The Delineator was an American women's magazine of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, founded by the Butterick Publishing Company in 1869 under the name The Metropolitan Monthly. Its name was changed in 1875; the magazine was published on a monthly basis in New York City. In November 1926, under the editorship of Mrs. William Brown Meloney, it absorbed The Designer, founded in 1887 and published by the Standard Fashion Company, a Butterick subsidiary. One of The Delineator's managing editors was writer Theodore Dreiser, who worked with other members of the staff such as Sarah Field Splint and Arthur Sullivant Hoffman; the Delineator featured the Butterick sewing patterns and provided an in-depth look at the fashion of the day. Butterick produced quarterly catalogs of fashion patterns in the 1920s and early 1930s. In addition to clothing patterns, the magazine published photos and drawings of embroidery and needlework that could be used to adorn both clothing and items for the home, it included articles on all forms of home decor.
It published fiction, including many short stories by L. Frank Baum, it ceased publication in 1937. Endres, Kathleen L. and Therese L. Lueck, eds. Women's Periodicals in the United States: Consumer Magazines. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995: 60; the Delineator catalog at the HathiTrust Digital LibraryOnline archive of cover images
Candy Land is a simple racing board game published by Hasbro. The game requires minimal counting skills, making it suitable for young children. Due to the design of the game, there is no strategy involved: players are never required to make choices, just follow directions; the winner is predetermined by the shuffle of the cards. A perennial favorite, the game sells about one million copies per year; the race is weaved around a storyline about finding the lost king of Candy Land. The board consists of a winding, linear track made of 134 spaces, most red, blue, orange or purple; the remaining pink spaces are named locations such as Candy Cane Forest and Gumdrop Mountain, or characters such as Queen Frostine and Gramma Nutt. Players take turns removing the top card from a stack, most of which show one of six colors, moving their marker ahead to the next space of that color; some cards have two marks of a color, in which case the player moves the marker ahead to the second-next space of that color.
The deck has one card for each named location, drawing such a card moves a player directly to that board location. This move can be either forward or backward in the classic game. Prior to the 2006 edition, the board had three colored spaces marked with a dot. Two of these spaces were designated as "cherry pitfalls" and the other was situated in Molasses Swamp. A player who lands on such a space is stuck (all cards are ignored until a card is drawn of the same color as the square. In the 2006 version, dot spaces were replaced with licorice spaces that prompt the player landing on it to lose the next turn; the game is won by landing on or passing the final square and thus reaching the goal of the Candy Castle. The official rules specify that any card that would cause the player to advance past the last square wins the game, but many play so that one must land on the last square to win; the 2004 version changed the last space from a violet square to a rainbow space, meaning it applies to any color drawn by a player, thus resolving any dispute about who wins the game.
As of 2013, Candy Land is being sold by Hasbro with a spinner instead of cards. The spinner includes all outcomes that were on the cards; the game was designed in 1948 by Eleanor Abbott, while she was recovering from polio in San Diego, California. The game was tested by the children in the same wards on the hospital; the children suggested. The game was bought by Milton Bradley and first published in 1949 as a temporary fill in for their main product line, school supply. Candy Land became Milton Bradley's best selling game surpassing its previous top seller, Uncle Wiggly, put the company in the same league as its main competitor, Parker Brothers; the original art has been purported to be by Abbott. In 1984, Hasbro purchased Milton Bradley. Landmark Entertainment Group revamped the game with new art, adding characters and a story line in 1984. Hasbro treats it as a brand. For example, they market Candy Land puzzles, a travel version, a personal computer game, a handheld electronic version. Candy Land was involved in one of the first disputes over internet domain names in 1996.
An adult web content provider registered candyland.com, Hasbro objected. Hasbro obtained an injunction against the use. In 2012, Hasbro announced a film which triggered a lawsuit by Landmark Entertainment Group over ownership and royalties owned for the characters and story line introduced in the 1984 edition. A December 2005 article in Forbes magazine analyzed the most popular American toys by decade, with help from the Toy Industry Association. Candy Land led the list for the 1940–1949 decade. In 2005, the game was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York. At least four versions of the Candy Land board game were made; the first dates from 1949. This version, other early versions, had only locations and no characters. A board copyrighted in 1962 shows a track layout different from the more recent versions. In the first edition, the pawns were wooden but was changed in the 1967 version to plastic gingerbread men. One further revision was made; the next edition of the game in 1984, introduced the characters such as Mr. Mint and Gramma Nutt, a storyline, has the modern track layout, ends with a purple square.
