater Philadelphia's "Saloon Town". By 1914, Chester had more saloons than police officers. In 1927, the Ford Motor Company opene
National Invitation Tournament
The National Invitation Tournament is a men's college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Played at regional sites and at Madison Square Garden in New York City each March and April, it was founded in 1938 and was the most prestigious post-season showcase for college basketball. Over time it became eclipsed by the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament – known today informally as "March Madness"; the NIT has since been regarded more as a "consolation" tournament for teams that did not receive a berth in the NCAA tournament. A second, much more recent "NIT" tournament is played in November and known as the NIT Season Tip-Off; the "Preseason NIT", it was founded in 1985. Like the postseason NIT, its final rounds are played at Madison Square Garden. Both tournaments were operated by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association until 2005, when they were purchased by the NCAA, the MIBA disbanded. Unless otherwise qualified, the terms "NIT" or "National Invitation Tournament" refer to the post-season tournament in both common and official use.
The post-season National Invitation Tournament was founded in 1938 by the Metropolitan Basketball Writers Association, one year after the NAIA Tournament was created by basketball's inventor Dr. James Naismith, one year before the NCAA Tournament; the first NIT was won by the Temple University Owls over the Colorado Buffaloes. Responsibility for the NIT's administration was transferred in 1940 to the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Committee, a body of local New York colleges: Fordham University, Manhattan College, New York University, St. John's University, Wagner College; this became the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association in 1948. The tournament invited a field of 6 teams, with all games played at Madison Square Garden in downtown Manhattan; the field was expanded to 8 teams in 1941, 12 in 1949, 14 in 1965, 16 in 1968, 24 in 1979, 32 in 1980, 40 from 2002 through 2006. In 2007, the tournament reverted to the current 32-team format. In its early years, the NIT offered some advantages over the NCAA tournament: There was limited national media coverage of college basketball in the 1930s and'40s, playing in New York City provided teams greater media exposure, both with the general public and among high school prospects in its rich recruiting territory.
The NCAA tournament selection committee invited only one team each from eight national regions leaving better quality selections and natural rivals out of its field, which would opt for the NIT. From its onset and at least into the mid-1950s, the NIT was regarded as the most prestigious showcase for college basketball. All-American at Princeton and NBA champion with the New York Knicks and United States Senator Bill Bradley stated: In the 1940's, when the NCAA tournament was less than 10 years old, the National Invitation Tournament, a saturnalia held in New York at Madison Square Garden by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association, was the most glamorous of the post-season tournaments and had the better teams; the winner of the National Invitation Tournament was regarded as more of a national champion than the actual, national champion, or winner of the NCAA tournament. Several teams played in both the NIT and NCAA tournaments in the same year, beginning with Colorado and Duquesne in 1940.
Colorado subsequently finished fourth in the NCAA West Region. In 1944, Utah lost its first game in the NIT but proceeded to win not only the NCAA tournament, but the subsequent Red Cross War Charities benefit game in which they defeated NIT champion St. John's at Madison Square Garden. In 1949, some Kentucky players were bribed by gamblers to lose their first round game in the NIT; this same Kentucky team went on to win the NCAA. In 1950, City College of New York won both the NIT and the NCAA tournaments in the same season, coincidentally defeating Bradley University in the championship game of both tournaments, remains the only school to accomplish that feat because of an NCAA committee change in the early 1950s prohibiting a team from competing in both tournaments; the champions of both the NCAA and NIT tournaments played each other for a few years during World War II. From 1943 to 1945, the American Red Cross sponsored a postseason charity game between each year's tournament champions to raise money for the war effort.
The series was described by Ray Meyer as not just benefit games, but as "really the games for the national championship". The NCAA champion prevailed in all three games; the Helms Athletic Foundation retroactively selected the NIT champion as its national champion for 1938, chose the NIT champion over the NCAA champion once, in 1939. More the mathematically based Premo-Porretta Power Poll published in the ESPN College Basketball Encyclopedia retroactively ranked teams for each season prior to 1949, with the NIT champion finishing ahead of the NCAA champion in 1939 and 1941. Premo-Porretta ranks four NCAA champions as the best for each season, the rest being non-championship winning teams. Between 1939 and 1970, when teams could compete in either tournament, only DePaul, San Francisco and Holy Cross claim or celebrate national championships for their teams based on an NIT championship, although Long Island recognizes its selection as the 1939 national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation, made in 1943.
