A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, located 20 kilometres west of Erfurt and 25 km east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000. The city is the capital of the district of Gotha and was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins from 1640 until the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918; the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha originating here spawned many European rulers, including the royal houses of the United Kingdom, Belgium and Bulgaria. In the Middle Ages, Gotha was a rich trading town on the trade route Via Regia and between 1650 and 1850, Gotha saw a cultural heyday as a centre of sciences and arts, fostered by the dukes of Saxe-Gotha; the first duke, Ernest the Pious was famous for his wise rule. In the 18th century, the Almanach de Gotha was first published in the city; the cartographer Justus Perthes and the encyclopedist Joseph Meyer made Gotha a leading centre of German publishing around 1800. In the early 19th century, Gotha was a birthplace of the German insurance business; the SPD was founded in Gotha in 1875 by merging two predecessors.
In that period Gotha became an industrial centre, with companies such as the Gothaer Waggonfabrik, a producer of trams and aeroplanes. The main sights of Gotha are the early-modern Friedenstein Castle, one of the largest Renaissance/Baroque castles in Germany, the medieval city centre and the Gründerzeit buildings of 19th-century commercial boom. Gotha lies in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin in a agricultural landscape. Gotha has existed at least since the 8th century, when it was mentioned in a document signed by Charlemagne as Villa Gotaha in 775; the first settlement was located around today's Hersdorfplatz outside the north-eastern edge of the city centre. During the 11th century, the nearby Ludowingians received the village and established the city in the late 12th century, as Gotha became their second most important city after Eisenach; the city generated wealth because it was conveniently located at the junction of two important long-distance trade routes: the Via Regia from Mainz and Frankfurt to Leipzig and Breslau and a north-south route from Mühlhausen over the Thuringian Forest to Franconia.
One of the oldest pieces of evidence of busy trade in the city is the "Gotha cache of coins" with nearly 800 Bracteates, buried in 1185 in the central city. In 1180, Gotha was first mentioned as a city, when the area between Brühl and Jüdenstraße became the core of urban development, highlighting the early presence of Jews in this old trading town; the parish church of this first urban settlement was St. Mary's Church at Schlossberg; the castle was first mentioned in 1217. As the Ludowingians died out in 1247, Gotha became part of the Wettins' territories, where it remained until 1918; the new town east of Querstraße was established in the early 15th century. The monastery was founded before 1251 and abandoned in 1525; until 1665, the bourse of Gotha was located in the centre of Hauptmarkt square inside the Renaissance building, which hosts the town hall today. The medieval town hall was located on the north-eastern edge of Hauptmarkt, at the site of today's Innungshalle. Water supply was a big problem.
In 1369, Landgrave Balthasar had the Leinakanal built. This channel, over 25 kilometres long, brought fresh water from the Thuringian Forest to the city; the main businesses of medieval Gotha were the woad trade. The Reformation was introduced in Gotha in 1524 and the castle was rebuilt as a larger fortress between 1530 and 1541. Gotha was part of the Ernestine Wettins territory after the 1485 Treaty of Leipzig. However, the Ernestines' loss of power after the Schmalkaldic War in 1547, the Treaty of Erfurt in 1572, when the city became part of Saxe-Coburg, the Thirty Years' War resulted in Gotha's decline; the local castle, was razed by Imperial troops in 1572. The turnaround was brought about by the selection of Gotha as a ducal residence in the 1640 territorial partition, when Ernest the Pious founded the duchy of Saxe-Gotha; the Protestant and absolutist sovereign began to reorganize his small state and in particular fostered the school system, for example by introducing compulsory education up to the age of 12 in 1642.
This was the origin of the noted liberal education of the Gotha citizenry and the following cultural heyday. Veit Ludwig von Seckendorff was one of numerous experienced and loyal civil servants employed by the duke. Seckendorff was considered one of the most able and influential thinkers on administration and public law of his time, his book Der teutsche Fürstenstaat, written by order of Ernest, served for decades as a standard work in teaching political science at Protestant universities in Germany. Friedenstein Castle was built between 1643 and 1654 and is one of the first large Baroque residence castles in Germany. Between 1657 and 1676, the city received a stronger fortification, demolished between 1772 and 1811. In their place, a park around Friedenstein and a boulevard around the city were established; some important scientific institutions were the ducal library, founded in 1650, the "coin cabinet", the "art and natural collection", basis of today's museums, the Gotha Observatory at Seeberg mountain, established 1788.