Some of the characters and place names were changed in 2002. Queen Frostine became "Princess" Frostine, the classic Molasses Swamp was changed to Chocolate Swamp, Princess Lolly was changed to Lolly, the character Plumpy was removed entirely. A VCR board game version of the game was made in 1986. Hasbro released an electronic version of the game for Windows in 1998. An animated 2005 feature, Candy Land: The Great Lollipop Adventure, was produced and spawned a DVD game version of Candy Land; the "Give Kids the World: Village edition" of Candy Land was produced by Hasbro for the Give Kids The World Village, a non-profit resort in Kissimmee, Florida for children with life-threatening illnesses and their families. In this version, traditional Candy Land characters and locations were replaced with the venues and characters of the Village, such as Mayor Clayton and Ms. Merry. There are licensed versions of Candy Land with characters such as Winnie the Pooh, Dora the Explorer and SpongeBob. Characters depend on the version of the game.
The Kids – In the classic version, they are two blonde twins. In 2002, there are four kids of varying races. In the 2010 edition, t
Jacob Abbott was an American writer of children's books. On November 14, 1803, Abbott was born in Maine. Abbott's father was Jacob Abbott and his mother was Betsey Abbott. Abbott attended the Hallowell Academy. Abbott graduated from Bowdoin College in 1820. Abbott studied at Andover Theological Seminary in 1821, 1822, 1824. Abbott was tutor in 1824–1825. From 1825 to 1829 was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Amherst College, he was a prolific author, writing juvenile fiction, brief histories, religious books for the general reader, a few works in popular science. He was a coauthor or editor of 31 more, he died in Farmington, where he had spent part of his time after 1839, where his brother, Samuel Phillips Abbott, founded the Abbott School. His Rollo Books, such as Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play, Rollo in Europe, etc. are the best known of his writings, having as their chief characters a representative boy and his associates. In them Abbott did for one or two generations of young American readers a service not unlike that performed earlier, in England and America, by the authors of Evenings at Home, The History of Sandford and Merton, The Parent's Assistant.
To follow up his Rollo books, he wrote of Uncle George, using him to teach the young readers about ethics, geography and science. He wrote 22 volumes of biographical histories and a 10 volume set titled the Franconia Stories, his brothers, John Stevens Cabot Abbott and Gorham Dummer Abbott, were authors. His sons, Benjamin Vaughan Abbott, Austin Abbott, both eminent lawyers, Lyman Abbott, Edward Abbott, a clergyman, were well-known authors. See his Young Christian, Memorial Edition, with a Sketch of the Author by Edward Abbott with a bibliography of his works. Other works of note: Lucy Books, Jonas Books, Harper's Story Books, Marco Paul, Gay Family, Juno Books. On May 18, 1828, Abbott married Harriet Vaughan. Abbott had four sons and they are Benjamin Vaughan Abbott, Edward Abbott, Austin Abbott and Lyman Abbott; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Abbott, Jacob". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Jacob Abbott at Find a Grave Portrait clipping of Jacob Abbott from The New York Public Library Digital Collections Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos.
Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887–1889 Works by Jacob Abbott at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jacob Abbott at Internet Archive Works by Jacob Abbott at LibriVox Works by Jacob Abbott at Online Books
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An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal is an American magazine published by the Meredith Corporation. It was first published on February 16, 1883, became one of the leading women's magazines of the 20th century in the United States. From 1891 it was published in Philadelphia by the Curtis Publishing Company. In 1903, it was the first American magazine to reach one million subscribers. In the late 20th century, changing tastes and competition from television caused it to lose circulation. Sales of the magazine ensued. On April 24, 2014, Meredith announced it would stop publishing the magazine as a monthly with the July issue, stating it was "transitioning Ladies' Home Journal to a special interest publication", it is now available quarterly on newsstands only. Ladies' Home Journal was one of the Seven Sisters, as a group of women's service magazines were known; the name referred to seven prestigious women's colleges in the Northeast. The Ladies' Home Journal was developed from a popular double-page supplement in the American magazine Tribune and Farmer titled Women at Home.