In 1943 the NCAA tournament moved to share Madison Square Garden with the NIT in an effort to increase the credibility of the NCAA Tournament. In 1945, The New York Times indicated that many teams could get bids to enter either tournament, not unco
Eldon Chase Miller is an American former stock car racing driver, who last competed in the NASCAR Nationwide Series. As of 2016, he works as the car chief for the 14 Toyota Camry of TriStar Motorsports. Chase graduated from Sequoyah High School. Miller joined. In that race he moved to the top-five before running out of gas. At Gateway International Raceway, Miller led multiple laps before falling out due to transmission trouble. Miller was tapped by Dodge Motorsports to drive their Cunningham Motorsports No. 4 Driver Development Dodge in six ARCA races in 2006. After an 11th-place finish at Nashville, Miller charged to the win at Pocono Raceway, he set the record as the youngest driver to win an ARCA race at Pocono to that point. He backed up his win with a dominating performance at the second annual ARCA Pocono event before a cylinder failure took him from the lead, with only eight laps remaining, forced him to a fifth-place finish, he qualified on the pole at Gateway and was leading the race when more mechanical problems plagued him.
His outstanding performance won him the opportunity to compete in the Craftsman Truck Series with the Dodge Development Team. Miller joined up with Bobby Hamilton Racing near the end of the 2006 season as a part of the Dodge Driver Development Program. In only his fourth start, Miller scored a top ten at Martinsville Speedway, he was signed to drive the No. 4 Dodge Development Open Joist Dodge Ram for the full 2007 season. However, after five races Dodge discontinued their Driver Development Program and Miller and BHR parted ways, he was soon hired by Ray Evernham to drive a part-time schedule in his Busch Series No. 9 car. In only his second career start, Miller scored a second-place qualifying effort at Kentucky Speedway, a best finish of fifteenth at Gateway. In 2008, he ran twelve races in the No. 9 car once again, with sponsorship from Unilever and Verizon Wireless, as well as two additional races in the No. 19 car for Evernham. He finished 38th in points in a part-time schedule; this team closed at the end of the year, he spent the first several months unemployed, before he signed to drive the No. 91 MSRP Motorspots car for a few races and finished the season at JTG Daugherty.
During the 2010 season, he filled in for David Gilliland in the No. 91 Toyota for Eddie D'Hondt. Without a solid ride for 2011, Chase drove the No. 68 for new team Fleur-de-lis Motorsports and the No. 46 for Key Motorsports, with both rides being start and park entries. In 2012, Miller drove for The Motorsports Group in the No. 46, start-and-parking for most of the season. * Season still in progress1 Ineligible for series points Official website Chase Miller driver statistics at Racing-Reference
Ohio State University
The Ohio State University referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large public research university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and the ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, the university was known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but it developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then-Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, in 1878 the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to "The Ohio State University", it has since grown into the third-largest university campus in the United States. Along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State operates regional campuses in Lima, Marion and Wooster; the university has an extensive student life program, with over 1,000 student organizations. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. Athletes from Ohio State have won 100 Olympic medals.
The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports. The Ohio State men's ice hockey program competes in the Big Ten Conference, while its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU men's volleyball team is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. OSU is one of only 14 universities; the proposal of a manufacturing and agriculture university in central Ohio was met in the 1870s with hostility from the state's agricultural interests and competition for resources from Ohio University, chartered by the Northwest Ordinance, Miami University. Championed by the Republican stalwart Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, The Ohio State University was founded in 1870 as a land-grant university under the Morrill Act of 1862 as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the school was within a farming community on the northern edge of Columbus. While some interests in the state had hoped the new university would focus on matriculating students of various agricultural and mechanical disciplines, Hayes manipulated both the university's location and its initial board of trustees towards a more comprehensive end.
The university opened its doors to 24 students on September 17, 1873. In 1878, the first class of six men graduated; the first woman graduated the following year. In 1878, in light of its expanded focus, the Ohio legislature changed the name to "The Ohio State University", with "The" as part of its official name. Ohio State began accepting graduate students in the 1880s, in 1891, the school saw the founding of its law school, Moritz College of Law, it would acquire colleges of medicine, optometry, veterinary medicine and journalism in subsequent years. In 1916, Ohio State was elected into membership in the Association of American Universities. Michael V. Drake, former chancellor of the University of California, became the 15th president of The Ohio State University on June 30, 2014. Ohio State's 1,764-acre main campus is about 2.5 miles north of the city's downtown. The historical center of campus is a quad of about 11 acres. Four buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Hale Hall, Hayes Hall, Ohio Stadium, Orton Hall.