The Gotha porcelain manufactory was famous around 1800 for their faiences. In 177
Pontus and Sidonia
Pontus and Sidonia is a medieval prose romance composed in French in ca. 1400 by Geoffroy IV de la Tour Landry or by another member of the La Tour family. It is about Pontus, the son of the king of Galicia, who falls in love with Sidonia, daughter of the king of Brittany; the text is associated with the lords of La Tour because it derives the ancestors of that family, whose ancestral possessions were in Brittany, from members of the train of prince Pontus. The story is based on the Anglo-Norman chanson de geste Horn et Rimenhild. Several German translations were made during the 15th century. There is a surviving version in Alemannic German written in the Old Swiss Confederacy, dated to between 1440 and 1460, another version in Moselle Franconian written in the region of Trier. Another translation of the French text was made by Archduchess of Austria. A late medieval Dutch translation Die historie van Ponthus ende die schoone Sidonie survived in an edition printed by Niclaes vanden Wouwere in Antwerp in 1564.
Danielle Buschinger,'Das deutsche Mittelalter im Frankreich der Gegenwart', in: Eva Dewes, Sandra Duhem, Kulturelles Gedächtnis und interkulturelle Rezeption im europäischen Kontext, 2008, ISBN 978-3-05-004132-2, p. 237. Karin Schneider, Pontus und Sidonia in der Verdeutschung eines Ungenannten aus dem 15. Jahrhundert, Texte des späten Mittelalters 14, Berlin 1961. Paul Wüst, Die deutschen Prosaromane von Pontus und Sidonia, Marburg, 1903. Cod. Pal. germ. 142: "Pontus und Sidonia" Die historie van Ponthus ende die schoone Sidonie "Ponthus et la belle Sidoine"
John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset
John Beaufort, 1st Marquess of Somerset and 1st Marquess of Dorset only 1st Earl of Somerset, was an English nobleman and politician. He was the first of the four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt by his mistress Katherine Swynford, whom he married in 1396. Beaufort's surname reflects his birthplace at his father's castle and manor of Beaufort in Champagne, situated 100 miles east of Paris, 25 miles north-east of Troyes, between the River Seine and River Marne; the Portcullis heraldic badge of the Beauforts, now the emblem of the House of Commons, is believed to have been based on that of the castle of Beaufort, now demolished. The Beaufort children were declared legitimate twice by parliament during the reign of King Richard II of England, in 1390 and 1397, as well as by Pope Boniface IX in September 1396. Though they were the grandchildren of Edward III and next in the line of succession after their father's legitimate children by his first two wives, the Beauforts were barred from succession to the throne by their half-brother Henry IV.
Between May and September 1390, Beaufort saw military service in North Africa in the Barbary Crusade led by Louis II, Duke of Bourbon. In 1394, he was in Lithuania serving with the Teutonic Knights. John was created Earl of Somerset on 10 February 1397, just a few days after the legitimation of the Beaufort children was recognized by Parliament; the same month, he was appointed Admiral of the Irish fleet, as well as Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports. In May, his admiralty was extended to include the northern fleet; that summer, the new earl became one of the noblemen who helped Richard II free himself from the power of the Lords Appellant. As a reward, he was created Marquess of Somerset and Marquess of Dorset on 29 September, sometime that year he was made a Knight of the Garter and appointed Lieutenant of Aquitaine. In addition, two days before his elevation as a Marquess he married the king's niece, Margaret Holland, sister of Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, another of the counter-appellants.
John remained in the king's favour after his older half-brother Henry Bolingbroke was banished from England in 1398. After Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke in 1399, the new king rescinded the titles, given to the counter-appellants, thus John Beaufort became Earl of Somerset again, he proved loyal to his half-brother's reign, serving in various military commands and on some important diplomatic missions. It was Beaufort, given the confiscated estates of the Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr in 1400, although he would not have been able to take possession of these estates unless he had lived until after 1415. In 1404, he was named Constable of England. John Beaufort and his wife Margaret Holland, the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice FitzAlan, had six children, his granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort married Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, the son of Dowager Queen Catherine of Valois by Owen Tudor. Somerset died in the Hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower.
He was buried in St Michael's Chapel in Canterbury Cathedral. His children included the following: Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, father of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, grandfather of King Henry VII of England Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland married James I, King of Scots. Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Devon married Thomas de Courtenay, 13th Earl of Devon. Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports: 1398 Admiral of the West: 1397 Lieutenant of Aquitaine: 1397 Admiral of the North and Western Fleets: 9 May 1398 – 15 November 1399 Lord High Constable of England: 1404 Admiral of the North and Western Fleets: 21 September 1408 – 3 June 1414 As a legitimised grandson of King Edward III, Beaufort bore that king's royal arms, differenced by a bordure gobony argent and azure. Arms of Beaufort, legitimised progeny of John of Gaunt, 3rd surviving son of King Edward III: Royal arms of King Edward III within a bordure compony argent and azure.