Women at Home was written by Louisa Knapp Curtis, wife of the magazine's publisher Cyrus H. K. Curtis. After a year it became an independent publication, with Knapp as editor for the first six years, its original name was The Ladies Home Journal and Practical Housekeeper, but Knapp dropped the last three words in 1886. It became the leading American magazine of its type, reaching a subscribed circulation of more than one million copies by 1903, the first American magazine to do so. Edward W. Bok took over the editorship in late 1889, serving until 1919. Among features he introduced. At the turn of the 20th century, the magazine published the work of muckrakers and social reformers such as Jane Addams. In 1901 it published two articles highlighting the early architectural designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Bok introduced business practices at the Ladies' Home Journal that contributed to its success: low subscription rates, inclusion of advertising to off-set costs, reliance on popular content; this operating structure was adopted by men's magazines like McClure's and Munsey's a decade after it had become the standard practice of American women's magazines.
Scholars argue that women's magazines, like the Ladies' Home Journal, pioneered these strategies "magazine revolution". During World War II, the Ladies Home Journal was a favored venue of the government to place articles intended for homemakers, in an effort to keep up morale and support.the annual subscription price paid for the production of the magazine and its mailing. The profits came from advertising pitch to families with above-average incomes of $1000 to $3000 dollars in 1900. In the 1910s it carried about a third of the advertising in all women's magazines. By 1929 it had nearly twice as much advertising as any other publication except for the Saturday Evening Post, published by the Curtis family; the Ladies Home Journal was sold to 2 million subscribers in the mid-1920s, grew a little during the depression years, surged again during post-World War II prosperity. By the 1955, each issue sold 4.6 million copies and there were 11 million readers. In March 1970, feminists held an 11-hour sit-in at the Ladies' Home Journal's office.
As a result, they were allowed to produce a section of the magazine that August. They wanted the magazine to recognize a wider variety of choices for women's lives; the Journal, along with its major rivals, Better Homes and Gardens, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, McCall's, Redbook and Woman's Day, were long known as the "seven sisters", after the prestigious women's colleges in the Northeast. For decades, the Journal had the greatest circulation of this group, but it fell behind McCall's in 1961. By 1968, its circulation was 6.8 million compared to McCall's 8.5 million. Society was changing and this was reflected in persons' magazine choices; that year, Curtis Publishing sold the Ladies' Home Journal, along with the magazine The American Home, to Downe Communications for $5.4 million in stock. Between 1969 and 1974 Downe was acquired by Charter Company. In 1982 it sold the magazine to Family Media Inc. publishers of Health magazine, when Charter decided to divest its publishing interests. In 1986, the Meredith Corporation acquired the magazine from Family Media for $96 million.
By 1998, the Journal's circulation had dropped to 4.5 million. The magazine debuted an extensive editorial redesign in its March 2012 issue. Photographer Brigitte Lacombe was hired to shoot cover photos, with Kate Winslet appearing on the first revamped issue; the Journal announced that portions of its editorial content would be crowdsourced from readers, who would be compensated for their work. The arrangement was one of the first of its kind among major consumer magazines. Although the magazine remained popular, it ran into increasing difficulty attracting advertising. Despite its high subscriber base, it was not a leader in the women's service category; these factors prompted the decision to end monthly publication. The magazine was relaunched as a quarterly. At the same time, the headquarters of the magazine moved from New York City to Iowa. Meredith offered its subscribers the chance to transfer their subscriptions to Meredith's sister publications. Knapp continued as the magazine's editor till Edward William Bok succeeded her as LHJ editor in 1889.
However, she remained involved with the magazine's management, she wrote a column for each issue. In 1892, the LHJ became the first magazine to refuse patent medicine advertisements. In 1896, Bok became Louisa Knapp's son-in-law when he married