Unlike earlier public universities such as Ohio University and Miami University, whose campuses have a consistent architectural style, the Ohio State campus is a mix of traditional and post-modern styles. The William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library, anchoring the Oval's western end, is Ohio State library's main branch and largest repository; the Thompson Library was designed in 1913 by the Boston firm of Allen and Collens in the Italianate Renaissance Revival style, its placement on the Oval was suggested by the Olmsted Brothers who had designed New York City's Central Park. In 2006, the Thompson Library began a $100 million renovation to maintain the building's classical Italian Renaissance architecture. Ohio State operates the North America's 18th-largest university research library with a combined collection of over 5.8 million volumes. Additionally, the libraries receive about 35,000 serial titles, its recent acquisitions were 16th among university research libraries in North America. Along with 21 libraries on its Columbus campus, the university has eight branches at off-campus research facilities and regional campuses, a book storage depository near campus.
In all, the Ohio State library system encompasses specialty collections. Some more significant collections include The Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, which has the archives of Admiral Richard E. Byrd and other polar research materials. Anchoring the traditional campus gateway at the eastern end of the Oval is the 1989 Wexner Center for the Arts. Designed by architects Peter Eisenman of New York and Richard Trott of Columbus, the center was funded in large part by Ohio State alumnus Leslie Wexner's gift of $25 million in the 1980s; the center was founded to encompass all aspects of visual and performing art
Gnadenhutten is a village located on the Tuscarawas River in Tuscarawas County, United States and is Ohio's oldest existing settlement. The population was 1,288 at the 2010 census. Gnadenhutten was founded in October 1772 as the second settlement of German Americans and Lenape Native Americans affiliated with the Moravian Church. Tribes of Christianized Lenni Lenape people had settled at Schoenbrunn nearby, founded months earlier by missionary David Zeisberger. On July 4, 1773, a baby boy was born to the Roth family, becoming the first white child known to be born in the Ohio territory; this community led by the Christianized Mohican chieftain Joshua, had grown to about 200 persons by 1775. As pacifists, they remained neutral during the American Revolutionary War. However, occupying British forces and their Wyandot and Delaware allies feared that members of the Christian Gnadenhutten and Salem communities helped guide the revolutionaries; the Native Americans were evicted northward to "Captive Town" near the Sandusky River area.
Stripped of valuables and without farmland that summer or adequate provisions the winter of 1780-81, many starved and died of disease. While the British imprisoned Rev. Zeisberger at Fort Detroit, authorities allowed about 150 Lenape to return to their old town to gather the harvest and supplies stored there. However, Pennsylvania militia led by David Williamson, following the deaths of settlers by other tribes a few weeks earlier, came to the resettled town in March 1782, tricked the Indians into giving up their weapons. Ninety-six innocent Lenape men and children spent the night in song and prayer knowing they would be slaughtered the following morning. On March 8 the Pennsylvanians committed the Gnadenhutten massacre and burned the 60-cabin town. Only two boys escaped. Although three 4000 acre tracts were reserved for Indians as an "act of indemnity", John Ettwein petitioned Congress in 1783 and the area was opened to European settlers. John Heckewelder from Pennsylvania built the first house in 1798, Moravians remain in the town today.
Few Native Americans chose to live there and they gave up title in 1823 after the Moravians had made many improvements. Gnadenhutten was on a major wagon road crossing the Tuscarawas River; the first Ohio Canal was dug nearby in 1825-1830, providing access to markets as well as further immigrants via Cleveland. A railroad linked to the area in 1853, further improving market access and allowing industrial development. A flood in 1915 destroyed the canal, not rebuilt as other means of transportation had superseded it. Gnadenhutten erected a monument to the martyrs of the March 8, 1782 massacre during the centennial of its founding, in 1963 established a museum interpreting it and other aspects of the town's history. Various Native American and First Nations people gathered at the site in 1988 to dedicate a peace tree; the state of Ohio erected a memorial marker in 2003, calling the event a "day of shame". The Moravians dedicated it as a memorial to John Heckewelder; the village has a Masonic Temple, Methodist church, as well as a Church of Christ and Full Gospel Pentecostal Church on the outskirts.
Its current library was erected in 1942. Gnadenhutten is known for its Fourth of July celebration, featuring horse-drawn carriages and fireworks, it celebrates its Pioneer Days on the first weekend in August and an Apple Butter festival the second weekend of October. Its Native American heritage continues to be marked with its "Indian Valley" moniker and a Christian Indian Christmas Drive-Thru Display Thanksgiving through December. Gnadenhutten is derived from the German name Gnadenhütten, meaning "huts of grace" and figuratively "log tabernacle". Gnadenhutten is located at 40°21′39″N 81°25′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.97 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,288 people, 509 households, 359 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,327.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 553 housing units at an average density of 570.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.1% White, 0.2% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 509 households of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.3% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.5% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the village was 39.3 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,280 people, 513 households, 377 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,281.7 people per square mile. There were 539 housing units at