The arms were updated when the Kings of England adopted France modern, having been adopted by the King of France in 1376. Charles, an illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, took the surname "Somerset" together with the Beaufort arms and was created Baron Herbert and Earl of Worcester. In 1682 his descendant Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcester, was created Duke of Beaufort; these arms are thus used by Duke of Beaufort. Armitage-Smith, Sydney. John of Gaunt, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, &c.. Constable, 1904. Brown, M. H.. "Joan ". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14646. Retrieved 21 November 2013. Jones, Michael K, Malcolm G. Underwood, The King's Mother: Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby. Cambridge University Press, 1992. See pp. 17–22 Marshall, Rosalind. Scottish Queens, 1034-1714. Tuckwell Press. Weir, Alison. Britain's The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5; the Beaufort Family The Courtenay Family Lundy, Darryl.
"John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset at thePeerage.com". The Peerage
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some 30 km to the south. Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps to the north, the Patscherkofel and Serles to the south. Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012; the name translates as "Inn Bridge". The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena at Oenipons, to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia; the first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons, Latin for bridge over the Inn, an important crossing point over the Inn river.
The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol; the city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, the easiest route across the Alps, it was part of a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving. Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s; the city benefited from the emperor's presence. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected by his successors; the ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.
In 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck. In 1669 the university was founded; as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665. During the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, made Innsbruck the centre of his administration; the combined army overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored.
Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua. During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded. In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Army. In 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck. In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck suffered heavy damage. In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.
Innsbruck has a humid continental climate, since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains. Winters are very cold and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws. Spring is brief. Summer is variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool 17 °C and rainy, or sunny and hot, sometimes hitting 34 °C. In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is very high as nights remain cool, being 12 °C on average, but sometimes dipping as low as 6 °C; the average annual temperature is 9 °C. Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs that were formed from previo
Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots
Joan Beaufort was the Queen of Scotland from 1424 to 1437 as the spouse of King James I of Scotland. During part of the minority of her son James II, she served as the regent of Scotland. Joan Beaufort was a daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, a legitimated son of John of Gaunt by his mistress Catherine Swynford. Joan's mother was Margaret Holland, the granddaughter of Joan of Kent from her marriage to Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent. Joan was a half-niece of King Henry IV of England, great-niece of Richard II and great grand-daughter of Edward III, her uncle, Henry Beaufort, was Chancellor of England. King James I of Scotland met Joan during his time as a prisoner in England, knew her from at least 1420, she is said to have been the inspiration for King James' famous long poem, The Kingis Quair, written during his captivity, after he saw her from his window in the garden. The marriage was at least political, as their marriage was part of the agreement for his release from captivity.
From an English perspective an alliance with the Beauforts was meant to establish his country's alliance with the English, rather than the French. Negotiations resulted in Joan's dowry of 10,000 merks being subtracted from James's substantial ransom. On 12 February 1424, Joan King James were wed at St Mary Overie Church in Southwark, they were feasted at Winchester Palace that year by her uncle Cardinal Henry Beaufort. She accompanied her husband on his return from captivity in England to Scotland, was crowned alongside her husband at Scone Abbey; as queen, she pleaded with the king for those who might be executed. The royal couple had eight children, including the future James II, Margaret of Scotland, future spouse of Louis XI of France. James I was assassinated in Perth on 21 February 1437. Joan had been a target of assassination along with her husband, but managed to survive her injuries, she directed her husband's supporters to attack his assassin Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, but was forced to give up power three months later.
The prospect of being ruled by an English woman was unpopular in Scotland. The Earl of Douglas was thus appointed to power. Near the end of July 1439, she married James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne after obtaining a papal dispensation for both consanguinity and affinity. James was an ally of the latest Earl of Douglas, plotted with him to overthrow Alexander Livingston, governor of Stirling Castle, during the minority of James II. Livingston forced her to relinquish custody of the young king. In 1445, the conflict between the Douglas/Livingston faction and the queen's supporters resumed, she was under siege at Dunbar Castle by the Earl of Douglas when she died on 15 July 1445, she was buried in the Carthusian Priory at Perth. Margaret Stewart, Princess of Scotland married Prince Louis, Dauphin of Viennois Isabella Stewart, Princess of Scotland married Francis I, Duke of Brittany Mary Stewart, Countess of Buchan married Wolfart VI van Borsselen Joan of Scotland, Countess of Morton married James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay.
Louis of Savoy, married and divorced 2. George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly Eleanor Stewart, Princess of Scotland married Sigismund, Archduke of Austria. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl James Stewart, 1st Earl of Buchan Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Moray Brown, M. H.. "Joan ". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14646. Retrieved 21 November 2013. Browning, Charles H.. The Magna Carta Barons and Their American Descendants. London: Genealogical Publishing Company. Marshall, Rosalind. Scottish Queens, 1034–1714. Tuckwell Press. Weir, Alison. Britain's The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5. Weir, Alison. Mistress of the Monarchy: The Life of Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster. London: Random House. ISBN 978-0-345-45323-5
Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria was the collective name for the early possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg. While the territories of Further Austria west of the Rhine and south of Lake Constance were lost to France and the Swiss Confederacy, those in Swabia and Vorarlberg remained under Habsburg control until the Napoleonic Era. Further Austria comprised the Alsatian County of Ferrette in the Sundgau, including the town of Belfort, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, including Freiburg im Breisgau after 1368. Ruled from the Habsburg residence in Ensisheim near Mühlhausen were numerous scattered territories stretching from Upper Swabia to the Allgäu region in the east, the largest being the margravate of Burgau between the cities of Augsburg and Ulm. During the Habsburg Monarchy they were humorously called "tail feathers of the Imperial Eagle".
Some estates in Vorarlberg possessed by the Habsburgs were considered part of Further Austria, though they were temporarily directly administered from Tyrol. The original home territories of the Habsburgs, the Aargau with Habsburg Castle and much of the other original possessions south of the High Rhine and Lake Constance were lost in the 14th century to the expanding Swiss Confederacy after the battles of Morgarten and Sempach; these territories were never considered part of Further Austria – except for the Fricktal region around Rheinfelden and Laufenburg, which remained a Habsburg possession until 1797. From 1406 until 1490 Further Austria together with the Habsburg County of Tyrol was included in the definition of "Upper Austria". From 1469 to 1474 Archduke Sigismund gave large parts in pawn to the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold. At the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Sundgau became part of France. After the Ottoman wars many inhabitants of Further Austria were encouraged to emigrate and settle in the newly acquired Transylvania region, people that were referred as Danube Swabians.
In the 18th century, the Habsburgs acquired a few minor new Swabian territories, such as Tettnang in 1780. In the reorganization of the Holy Roman Empire in the course of the French Revolutionary Wars, much of Further Austria, including the Breisgau, was by the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville granted as compensation to Ercole III d'Este, former duke of Modena and Reggio, who however died two years later, his heir as his son-in-law was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, the uncle of Emperor Francis II. After the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz and the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, Further Austria was dissolved and the former Habsburg territories were assigned to the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Kingdom of Bavaria, as rewards for their alliance with Napoleonic France. Minor estates passed to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Fricktal had become a French protectorate in 1799 and part of the Helvetic Republic in 1802, incorporated into the Swiss canton of Aargau the next year.
After the defeat of Napoleon, there was some discussion at the Congress of Vienna of returning part of all of the Vorlande to Austria, but in the end only Vorarlberg returned to Austrian control, as Foreign Minister Klemens von Metternich did not want to offend the rulers of the South German states and hoped that removing Austria from its advanced position on the Rhine would reduce tensions with France. As of 1790 Further Austria was subdivided into ten districts: Breisgau at Freiburg Offenburg: several localities in the present Ortenaukreis, the Imperial city of Offenburg not included Hohenberg, present Ostalbkreis, former county, at Rottenburg am Neckar Nellenburg, former landgraviate, at Stockach Altdorf, today Weingarten Tettnang, former County of Montfort Günzburg, former Margraviate of Burgau Winnweiler in the Palatinate, former County of Falkenstein the former Imperial city of Konstanz Bregenz, present-day Vorarlberg administrated from Tyrol. Politically, the Further Austrian territories were held by the Habsburg Dukes of Austria from 1278 onwards.
Upon the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, they together with Carinthia, Styria and Tyrol fell to the Leopoldian line: Leopold III, until 1386 William, son, 1386–1406Further divided into Inner Austria proper and Upper Austria, ruled by: Frederick IV, younger brother of William, 1406-1439 Frederick V, nephew of William, ruler of Inner Austria, 1439-1446 Sigismund, son of Frederick IV, 1446–1490In 1490 all Habsburg possessions were re-unified under the rule of Frederick V, Holy Roman Emperor since 1452. Upon the death of Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg in 1564, Further Austria and Tyrol was inherited by his second son: Ferdinand II, 1564–1595 Matthias, 1595–1619, Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, with his younger brother Maximilian III as regent, 1612–1618In 1619 the Habsburg hereditary lands were re-unified under the rule of Emperor Ferdinand II, he gave Further Austria to his younger brother: Leopold V, 1623–1632 Ferdinand Charles, son, 1632–1662 under the tutelage of his mother Claudia de' Medici, 1632–1646 Sigismund Francis, brother 1662-1665In 1665 the Habsburg lands were re-unified under the rule of Emperor Leopold I.
Becker, Irmgard Christa, ed. Vorderösterreich, Nur die Schwanzfeder des Kaiseradlers? Die Habsburger im deutsc